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13 Interesting Data Structure Project Ideas and Topics For Beginners [2023]

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Rohit Sharma is the Program Director for the UpGrad-IIIT Bangalore, PG Diploma Data Analytics Program.

In the world of computer science, data structure refers to the format that contains a collection of data values, their relationships, and the functions that can be applied to the data. Data structures arrange data so that it can be accessed and worked on with specific algorithms more effectively. In this article, we will list some useful data structure projects to help you learn, create, and innovate!

You can also check out our  free courses  offered by upGrad under machine learning and IT technology.

Table of Contents

Data Structure Basics

Data structures can be classified into the following basic types:

Selecting the appropriate setting for your data is an integral part of the programming and problem-solving process. And you can observe that data structures organize abstract data types in concrete implementations. To attain that result, they make use of various algorithms, such as sorting, searching, etc. Learning data structures is one of the important parts in data science courses .

With the rise of big data and analytics , learning about these fundamentals has become almost essential for data scientists. The training typically incorporates various data structure projects to enable the synthesis of knowledge from real-life experiences. Here is a list of topics to get you started! 

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Benefits of Data structures:

1. efficiency:.

The proper choice of a data structure for employing a specific ADT makes the program efficient in terms of space and time.

2. Abstraction:

An ADT’s data structure offers a level of abstraction. Since the client can’t observe the data structure’s internal working, they need not worry about the implementation. They can just visualise the interface.

3. Reusability:

The data structure’s reusability in different DSA topics allows multiple client programs to use the data structure.

Other benefits:

Why study data structures & algorithms?

Studying relevant DSA topics increases job opportunities and earning potential. Therefore, they guarantee career advancement.

Data Structures Project Ideas

1. obscure binary search trees.

Items, such as names, numbers, etc. can be stored in memory in a sorted order called binary search trees or BSTs. And some of these data structures can automatically balance their height when arbitrary items are inserted or deleted. Therefore, they are known as self-balancing BSTs. Further, there can be different implementations of this type, like the BTrees, AVL trees, and red-black trees. But there are many other lesser-known executions that you can learn about. Some examples include AA trees, 2-3 trees, splay trees, scapegoat trees, and treaps. 

You can base your project on these alternatives and explore how they can outperform other widely-used BSTs in different scenarios. For instance, splay trees can prove faster than red-black trees under the conditions of serious temporal locality. 

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2. BSTs following the memoization algorithm

Memoization related to dynamic programming. In reduction-memoizing BSTs, each node can memoize a function of its subtrees. Consider the example of a BST of persons ordered by their ages. Now, let the child nodes store the maximum income of each individual. With this structure, you can answer queries like, “What is the maximum income of people aged between 18.3 and 25.3?” It can also handle updates in logarithmic time. 

Moreover, such data structures are easy to accomplish in C language. You can also attempt to bind it with Ruby and a convenient API. Go for an interface that allows you to specify ‘lambda’ as your ordering function and your subtree memoizing function. All in all, you can expect reduction-memoizing BSTs to be self-balancing BSTs with a dash of additional book-keeping. 

Dynamic coding will need cognitive memorisation for its implementation. Each vertex in a reducing BST can memorise its sub–trees’ functionality. For example, a BST of persons is categorised by their age.

This DSA topics based project idea allows the kid node to store every individual’s maximum salary. This framework can be used to answer the questions like “what’s the income limit of persons aged 25 to 30?”

Checkout:  Types of Binary Tree

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3. heap insertion time.

When looking for data structure projects , you want to encounter distinct problems being solved with creative approaches. One such unique research question concerns the average case insertion time for binary heap data structures. According to some online sources, it is constant time, while others imply that it is log(n) time. 

But Bollobas and Simon give a numerically-backed answer in their paper entitled, “Repeated random insertion into a priority queue.” First, they assume a scenario where you want to insert n elements into an empty heap. There can be ‘n!’ possible orders for the same. Then, they adopt the average cost approach to prove that the insertion time is bound by a constant of 1.7645.

When looking for Data Structures tasks in this project idea, you will face challenges that are addressed using novel methods. One of the interesting research subjects is the mean response insertion time for the sequential heap DS.

