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APA Citation Style and Other Citation Styles Explained
In academia and other professional fields, much of the work that goes on is strictly intellectual. In such areas, ideas matter, and copying another’s ideas without acknowledging the source can land the practitioner in trouble. This has happened to many unsuspecting academics.
Sometimes, failure to use citations constitutes academic fraud. The consequences of academic fraud are dire, including academic sanctions, penalties, or worse. Fortunately, it doesn’t have to be this way. Citation systems like the APA one or the Chicago style can help you easily bring your papers or professional writings up to standard.
Below, we explore the APA type of citation and other alternatives that you can use to make your work free of plagiarism.
What is APA Citation Style?
The APA citation style is one of three citation styles which are in wide use in universities and other professional communities. These three are:
- APA Style – A type of citations by the American Psychological Association
- Chicago Manual Style – Citation style from the Chicago University Press
- MLA Style – Citation guidelines by the Modern Language Association
APA Style contains guidelines for references to academic works, as well as stylistic idioms for the composition of academic work. The style began in the 1920s, and has since been adopted by leading academics in the social sciences.
Using APA Citations in the Body of a Text
Proper citation begins with in-text citations. These are references to source materials which you have chosen to include in the body of your paper or text.
In APA Style, you must reference the author’s last name and the source material’s publication year when making reference to a secondary source. Such a secondary source could be, for example, a book, guide, newspaper article, published report, or other publication.
References to earlier research, for example from academic journals, must use the past tense. For example, when referring to a work from 1960 by the psychologist Abraham Maslow, we would write:
Maslow (1960) found that “the highest stage of human psychological health occurs in the state of self-actualization” (p. 330).
As you can see, we also need to include a page number if directly quoting the work, otherwise, the author’s name and the work’s publication year suffice.
APA Reference List
At the end of an academic work, journal writing, or other such professional work, it is necessary to include a list of all works that have been referenced in the body.
The reference list must begin on a separate page from the body of your test. You should title it “References” so that it’s clear that the main arguments have ended and you are now listing references.
In the reference list, you should follow APA Style rules, including the following:
- Arrange author listings in alphabetical order
- Invert the authors’ names so that the last name is read first
- Titles for works cited should be given in full, whether books, journals, or other sources
- Specify the publisher and location where the work was published
Observing these rules, we can list a book by the social scientist Carl Jung as follows:
Jung, C. (1933). Modern Man in Search of a Soul . London: Trubner & Co.
Why APA Is Not Always the Right Citation Type
APA Style works well for the following disciplines:
Other, related, disciplines also use APA Style.
There are, however, disciplines where alternative citation styles are more appropriate. These include the Chicago Manual Style, and MLA Style. The exact citation style you need to use will depend on the field of study for which you are writing. If in doubt, you can check with the publisher or editor of the journal or other publication for which you are writing.
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Title Page Setup
A title page is required for all APA Style papers. There are both student and professional versions of the title page. Students should use the student version of the title page unless their instructor or institution has requested they use the professional version. APA provides a student title page guide (PDF, 199KB) to assist students in creating their title pages.
Student title page
The student title page includes the paper title, author names (the byline), author affiliation, course number and name for which the paper is being submitted, instructor name, assignment due date, and page number, as shown in this example.
This guidance has been revised from the 6th edition.
- Student Title Page Guide (PDF, 263KB)
- Student Paper Setup Guide (PDF, 3MB)
Student papers do not include a running head unless requested by the instructor or institution.
Follow the guidelines described next to format each element of the student title page.
Professional title page
The professional title page includes the paper title, author names (the byline), author affiliation(s), author note, running head, and page number, as shown in the following example.
Follow the guidelines described next to format each element of the professional title page.
From the APA Style blog
APA Style student papers webinar
A new APA Style webinar, “A Step-by-Step Guide for APA Style Student Papers,” taking place on September 10, 2020, will provide detailed guidance on creating, formatting, and organizing APA Style student papers.
