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Deforestation Research Paper

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Deforestation , Forest , World , Products , Meat , Brazil , The World , Business

Words: 1100

Published: 01/07/2021


Forests are collection of trees and other plants in some areas. They may range from populated wilderness to urban forests. They may also range from tropical rain forests to vast boreal forests. Approximately, 31% of land of the world is filled with forests. Forests have many benefits such as sequestering atmospheric carbon (Hollar 67), containing nearly 90% of the Earth’s biodiversity, providing home for wildlife, regulating water cycle, and providing many recreational and spiritual opportunities. Presently, five countries with most forest areas are Russia, Brazil, China, Canada, and the U.S. (Bengston and Michael 35). On the other hand, deforestation is the process of removal of trees. It has been reported that 1.8 million square kilometers of forest in the world is converted into non-forest land between the year 2000 and 2012. South America, Africa, and Oceania are facing the largest loss of forest, whereas Europe and North America are facing modest or little change in the areas of forest. Asia is showing positive change in forest-covered areas (Bengston and Michael 35). Many countries are working to reduce the issue of deforestation. Brazil was one of those countries, which have controlled deforestation. It has been reported that Brazil was able to reduce deforestation rate by more than three-quarters. Greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil had also been reduced by 39% between the year 2005 and 2010. However, after 2013 deforestation rate doubled. An important cause of deforestation is to develop cattle pasture. It has been estimated that about 78% of logging between 2011 and 2012 in Para state, which is Brazil’s largest timber producer, was illegal (Schiffman 46). It has been estimated that at the current rate of deforestation rain forests of the world would completely vanish in a century.

Reasons of Deforestation

Deforestation can occur due to many reasons ranging from natural to man-made such as earning money and supporting families. However, one of the biggest causes of deforestation is agriculture. Farmers use the land to plant crops after deforestation (Hollar 58). Farmers also cut down trees and burn them in a process referred to as “slash and burn” agriculture (Babin, Unesco, and CIRAD 454). People are also using the land for grazing after deforestation (Hollar 58). It has been reported that tropical forests are facing an alarming rate of deforestation in order to meet the demands of vegetable oil, meat, and wood products. Vegetable oil such as palm oil is now used not only in cooking but also in many other products such as shampoo and cleaning products (Roquemore 10). In case of meat, a lot of land is required and cleared for meat production, especially beef (Roquemore 11). Provision of wood and paper products also need annual cutting of countless trees. These are known as logging operations. Loggers also build roads by cutting down forests, thereby resulting in more deforestation. Deforestation is also caused by natural factors such as wildfires as well as overgrazing of animals, thereby preventing the growth of younger trees (Hollar 58).

Harmful Effects of Deforestation

Deforestation is causing a huge loss of beneficial aspects provided by nature. It can affect atmosphere resulting in increased pollution. It can also disturb water cycle. Deforestation results in loss of habitat of a huge number of species. It has been estimated that nearly 70% of animals and plants on land live in forests and they are unable to survive as a result of deforestation. It has to be considered that the current rate of extinction of animals is nearly thousand times more than the natural rate of extinction that is clearly showing human beings’ responsibility (Babin, Unesco, and CIRAD 62). Deforestation is causing about 15% of global warming pollution. Moreover, this deforestation is also harming biodiversity while hurting the livelihoods of millions of people (Roquemore 10). Regarding meat, it has been estimated that cattle that are reared for their meat require nearly 60% of agricultural land of the world but produce less than 5% of the world’s protein and provide less than 2% of calories, therefore it can be said that beef is ecologically less productive (Roquemore 11) as compared to forests. Still meat production is one of the most important causes of deforestation. According to a U.N. study, burning forests is the second biggest cause of greenhouse gases after fossil fuel combustion. It accounts for about 30% of carbon dioxide production (Schiffman 46). It has also been reported that nearly 17% of carbon-dioxide emissions in the world are caused by tropical deforestation and degradation of forests, which is more than transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions (Bengston and Michael 35).