Inserting ‘n’ components into an empty heap will yield ‘n!’ arrangements which you can use in suitable DSA projects in C++ . Subsequently, you can implement the estimated cost approach to specify that the inserting period is limited by a fixed constant.

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4. Optimal treaps with priority-changing parameters

Treaps are a combination of BSTs and heaps. These randomized data structures involve assigning specific priorities to the nodes. You can go for a project that optimizes a set of parameters under different settings. For instance, you can set higher preferences for nodes that are accessed more frequently than others. Here, each access will set off a two-fold process:

As a result of this modification, the tree will lose its random shape. It is likely that the frequently-accessed nodes would now be near the tree’s root, hence delivering faster searches. So, experiment with this data structure and try to base your argument on evidence. 

Also read : Python online course free !

At the end of the project, you can either make an original discovery or even conclude that changing the priority of the node does not deliver much speed. It will be a relevant and useful exercise, nevertheless.

Constructing a heap involves building an ordered binary tree and letting it fulfill the “heap” property. But if it is done using a single element, it would appear like a line. This is because in the BST, the right child should be greater or equal to its parent, and the left child should be less than its parent. However, for a heap, every parent must either be all larger or all smaller than its children.

The numbers show the data structure’s heap arrangement (organized in max-heap order). The alphabets show the tree portion. Now comes the time to use the unique property of treap data structure in DSA projects in C++. This treap has only one arrangement irrespective of the order by which the elements were chosen to build the tree.

You can use a random heap weight to make the second key more useful. Hence, now the tree’s structure will completely depend on the randomized weight offered to the heap values. In the file structure mini project topics , we obtain randomized heap priorities by ascertaining that you assign these randomly.

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5. Research project on k-d trees

K-dimensional trees or k-d trees organize and represent spatial data. These data structures have several applications, particularly in multi-dimensional key searches like nearest neighbor and range searches. Here is how k-d trees operate:

You can probe one step further and construct a self-balanced k-d tree where each leaf node would have the same distance from the root. Also, you can test it to find whether such balanced trees would prove optimal for a particular kind of application. 

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With this, we have covered five interesting ideas that you can study, investigate, and try out. Now, let us look at some more projects on data structures and algorithms . 

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6. Knight’s travails

In this project, we will understand two algorithms in action – BFS and DFS. BFS stands for Breadth-First Search and utilizes the Queue data structure to find the shortest path. Whereas, DFS refers to Depth-First Search and traverses Stack data structures. 

For starters, you will need a data structure similar to binary trees. Now, suppose that you have a standard 8 X 8 chessboard, and you want to show the knight’s movements in a game. As you may know, a knight’s basic move in chess is two forward steps and one sidestep. Facing in any direction and given enough turns, it can move from any square on the board to any other square. 

If you want to know the simplest way your knight can move from one square (or node) to another in a two-dimensional setup, you will first have to build a function like the one below.

 Furthermore, this project would require the following tasks: 

7. Fast data structures in non-C systems languages

Programmers usually build programs quickly using high-level languages like Ruby or Python but implement data structures in C/C++. And they create a binding code to connect the elements. However, the C language is believed to be error-prone, which can also cause security issues. Herein lies an exciting project idea. 

You can implement a data structure in a modern low-level language such as Rust or Go, and then bind your code to the high-level language. With this project, you can try something new and also figure out how bindings work. If your effort is successful, you can even inspire others to do a similar exercise in the future and drive better performance-orientation of data structures.  

Also read: Data Science Project Ideas for Beginners

8. Search engine for data structures

The software aims to automate and speed up the choice of data structures for a given API. This project not only demonstrates novel ways of representing different data structures but also optimizes a set of functions to equip inference on them. We have compiled its summary below.

Read: Data Mining Project Ideas

9. Phone directory application using doubly-linked lists

This project can demonstrate the working of contact book applications and also teach you about data structures like arrays, linked lists, stacks, and queues. Typically, phone book management encompasses searching, sorting, and deleting operations. A distinctive feature of the search queries here is that the user sees suggestions from the contact list after entering each character. You can read the source-code of freely available projects and replicate the same to develop your skills. 