Who needs an author note? You … maybe
Professional papers intended for submission to a journal must always include an author note. Student papers do not typically include an author note.
Running head or no running head?
The new APA Style guidelines have separate instructions for students and professionals.
Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Note: This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here .
Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA.
To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all APA citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart .
You can also watch our APA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel .
General APA Guidelines
Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11"), with 1" margins on all sides. You should use a clear font that is highly readable. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font.
Include a page header (also known as the " running head ") at the top of every page. To create a page header/running head , insert page numbers flush right. Then type "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" in the header flush left using all capital letters. The running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation.
Major Paper Sections
Your essay should include four major sections: the Title Page , Abstract , Main Body , and References .
The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's name , and the institutional affiliation . Include the page header (described above) flush left with the page number flush right at the top of the page. Please note that on the title page, your page header/running head should look like this:
Pages after the title page should have a running head that looks like this:
After consulting with publication specialists at the APA, OWL staff learned that the APA 6th edition, first printing sample papers have incorrect examples of running heads on pages after the title page. This link will take you to the APA site where you can find a complete list of all the errors in the APA's 6th edition style guide.
Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.
Beneath the title, type the author's name : first name, middle initial(s), and last name. Do not use titles (Dr.) or degrees (PhD).
Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation , which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research.
APA Title Page
Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header (described above). On the first line of the abstract page, center the word “Abstract” (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks).
Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph, double-spaced. Your abstract should be between 150 and 250 words.
You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: (italicized), and then list your keywords. Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.
APA Abstract Page
Please see our Sample APA Paper resource to see an example of an APA paper. You may also visit our Additional Resources page for more examples of APA papers.
How to Cite the Purdue OWL in APA
The page template for the new OWL site does not include contributors' names or the page's last edited date. However, select pages, like the Citation Style Chart , still include this information.
In the absence of contributor/edit date information, treat the page as a source with a group author and use the abbreviation "n.d." for "no date":
Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.) . Title of resource. Retrieved from http://Web address for OWL resource
Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). General Writing FAQs . Retrieved from https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/general_writing_faqs.html
The generic APA citation for OWL pages, which includes author/edit date information, is this:
Contributors' names. (Last edited date). Title of resource . Retrieved from http://Web address for OWL resource
Paiz, J., Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M.,…Keck, R. (2010, May 5). General format . Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
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- APA Style 7th edition
- APA Title Page (7th edition) | Template for Students & Professionals
APA Title Page (7th edition) | Template for Students & Professionals
Published on November 6, 2020 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on June 7, 2022.
APA provides different guidelines for student and professional papers. The student version of the APA title page should include the following information (double spaced and centered):
- Author name
- Department and university name
- Course number and name
- Instructor name
- Due date of the assignment
The professional title page also includes an author note (flushed left), but not a course name, instructor name, or due date.
Table of contents
Title page example (student and professional version), institutional affiliation, course information, author note, page header, including an image on the title page.
Write an informative, striking title that summarizes the topic of your paper. Try to keep the title focused and use relevant keywords.
Place the title three or four lines down from the top of the paper. Center align and bold it. Don’t forget to use title case capitalization (capitalize the first letter of each word, except small words such as articles and short prepositions).
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Write the author’s name under the paper title (leave a blank line in between). Give their full names (first name, middle initial(s) and last name), but don’t include titles (Dr., Prof.) or degrees (Ph.D., MSc).
Multiple authors on the title page
List the authors in order of their contribution. If there are two authors, separate their names with the word “and”, like this:
If there are more than two authors, separate their names with a comma. Only write “and” before the last author, like this:
Write the author’s affiliation on the next line under the author names. Students should specify the department and institution where they’re attending school. Professional researchers should specify the department and institution where they conducted their research.
Multiple authors with different affiliations
Use superscript numbers on the author line to indicate which institution they’re affiliated with. Don’t use superscript numbers if all authors are affiliated with the same institution (and department).