Concluding Remarks and Forest-Friendly Strategies

Deforestation is one of the most important issues in the present world. It can result in a number of harmful effects. So, it is important to control deforestation with the help of governments, organizations, and consumers as deforestation is the result of political, ecological, economic, technological, and social processes and everyone has to work hard to control this problem. Governments can make forest-friendly policies to reduce the process of deforestation. These policies may include strong agricultural policies to discourage any kind of development in forests or near forests. Organizations can help in reducing deforestation by following governmental policies. Consumers can help in reducing the process of deforestation by reducing the demand for vegetable oil-, beef-, and wood-made products as, for example, increasing the use of chicken as compared to beef can help in reducing deforestation as it requires 3-5 times less land as compared to beef. Moreover, use of recyclable papers can also help in reducing deforestation. Consumers can also help organizations, which are involved in the production of forest-friendly products. They can also help in controlling illegal cutting of trees.

Works Cited

Babin, D., Unesco, and CIRAD. Beyond Tropical Deforestation: From Tropical Deforestation to Forest Cover Dynamics and Forest Development. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2004. Print. Bengston, David, and Michael J. Dockry. "Forest Futures in the Anthropocene: Can Trees and Humans Survive Together?" The Futurist 2014: 34-39. Print. Hollar, S. Poisoning Planet Earth: Pollution and Other Environmental Hazards. Britannica Educational Pub. association with Rosen Educational Services, 2011. Print. Roquemore, Sarah. "Like Deforestation with Your Meal?" Union of Concerned Scientists 2012: 10-12. Print. Schiffman, Richard. "Brazil’s Deforestation Rates Are on the Rise Again." Newsweek 2015: 46-49. Print.

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Deforestation Research Paper

deforestation research paper conclusion

View sample deforestation research paper. Browse other  research paper examples and check the list of history research paper topics for more inspiration. If you need a history research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. This is how your paper can get an A! Feel free to contact our custom writing service for professional assistance. We offer high-quality assignments for reasonable rates.

Humans have been felling, using, and burning trees for about half a million years, and the forests have receded as human populations have grown and spread. The clearing of woodlands for agriculture has been the leading cause of deforestation, but the harvesting of timber as a raw material and fuel has also played a significant role.

The word deforestation is a wide-ranging term to cover the cutting, use, and elimination of trees. Subsumed under it are other activities like fire, domestic heating and cooking, smelting metals, making ceramics, construction of shelter and implements, and the creation of new land for cultivation and grazing. Deforestation is so basic that it is woven into the very fabric of human existence, and hence of world history. Ever since the emergence of Homo erectus some 500,000 years ago the quest to provide shelter, food, and warmth has resulted in the use and abuse of the Earth’s mantle of forests.

There is much uncertainty about the pace and locale of deforestation during past (and even present) ages. This revolves around the multiple meanings given to three basic questions. What exactly is a forest? What was the extent and density of trees at any past given time? And what constitutes “deforestation”? Pragmatically one may say that a forest can range from a closed-canopy tree cover to a more open woodland, which affects density. Deforestation is used loosely to mean any process that modifies the original tree cover, from clear-felling to thinning to occasional fire. It should not be forgotten, however, that forests regrow, often with surprising speed and vigor, and forest regrowth has occurred whenever pressures on it have been relaxed. This was observed after the Mayan population collapse around 800 CE, after the Great Plague in Europe after 1348, after the initial European encounter with the Americas in 1492, and with agricultural land abandonment in the post-1910 eastern United States and in post-1980 Europe.

Premodern Age (to 1500 CE)

Because crop domestication and the increase and spread of people occurred in largely forested environments, ancient societies everywhere had a cumulatively severe impact on forests. In Europe, Mesolithic cultures (c. 9000–5000 BCE) set fire to the woodland edges to facilitate hunting. The succeeding Neolithic agriculturalists (c. 4500–2000 BCE) had a far greater impact as they felled forests on the fertile loessial soils with stone-and-flint axes to engage in intensive garden cultivation and extensive wheat growing. In order to vary diet, they also ran large herds of pigs, sheep, and especially cattle in woodland and cleared pastures for their meat, milk, blood, and possibly cheese. It was a stable, sedentary society that made full use of the many products of the forest, one calculation being that on average it required 20 hectares of forest land to sustain one person in fuel, grazing, constructional timber, and food.