This project demonstrates how to address the book programs’ function. It also teaches you about queuing, stacking, linking lists, and arrays. Usually, this project’s directory includes certain actions like categorising, scanning, and removing. Subsequently, the client shows recommendations from the address book after typing each character. This is the web searches’ unique facet. You can inspect the code of extensively used DSA projects in C++ and applications and ultimately duplicate them. This helps you to advance your data science career.

10. Spatial indexing with quadtrees

The quadtree data structure is a special type of tree structure, which can recursively divide a flat 2-D space into four quadrants. Each hierarchical node in this tree structure has either zero or four children. It can be used for various purposes like sparse data storage, image processing, and spatial indexing. 

Spatial indexing is all about the efficient execution of select geometric queries, forming an essential part of geo-spatial application design. For example, ride-sharing applications like Ola and Uber process geo-queries to track the location of cabs and provide updates to users. Facebook’s Nearby Friends feature also has similar functionality. Here, the associated meta-data is stored in the form of tables, and a spatial index is created separately with the object coordinates. The problem objective is to find the nearest point to a given one. 

You can pursue quadtree data structure projects in a wide range of fields, from mapping, urban planning, and transportation planning to disaster management and mitigation. We have provided a brief outline to fuel your problem-solving and analytical skills. 

QuadTrees are techniques for indexing spatial data. The root node signifies the whole area and every internal node signifies an area called a quadrant which is obtained by dividing the area enclosed into half across both axes. These basics are important to understand QuadTrees-related data structures topics.

Objective: Creating a data structure that enables the following operations

One of the leading applications of QuadTrees in the data structure is finding the nearest neighbor. For example, you are dealing with several points in a space in one of the data structures topics . Suppose somebody asks you what’s the nearest point to an arbitrary point. You can search in a quadtree to answer this question. If there is no nearest neighbor, you can specify that there is no point in this quadrant to be the nearest neighbor to an arbitrary point. Consequently, you can save time otherwise spent on comparisons.

Spatial indexing with Quadtrees is also used in image compression wherein every node holds the average color of each child. You get a more detailed image if you dive deeper into the tree. This project idea is also used in searching for the nods in a 2D area. For example, you can use quadtrees to find the nearest point to the given coordinates.

Follow these steps to build a quadtree from a two-dimensional area:

11. Graph-based projects on data structures

You can take up a project on topological sorting of a graph. For this, you will need prior knowledge of the DFS algorithm. Here is the primary difference between the two approaches:

Therefore, the topological sort algorithm takes a directed acyclic graph or DAG to return an array of nodes. 

Let us consider the simple example of ordering a pancake recipe. To make pancakes, you need a specific set of ingredients, such as eggs, milk, flour or pancake mix, oil, syrup, etc. This information, along with the quantity and portions, can be easily represented in a graph.

But it is equally important to know the precise order of using these ingredients. This is where you can implement topological ordering. Other examples include making precedence charts for optimizing database queries and schedules for software projects. Here is an overview of the process for your reference:

12. Numerical representations with random access lists

In the representations we have seen in the past, numerical elements are generally held in Binomial Heaps. But these patterns can also be implemented in other data structures. Okasaki has come up with a numerical representation technique using binary random access lists. These lists have many advantages:

Know more: The Six Most Commonly Used Data Structures in R

13. Stack-based text editor

Your regular text editor has the functionality of editing and storing text while it is being written or edited. So, there are multiple changes in the cursor position. To achieve high efficiency, we require a fast data structure for insertion and modification. And the ordinary character arrays take time for storing strings. 

You can experiment with other data structures like gap buffers and ropes to solve these issues. Your end objective will be to attain faster concatenation than the usual strings by occupying smaller contiguous memory space. 

This project idea handles text manipulation and offers suitable features to improve the experience. The key functionalities of text editors include deleting, inserting, and viewing text. Other features needed to compare with other text editors are copy/cut and paste, find and replace, sentence highlighting, text formatting, etc.