On a student title page, provide information about the course. List the following information on separate (double spaced) lines under the author’s affiliation:
- Assignment’s due date
For professional papers, you may include an author note. This note may contain the author’s ORCID iD, affiliation changes, disclosures of conflicts of interest, brief acknowledgments, and contact information (in that specific order). Present this information in separate paragraphs.
Place the author note on the bottom half of the page. Center the label “Author note” and apply bold styling. The paragraphs in the author note are left-aligned. The first line of each new paragraph is indented.
For more information about formatting the author note, see section 2.7 of the APA Publication Manual.
For a student title page, the page header consists of just a page number in the top-right corner. There is no need for a running head (as was the case in APA 6th edition).
A professional title page does have a running head. The running head is an abbreviated version of the paper title in all capital letters. The maximum length is 50 characters (counting spaces).
Images are not usually included on an APA title page, and APA does not provide any guidelines for doing so. It’s usually viewed as unprofessional to include an image, since the title page is there to provide information, not for decoration.
If you do decide to include an image on your title page, make sure to check whether you need permission from the creator of the image. Include a note directly underneath the image acknowledging where it comes from, beginning with the word “ Note .” (italicized and followed by a period):
- If you found the image online or in another source, include a citation and copyright attribution .
- If it’s an image you created yourself (e.g., a photograph you took, an infographic you designed), explain this (e.g., “Photograph taken by the author.”).
Don’t give the image a label, title, or number. Only images within the text itself are labeled as figures .
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Streefkerk, R. (2022, June 07). APA Title Page (7th edition) | Template for Students & Professionals. Scribbr. Retrieved March 3, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/apa-title-page/
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / Formatting an APA title page
Formatting an APA title page
The title page is a requirement for all APA papers. The primary role of the title page is to present just that: the title. But that’s only the beginning of what is actually required for a properly formatted APA title page. This is the first chance a writer has to truly engage with the reader.
For students, the title page also lets people know which class, professor, and institution the text was written for. For professional authors, the title page is an opportunity to share any affiliations or conflicts of interest that might be present.
APA Style recognizes two different ways to format a title page. One is for student papers and the other is for professional papers. This guide will examine the difference and provide real-life examples of both.
The information provided below comes from the 7 th edition of the APA’s Publication Manual . You can read more about title page elements in Sections 2.1 – 2.8.
Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:
The difference between a professional title page and a student title page in APA
Elements of an apa style title page, apa formatting title page example, conclusion: formatting a title page in apa 7.
Both student and professional title pages require a title, author, and an affiliation. Both types of title page also require the same basic formatting, including 1-inch indentations on all sides and a page number in the top right corner.
The primary difference is that professional title pages also require an author note and a running head. However, some professors do ask that you provide some of these elements in student papers. It’s a good idea to know how to format them just in case.
Student title page APA
An APA title page for any paper being submitted for a class, degree, or thesis is all about the basics. Here are the elements that should be included in a student title page :
- Title of your paper
- Byline (author or authors)
- Affiliation (department and university)
- Course name and course number
- Instructor name
Your professor or institution might have their own formatting requirements. When writing a paper for a class, the first rule is to always pay attention to the instructions.
Professional title page APA
A professional title page skips the class info and due date, but it includes:
- Affiliation (division and/or organization)
- Author note
- Running head
The author note and running head are generally only required for professional papers. However, some professors might ask that you include one or both of them. Be sure to check the assignment instructions before submitting.
The title of your paper is really important. This is where the author needs to simultaneously inform and engage the reader without being overly wordy.
An effective title will:
- Engage the reader
- Concisely explain the main topic of research
- Concisely explain any relevant variables or theoretical issues
The paper title should be placed three or four lines down from the top margin of the page. It should be presented in bold, title case, and centered on the page.
The correct way to display the author’s name is first name, middle initial, and last name. The most important thing is to prevent the possibility of mistaken identity. After all, there are a lot of papers published every year, and it’s possible that someone else has the same name as you do.
For all author bylines in APA, all licenses and degrees are omitted (e.g., Dr., Professor, PhD, RN, etc.).