In Asia, complex and highly organized societies flourished in the forests of the southern and southeastern parts of the continent. Rotational cutting and cultivation followed by abandonment (swiddening) in forests was accompanied by an intensive garden culture for fruit, spices, and vegetables, and the peculiar and highly innovative development of wet rice cultivation (rice paddies), a technique that stopped erosion and leaching of the soil in the cleared forest in heavy-rainfall areas. Stock, particularly cattle and pigs, were integral to all parts of the economy.

The evidence for similar processes is unfolding for the Americas. Earliest were the swiddens in the equatorial upland rain-forest areas from as early as 12,000 BCE. From the tropical Gulf of Mexico lowland civilizations of the Olmec and Maya to the less organized tribal groups of the Amazon basin, rain forest was being chopped, burnt, and changed or eliminated. Large patches of the Amazon forest were altered irrevocably by the selection and propagation of useful trees and by different cycles of cultivation, so that the mighty rain forest may be one large cultural artifact. In North America, the earliest foodgrowing settlements (c. 10,000 BCE) were in the rich bottomlands of the continent’s rivers in the South and the Southeast. Similar to the practice of the European Neolithics, flood plains and lower river terraces were cleared, and lower slopes altered as intensive cropping expanded, but unlike the Neolithics, hunting loomed much larger in the economy. The vast eastern temperate woodlands were settled later (after c. 800 CE) but the same imprints are evident, resulting in a mosaic of intensively cultivated cleared lands, abandoned fields with early forest succession, and thinned and altered forests. The great difference between the Americas and Eurasia was the absence of grazing animals in the Americas, which had an effect on the Eurasian forests by preventing regrowth and making clearing/firing worthwhile to promote pasture.

Knowledge about deforestation in Africa is sparse, and with the exception of settlement in savanna-woodland and adjacent belts in west Africa, it may not have been very extensive.

The conclusion is that the impact of early humans on the forest was far greater than expected; it may have been one of the major deforestation episodes in history, which left anything but the pristine forest that is such a feature of the romantic imagination of the past and the environmental rhetoric of the present.

The classical world of the Mediterranean basin provides, for the first time, rich literary detail of wood consumption for shipbuilding, urban heating and construction, and metal smelting, but it is tantalizingly silent about clearing for agriculture (always the greatest cause of deforestation) that must have gone on everywhere. This was to be a common story in later ages too. The chopping down of trees as a prelude to farming and providing food was so commonplace that it simply did not warrant a mention, but settlement patterns and crop figures show how extensive it must have been.

The Middle Ages in western and central Europe were entirely different. Here an energetic, inventive, and rapidly expanding population left ample records of forest clearing through charters, rent rolls, court cases, field patterns, and place names. Clearing was motivated by a strong religious belief that humans were helping to complete the creation of a divine, designed Earth and a desire by lay and ecclesiastical lords to expand rental revenues by encouraging settlement on the forest frontier. Also, individuals wanted to achieve social freedom, property, and emancipation by breaking free of the rigid feudal ties.

Undoubtedly three technical innovations helped raise agricultural production. First, the dominant system of two fields with one fallow was replaced by a three-field system, thus a shortening of the fallow period. This was possible because new crops like oats and legumes helped to fertilize the soil and supplemented animal and human nutrition. Second, the development of the wheeled plow with coulter and moldboard allowed cultivation to move from the light soils onto the heavy moist soils that were usually forested. Third, plowing efficiency was improved by the invention of the rigid horse collar and nailed horseshoes, increasing speed and pulling power, thus favoring the horse over the ox. A major underlying driving force was a sixfold increase of population between 650 and 1350 and the need for more food to avert famine.

Cultivation rose from about 5 percent of land use in the sixth century CE to 30–40 percent by the late Middle Ages. The forests of France were reduced from 30 million hectares to 13 million hectares between around 800 and 1300 CE. In Germany and central Europe, perhaps 70 percent of the land was forest covered in 900 CE, but only about 25 percent remained by 1900.

The various elements interlocked to produce what Lynn White, historian of medieval technology, called “the agricultural revolution of the Middle Ages” (1962, 6), which asserted the dominance of humans over nature. It also shifted the focus of Europe from south to north, from the restricted lowlands around the Mediterranean to the great forested plains drained by the Loire, Seine, Rhine, Elbe, Danube, and Thames. Here the distinctive features of the medieval world developed—a buildup of technological competence, self-confidence, and accelerated change—which after 1500 enabled Europe to invade and colonize the rest of the world. In that long process of global expansion the forest and the wealth released from it played a central part.