This project idea’s functioning depends on the data structures you determined to use for your operations. You will face tradeoffs when choosing among the data structures. This is because you must consider the implementation difficulty for the memory and performance tradeoffs. You can use this project idea in different file structure mini project topics to accelerate the text’s insertion and modification.

Data structure skills form the bedrock of software development, particularly when it comes to managing large sets of data in today’s digital ecosystem. Leading companies like Adobe, Amazon, and Google hire for various lucrative job positions in the data structure and algorithm domain. And in interviews, recruiters test not only your theoretical knowledge but also your practical skills. So, practice the above data structure projects to get your foot in the door!

If you are curious to learn about data science, check out IIIT-B & upGrad’s Executive PG Programme in Data Science which is created for working professionals and offers 10+ case studies & projects, practical hands-on workshops, mentorship with industry experts, 1-on-1 with industry mentors, 400+ hours of learning and job assistance with top firms.

What do you mean by data structures?

There are certain types of containers that are used to store data. These containers are nothing but data structures. These containers have different properties associated with them, which are used to store, organize, and manipulate the data stored in them. There can be two types of data structures based on how they allocate the data. Linear data structures like arrays and linked lists and dynamic data structures like trees and graphs.

What is the difference between linear and non-linear data structures?

In linear data structures, each element is linearly connected to each other having reference to the next and previous elements whereas in non-linear data structures, data is connected in a non-linear or hierarchical manner. Implementing a linear data structure is much easier than a non-linear data structure since it involves only a single level. If we see memory-wise then the non-linear data structures are better than their counterpart since they consume memory wisely and do not waste it.

Which real-life applications or projects are based on data structures?

You can see applications based on data structures everywhere around you. The google maps application is based on graphs, call centre systems use queues, file explorer applications are based on trees, and even the text editor that you use every day is based upon stack data structure and this list can go on. Not just applications, but many popular algorithms are also based on these data structures. One such example is that of the decision trees. Google search uses trees to implement its amazing auto-complete feature in its search bar.

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10 Projects That Every Developer Should Lay Their Hands-On

1. A Text Editor

With their relevance in every programming, sub-culture Text Editors tops the list since text-editor is the basic tool every programmer uses and he must be familiar with how a text-editor works. Companies like Flipkart, Microsoft, etc. constantly asks questions related to text-editors in their interviews-questions related to the two-stack model, undo-redo operation (with unlimited stack size unlike Notepad which allows only single undo/redo operations), finding and replacing text, using the trie data-structure (for scaling the text-editor to a word-processor), pattern-based searching (using regular expressions), stylizing text (as in code-editors) and so on. So a Text-Editor project is worth a shot. Below are some relevant articles you can look up to for learning how to make your text editor:

2. A Graphical Calculator

A calculator is a simple application but a graphical calculator is interesting mainly because of the compact user-interface (not displaying all functionality at once). There are a lot of things that can be expanded to it such as allowing complex expressions in the text-field (as input – which may involve Expression trees), allowing user-defined functions (similar to GNOME Calculator) and so on! The complexity of the project shouldn’t be under-estimated and one must try to keep the user-interface as compact as possible. All and all even if interviewers do-not ask that many questions related to expression trees yet making a graphical calculator can be a good GUI exercise and a project every developer should lay their hands on! Related Articles:

3. Snake Game

Snake Game is definitely a project that every developer should lay their hands on! An interesting thing about making a Snake game is that there are infinite ways to do it! Some little things in Snake can confuse anyone and that’s why companies like Amazon, etc ask questions related to Snake Game Design. Questions such as How’d you re-implement the game such that instead of restarting the game when the snake bites itself it’d cut the segments of the snake and decrease its life by one? or What if the apple is spawned at the snake or one of its segments? and What algorithm would you use to make sure that doesn’t happen? , How would you make an animated Snake game – one that’d use different sprites for snake’s head-tail and body? . The last question is very relevant and I strongly suspect that interviewers will move on to ask the last question since making a sprite-based snake game (similar to Google Snake) is not so trivial as simply making a snake game! The rendering technique is really what makes it difficult. Related Articles:

4. TicTacToe/Connect 4 with AI

Sounds easy, right? We are talking about the unbeatable AI – one that requires the minimax algorithm and alpha-beta pruning! How to making a board game AI – this question is asked in many system-design interviews and interviewers will continue to ask this question until it becomes trivial for everyone! Making an unbeatable TicTacToe AI is pretty easy and nothing to brag about but AI for other board games such as Connect 4 and especially Chess can be pretty daunting (since it involves alpha-beta pruning and handling with a lot of corner cases). Related Articles:

5. Terminal Shell

Shells involve a lot of string-processing and smart use of the two-stack model for storing the history of commands and to locomote between them! Making a Terminal Shell is a great exercise project for learning systems programming since it involves turning on/off a great number of bit flags to have to enter the raw-mode . A lot of GUI applications nowadays have a graphical console in them which works the same way as a shell-commands are entered, parsed and then processed! Ancient games had a console them which was often a time the only means of interaction (text-based adventure games which had their window)! At one point terminal shells can also include some kind of meta-programming (talking with other programs dynamically)! Below are some relevant articles you can look up to learn more about terminal shells (or consoles) and how to implement them:

6. Sudoku (with AI)

Sudoku is a mathematical puzzle developed by the great Swiss mathematician Leonard Euler. Some say it was originally a Japanese logic puzzle but we won’t get into that. We’ll concern ourselves with the project only – which is about making a Sudoku generator, as well as solver (the solving would be done by an AI-agent) Sudoku can be pretty complicated especially if puzzle has to generate based on the difficulty as that would involve using Las Vegas and also high level of genericization! The AI-part is pretty trivial but depending on your implementation and the data-structure you use, it can be difficult . For Example, it can be complicated if you define the grid as a matrix rather than an array! Note that we didn’t place Sudoku in the above category – this is because Sudoku is a single-player board game. The player plays Sudoku with himself and there is no second player in the game – meaning no possibility has to be generated at every step. There are a lot of ways you can make the AI – you can simply use backtracking or you can use advanced AI methods such as constraint propagation and make use of data structures such as BST . Related Articles:

7. A Node-Editor

A lot of GUI applications nowadays have something that’s called a node-editor . Every productive software is nowadays expected to have a node-editor in them! 3D Modelling software like Houdini and Blender, game-engines like Unity and Unreal, and story-telling software like Twine – all of these have a node-editor in them. A Node-editor can come in all sorts but the fundamental principle is this that there are basic entities called nodes that have a pin in them that needs to connect to another pin of other nodes! And nodes are connected via wires which are mostly represented by Bezier curves but some represent them as elliptic curves (Twine) or simple lines (Blender 1.8). I recommend you to use Bezier curves in your project since they are the fashion nowadays! Below are some relevant articles which will help you make your node-editor:- Related Articles:

If you are using Javascript then try Rete.js 

8. Web Crawler

Web Crawlers can be mysterious and not many people know the secret of making a scalable web-crawler and this is how interviewers select the best candidates! Google asks this question of implementing a web-crawler in lots of its system-design interviews and it’d be difficult to answer if someone has never built his web-crawler! Below are some relevant articles you can check out to learn how to make your web-crawler:

9. Klondike/Spider Solitaire

There are hundreds of different varieties of Solitaire ranging like Golf, Tripeaks, Bakers Game, Thirteen and so on but probably the most difficult ones are Klondike and Spider solitaire! Klondike solitaire (which many people simply call solitaire) can make use of data structures ranging from stacks to splay trees! Also solitaire games can use Fisher-Yates Shuffle algorithm ! Related Articles:

10. Chess Game

A Chess game will always be a project that every developer should lay their hands (at least every developer who wants to be a software engineer)! A Chess game has lots of moving parts and lots and lots of corner cases that one must consider! It involves and a lot of Graph Theory and even to this date making an unbeatable AI for Chess is no child’s play! Even with the aid of the minimax algorithm, it can be very difficult to make an unbeatable AI for Chess (since the number of combinations is very high) and one must apply some performance optimization techniques to reduce the memory overhead! A Chess game can also test your design skills such as Are you implementing duplicate behavior or are you using the concept of inheritance, etc? Related Articles:

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Data Structures project in C++11 language, uses custom Vector & String structures with Move Semantics (Rule of Five)

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List of all projects

In order to ensure that it is more difficult for students to be tempted by cheating, each of the projects has numerous possible projects associated with it. These projects should change from term to term.