If your paper has multiple authors, then they should all be listed in the same way, in order of their contributions. All authors should be on the same line, unless more lines are required.
Here’s an example of a properly formatted byline for a paper with two authors:
Cassandra M. Berkman and Wilhelm K. Jackson
The affiliation element is where you identify the place where the work was conducted or who it was conducted for. This is almost always a university or institution. In some cases, there are multiple affiliations for one author, or multiple authors with different affiliations.
Academic affiliations include schools, universities, and teaching hospitals. The affiliation line should include the specific department followed by the name of the institution. There is no need to include a location for academic affiliations.
Here is an example of what a basic academic affiliation line should look like:
Department of Psychology, Colorado State University
Non-academic affiliations are anything that isn’t a school or university, which could be a hospital, laboratory, or just about any type of organization. The affiliation line for a non-academic organization should include the department or division, followed by the name and location of the organization. All elements should be separated by commas.
Here’s how it looks when put to use:
Vidant Health, Greenville, NC, United States
Course number and name (Student only)
Use the course number and course name as they appear on official university materials. Examples:
- ENG 204: Modern English Literature
- PSYC 2301: Research Methodology
Instructor name (Student papers only)
It’s important that you display your instructor’s name in their preferred way. With academics who have multiple degrees and positions, this isn’t something that you should guess at.
It is generally safe to use the course syllabus to see how they prefer to be listed. For example, some use the word “Professor” as their prefix, and many will have PhD, RN, or other type of professional designation.
Due date (Student papers only)
The due date should be presented in the day, month, and year format that is standard to your country.
The page number goes at the top right-hand side of the paper. This is one of the only elements that appears on every single page.
You can add running page numbers to your paper by double-clicking the header portion of the document or clicking the “Insert” tab. It will automatically insert page numbers into the rest of the document.
Author note (Professional papers only)
The author note is usually only required for professional papers. This is where additional data, disclaimers, conflicts of interest, and statements about funding are placed. In some cases, the author statement can be several pages long.
The author note is generally split into four paragraphs, including:
- ORCID iD (a scientific/academic author ID)
- Changes of Affiliation
- Disclosures and Acknowledgments
- Contact Information
Section 2.7 of the Publication Manual has even more information on how to structure these elements for a professional paper.
Running Head (Professional papers only)
While some student papers might require a running head, this is something that is typically only for papers being submitted for publication. This is an abbreviated version of your title that appears at the top of every page to help readers identify it. The running title is particularly useful especially in print versions of journals and publications.
The running head does not have to use the same words as they appear in your title. Instead, try to re-work your paper’s main idea into a shortened form.
For example, if your paper’s title is:
“A Mystery of Style: Exploring the Formatting Mechanics of the Running Head According to APA Style 7th Edition”
Then your abbreviated title can be something like:
“RUNNING HEAD IN APA 7”
“FORMATTING THE RUNNING HEAD”
The idea is to convey only the most important aspects of your title. The running head should be entered in the page header, flush left against the margin, and presented in all-capital letters.
The APA suggests a maximum length of 50 characters (including spaces and punctuation) for a running head. If your title is already 50 characters and under, then you can use the whole thing as the running head.
Next, let’s have a look at an example of what a real APA title page looks like when it’s all put together.
Student title page formatting example
Professional title page formatting example
All papers written according to APA Style should have a properly formatted title page. Making sure that the title page elements are accurate and informative will help people access your work. It is also the first opportunity that you have as the author to establish credibility and engage the reader.
For more information on the basic elements of an APA paper, check out Chapter 2 of the Publication Manual or our guide on APA format .
Published October 28, 2020.
APA Formatting Guide
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- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Page
- Sample Paper
- APA 7 Updates
- View APA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all APA Examples
An APA title page provides the details of the paper, such as the title of the paper, author name, and author affiliation. APA title pages have two formats—one for professional papers and one for student papers.