For access, please contact the author at [email protected] .

1. Linked-list−based data structures

Project 1 will always be comprised of a linked-list projects:

Each class above requires one of the following two node classes:

2. Array-based data structures

Project 2 will always be comprised two projects. One will be a statically sized array-based container, while the other will be dynamic. In general, one should be stack-based, and the other either queue or deque based.

The static memory projects are:

The dynamic memory projects are:

The linked-memory projects are:

Students will be allowed to use the STL std::list class for the linked-memory projects.

2.1 Definitions

3. tree-based data structures.

Project 3 will always be comprised one project related to node-based trees.

4. Hash-table data structure

Project 4 will usually be comprised of a hash table. Previously it has also possibly been a heap-based structure, but it is more useful to have a hash table structure.

5. Grpah data structures and algorithms

Project 5 is always graph based.


Website maintained by Douglas Wilhelm Harder

data structures simple projects

Mini project Data structure using Stack

Here is list of Top 10 Mini project Data structure using Stack. Students can refer and try to implement these projects.

The programming language C/C++ projects are listed here and have lots of practical application information. It offers both short, simple & complicated projects. You may enjoy the use of any one project on your computer and download it at no cost to you. This page has included each and every mini-project we made for C and game design and application development. And. Script C++. It contains functions, arrays, point objects, file handling, data structures , etc. And also learn how to create Data Structures and Algorithms Projects in C++ .

10 Mini project Data structure using Stack

Research project on k-d trees

Fast data structures in non-C systems languages

Search engine for data structures, phone directory application using doubly-linked lists.

Stack-based text editor

Data structure and algorithms c++, data structure basics, which real-life applications or projects are based on data structures.

What is the meaning of data structures?

A Data structure is an arrangement of data in a computer’s memory or disk. Data structures include Arrays, Stacks , Queues, linked lists, binary trees, and hash tables, and etc.

More C and C++ Projects

Some advanced projects in c and c++.

Types of Linked List are:

Spatial indexing with quadtrees:

A spatial index is a data structure that allows for accessing a spatial object efficiently. It is a common technique used by spatial databases. Without indexing, any search for a feature would require a “sequential scan” of every record in the database, resulting in much longer processing time.

Programmers usually build programs quickly using high-level languages like Ruby or Python but implement data structures in C/C++. And they create a binding code to connect the elements.

Heap insertion Time

The number of operations required depends only on the number of levels the new element must rise to satisfy the heap property. Thus, the insertion operation has a worst-case time complexity of O(log n). For a random heap, and for repeated insertions, the insertion operation has an average-case complexity of O(1).

Related Articles:

Data Structures and Algorithms Tutorial

Web References:

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data structures simple projects

One of its kind, our newly launched course on Data Structures Projects is a must do offering. Designed for school and college students, this course will help to ignite the interest of students towards solving some real life problems. The course starts with basics of Javascript, diving quickly to problem solving by building 6 real projects that include games, puzzles & web-apps. The course will give you an opportunity to apply your algorithmic skills such as backtracking, graph algorithms, dynamic programming, OOPs concepts to build some interesting projects which you can also showcase in your resume.

Pre-requisites - The course is for any one who has basic understanding of a programming language and data structures, and is ready to learn a new language and build some projects.

Course Content

Take free trial, choose batch.

data structures simple projects

Currently doing his Masters in Machine Learning from IIT Delhi, Prateek is an ace programmer who has worked with SanDisk and HackerEarth in the past. He has also won prestigious hackathons including Google’s Code For India and Smart City Hackathon. A Computer Science Graduate from DTU, he is highly popular among students for his teaching methods. His interactive CV ( www.prateeknarang.com ) is also well known in 120+ countries.

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Anshul Mittal


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