The elements to be added on the title page of a professional paper (in order of appearance) are:
- Page number and running head: These elements appear in the header section. The page number appears at the top-right corner, whereas the running head appears at the top-left corner. If the title is too long, the running head is shortened to less than 50 characters.
- Title of the paper: It provides information about the paper. It is aligned center and set in bold.
- Names of the authors: It gives the names of the contributors to the paper and is aligned center.
- Affiliations of the authors: It gives the department and university details of the authors.
- Author note: It gives extra information about the authors.
In a student paper, the following details are included on the title page:
- Page number: This appears in the top-right corner of the header section.
- Title of the paper: It gives the reader an idea of the information in the paper. It appears in title case and bold. It is center-aligned.
- Names of the authors: The names of the contributors are added here. This field is also called the by-line.
- Affiliations of the authors: It includes the names of the authors’ departments and universities.
- Name of the course: The name of the course for which the paper is written is included in this field.
- Name of the instructor: Unlike the professional paper, the instructor’s name is included in a student paper.
- Due date of the assignment: The due date of the assignment is added here. The format is “Month Day, Year” (e.g., August 22, 2017).
The title page information for APA is different for a professional paper and a student paper. As a student, you need to include the following details in the same order on the title page of your student paper.
- Page number: This appears in the header section. Set the page number in the top-right corner of the header.
- Title of the paper: Set it in title case and bold. Align it to the center.
- Names of the authors: Provide the names of the contributors. This field is also called the by-line.
- Affiliations of the authors: Include your department and university name.
- Name of the course: Provide the name of the course and course number for which the paper is written.
- Name of the instructor: Add the instructor’s name. There is no rigid rule on how to set the instructor’s name. You can set it according to the instructor’s preference.
- Due date of the assignment: Add the due date of the assignment. The format should be “Month Day, Year” (e.g., August 23, 2021).
APA Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
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Answered By: Jennifer Harris Last Updated: Nov 20, 2020 Views: 503121
In APA Style, the cover sheet is called a title page. Students should follow the guidelines of their instructor when determining the proper format for their title page. If not instructed otherwise, students should include the following elements:
- title of the paper;
- name of each author of the paper;
- affiliation for each author, typically the university attended;
- course number and name for which the paper is being submitted;
- instructor name;
- assignment due date; and
- page number (top right).
In the 7th edition of the APA style manual, running heads are only required for professional papers that are being submitted for publication. Please see Section 2.3 for more information or review the APA Style blog’s Student Title Page Guide This link opens in a new window . The video below by Academic Support walks you through how to format your paper. Here is an example of a student title page in APA style:
- APA Guide (Shapiro Library)
- Title Page Setup This link opens in a new window (APA Style)
This information is intended to be a guideline, not expert advice. Please be sure to speak to your professor about the appropriate way to format a title page in your class assignments and projects.
To access academic support, visit your Brightspace course and select “Tutoring and Mentoring” from the Academic Support pulldown menu.
To access help with citation and more, visit Academic Support via modules in Brightspace:
- The Complete Guide to Using Academic Support via Brightspace This link opens in a new window
- Accessing Writing STEM Help This link opens in a new window
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APA Title Page Templates
Apa cover page format, apa cover page sections, free apa title page examples.
- Line spacing – Double Spaced
- Font – This should be an easy-to-read serif font for your text. APA recommendation is Times New Roman if your institution doesn’t specify a different font.
- Font Size – 12 point
- Margins – One-inch all around
- Identification – identifying the page for the reader in case of page separation
- Anonymity – keeping the author nameless during the review process if submitting the paper for publication
- Typed in all capital letters
- Placed in the header, flush left
- Prefix it with the words “Running head:” (remember the colon) on the cover page only
- No more than 50 characters long, including spaces
- Placement : top right corner in header of the page with the running head
- Numbering : begin with 1 on the title page
- Justification : right justified
- Double spaced
- Use both upper and lower case text
- Use the same easy-to-read serif font either specified by the institution or the APA recommended Times New Roman in 12 point.
APA Paper Title
- Not be more than 12 words long
- May take up to two lines on your paper if need be.
- Avoid the use of abbreviations
- Unlike references and titles of work you are citing within the body of your essay, the title of your paper must not be boldface or in italics.
Name of the Author
- The author’s full name, including their middle initial
- Placed under the title
- Do not to include titles or degrees after the name
Free Resume Templates
Whether you’re creating a cover page for your academic research or latest business report paper, take some time to check out our free resume templates If you’re eyeing a promotion or thinking about changing careers, a new or updated resume, guided by career expert recommendations, can help you get there.
Our resume templates, like the cover pages, are simple to use:
- Go to our Resume Builder and choose your years of experience: If you have no experience, our builder will guide you through the resume-creation process. If you have a decade or more of experience, the builder will suggest appropriate resume templates that showcase your achievements.
- Select a template: Choose from the expert-recommended free resume templates or view all the categories and select one that suits your style.
- Add your information: You could upload a current resume, and the builder will format it according to your free resume template. You can also start from scratch and add your contact information, work history, skills and any other additional sections.
Each step will have an expert recommendation, which you can select as is or edit to suit your style and voice.
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Typical APA Style Term Paper
Standard format, two authors, same affiliations, two authors, two affiliations, three authors, two affiliations, three authors, three affiliations, three authors, same affiliations for the first and third authors, one author, one affiliation.
APA Guide: 7th Edition
- Summary of Changes
- Page Numbers
- Writing Style
- Webpages and Other Online Content
- Legal Citations
Student Paper Example
- Student Paper Example This is a student paper example from the 7th Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Professional Paper Example
- Professional Paper Example This is a professional paper example from the 7th Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Student Title Page Elements
The title page includes the following elements: Page number, Paper title, Author, Author Affiliation, Course, Instructor, and Due Date . Remember, your instructor can include other requirements for your assignment. Refer to their instructions carefully.
Your title page and paper is double-spaced. Use 1-inch margins.
- 11-point Calibri
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- Should summarize the main idea in a succinct way .
- Include strong keywords so that readers can find your work in a database or by using a search engine.
- Avoid using abbreviations in a title.
- The title should be provided in title case . This means that all major words are capitalized.
- Be bolded, centered, and begin 3-4 lines down from the top margin of the paper.
- Put a double-spaced blank line between the title and the byline.
- The paper title also appears at the top of the first page of your paper.
Author Name(s) (Byline)
- Beneath the title, type the author's or authors' full name(s) .
- Do not use titles or degrees.
- Order the names of authors based on their contributions.
- Write all of the names on the same line.
- Center the names in a standard font.
- Smith and Doe
- Smith, Doe, and Jones
- Identify where you worked or studied when the body of work was completed.
- Include no more than two affiliations for each author.
- Example: College of Nursing and Health Innovation, University of Texas at Arlington
- Include the department or division.
- Include the name of the institution.
- Include the location of the institution.
- Example: Hematology/Oncology, Cook Children's Medical Center, Fort Worth, Texas, United States
- Include the location.
Locations should include the city, state, province, and country.
- Put the course number and name below the Author Affiliation.
- Check with your instructor on the preferred name.
- Place the month, date, and year after the Instructor(s) name(s).
See the example title page below:
All content on this guide comes from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and from the APA Style Blog.
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association ( 7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
American Psychological Association. (2020, October). Blog . https://apastyle.apa.org/blog
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- Last Updated: Jan 20, 2023 3:25 PM
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APA 7th Edition - Citations and Formatting
- Paper Format
- Headers and Heading Levels
- In-Text Citations
- Reference List
Student Title Page
- Paper title
- Author name (Byline)
- Author affiliation (department and university)
- Course number and name
- Instructor name
- Assignment due date
- Page number in the header
- Centered, upper half of the page - three to four lines down from top margin, and double spaced
- title case: major words are capitalized
- sentence case: most words are lowercased
- Add an additional double spaced blank line between the title and the byline (author names)
- preferred form of an author's name is first name, middle initial, last name
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- Dissertations and Theses
- Audiovisual Material
- Webpages and Websites
- In-Text Citations
- Citation Guide
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- Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides.
- The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch.
- sans serif: 11-point Calibri or 11-point Arial
- serif: 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia
- Double space the entire research paper, including the title page.
- Left align the text.
APA Paper Components
Every paper should include at least four main sections:
Student papers do not typically include a running head, an author note, or an abstract, unless specifically requested by the instructor.
A title page is always required in all APA formatted papers. Students should follow the student title page guidelines, unless their instructor requires them to use the professional version.
The student title page should include:
- paper title;
- author(s) name(s);
- author affiliation (i.e. the department and the name of the university);
- course number and full name;
- instructor name;
- assignment due date;
- page number (start numbering the title page from 1).
- APA Blog - Title Page Setup
- Student Title Page Guide APA provides a student title page guide to assist students in creating their title pages.
If requested by the instructor, students may need to include an abstract, especially for capstone projects.
The abstract should be one paragraph of between 150 and 250 words. It is not indented. The section label "Abstract" is centered at the top of the page and it is in bold title case.
Text (Main Body)
The text of the paper should start on a new page after the title page (and abstract, if included). On the first page of the text, you should repeat the paper title in title case, bold, and centered.
Use double-spacing throughout the paper, left align the text and indent the first line of each paragraph by one tab key (usually set to 0.5 in.).
Throughout the body, in-text citations are used and they include the author’s/authors’ name(s) and the publication year, followed by the page number of the text cited if applicable (see the In-Text Citations section).
Organizing a Paper with Headings
In order to effectively organized the ideas in your paper, you can use headings to separate each different section. APA recommends the use of a maximum of five possible headings. Not all papers must include headings.
- APA Blog - Headings
The Reference List appears on a new page after the end of the paper.
- Center and bold the title “References” (do not include quotation marks, underline, or italicize this title).
- Alphabetize and double-space all entries.
- Use a hanging indent for all entries (the first line of each reference is flush left and subsequent lines are indented by 0.5 in).
- Every article/source mentioned in the paper and used in your study should be referenced and have an entry.
Sample paper and template.
This is a Word office version of a sample APA student paper, and it can also be used as a template for formatting your paper.
- APA 7 Student paper template
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- Last Updated: Oct 12, 2022 10:46 AM
- URL: https://johncabot.libguides.com/APAstyle
Writing an outline in APA style involves formatting the lines properly, using 12-point Times New Roman font and creating detailed headings. Each point of the outline starts with a header, which is marked by a Roman numeral.
In academia and other professional fields, much of the work that goes on is strictly intellectual. In such areas, ideas matter, and copying another’s ideas without acknowledging the source can land the practitioner in trouble. This has happ...
A case study written in APA style should be typed on standard-sized paper with 1-inch margins on every side. The font should be neat and legible, and the entire essay should be double-spaced.
A title page is required for all APA Style papers. There are both student and professional versions of the title page. Students should use the student
Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11"), with 1" margins on all sides. Include a page header
Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and
The APA title page starts with your paper title, followed by your name, university, course number, instructor, and due date.
Set the page number in the top-right corner of the header. Title of the paper: Set it in title case and bold. Align it to the center. Names of
title of the paper; · name of each author of the paper; · affiliation for each author, typically the university attended; · course number and name
APA Cover Page Format ; Font Size– 12 point; Margins– One-inch all around ; Identification– identifying the page for the reader in case of page separation
The title page includes the following elements: Page number, Paper title, Author, Author Affiliation, Course, Instructor, and Due Date.
Follow the steps below to correctly format your document in current APA style using Microsoft Word. For additional help in formatting your UAGC papers
Student Title Page · Centered, upper half of the page - three to four lines down from top margin, and double spaced · Paper title should be in title case. title
Title Page · paper title; · author(s) name(s); · author affiliation (i.e. the department and the name of the university); · course number and full