Massive deforestation must also have happened in China, but the detail is murky. The population rose from about 65–80 million in 1400 CE to 270 million in 1770, and land in agriculture quadrupled. Large swaths of the forested lands in the central and southern provinces were certainly engulfed by an enormous migration of peoples from the north.

Modern World (1500–c. 1900)

During the roughly four hundred years from 1492 to about 1900, Europe burst out of its continental confines with far-reaching consequences for the global forests. Its capitalistic economy commoditized nearly all it found, creating wealth out of nature, whether it be land, trees, animals, plants, or people. Enormous strains were put on the global forest resource by a steadily increasing population (c. 400 million in 1500 to 1.65 billion in 1900) and also by rising demands for raw materials and food with urbanization and industrialization, first in Europe and, after the mid-nineteenth century, in the United States. In the mainly temperate neo-European areas, settler societies were planted and created. Permanent settlement began in earnest by the 1650s after the near elimination of the indigenes by virulent Old World pathogens, like smallpox, measles, and influenza. The imported Old World crops and stock flourished wonderfully. The dominant ethos of freehold tenure, dispersed settlement, “improvement,” and personal and political freedom led to a rapid and successful expansion of settlement, although much environmentally destructive exploitation also occurred. Tree growth was considered a good indicator of soil fertility in all pioneer societies, and the bigger the trees the quicker they were felled to make way for farms. The United States was the classic example. The pioneer farmer, through “sweat, skill and strength,” (Ellis 1946, 73) was seen as the heroic subduer of a sullen and untamed wilderness. Clearing was widespread, universal, and an integral part of rural life; about 460,300 square kilometers of dense forest were felled by about 1850 and a further 770,900 square kilometers by 1910. “Such are the means,” marveled the French traveler, the Marquis de Chastellux in 1789,

by which North-America, which one hundred years ago was nothing but a vast forest, is peopled with three million of inhabitants. . . . Four years ago, one might have travelled ten miles in the woods . . . without seeing a single habitation. (Chastellux 1789, 29)

It was one of the biggest deforestation episodes ever. A similar process of the pioneer hacking out a life for himself and family in the forest occurred in Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, and Australia. In Australia, for example, nearly 400,000 square kilometers of the southeastern forests and sparse woodland were cleared by the early twentieth century.

In the subtropical and tropical forests, European systems of exploitation led to the harvesting of indigenous tree crops (e.g., rubber, hardwoods), and in time to the systematic replacement of the original forest by “plantation” crops grown by slave or indentured labor. Classic examples of this were the highly profitable crops of sugar in the West Indies, coffee and sugar in the subtropical coastal forests of Brazil, cotton and tobacco in the southern United States, tea in Sri Lanka and India, and later rubber in Malaysia and Indonesia. In eastern Brazil, over half of the original 780,000 square kilometers of the huge subtropical forest that ran down the eastern portions of the country had disappeared by 1950 through agricultural exploitation and mining. In the state of Sao Paulo alone, the original 204,500 square kilometers of forest were reduced to 45,500 square kilometers by 1952.

Peasant proprietors were not immune to the pressures of the global commercial market. Outstanding was the expansion of peasant cultivation in lower Burma (encouraged by British administrators) between 1850 and 1950, which resulted in the destruction of about 35,000 square kilometers of imposing equatorial (kanazo) rain forests and their replacement by rice. Throughout the Indian subcontinent the early network of railways meant an expansion of all types of crops by small-scale farmers, often for cash, that led to forest clearing everywhere.

Uncolonized Asian societies exploited their forests just as vigorously, commercially, and uncaringly as did their European counterparts. There is evidence from, for example, southwestern India and Hunan Province in south-central China from the sixteenth century onward to show that the commercialization of the forest was well established. In the former, permanent indigenous agricultural settlements existed side by side with shifting cultivation, and village councils regulated forest exploitation by agriculturalists. The forest was not regarded as a community resource; larger landowners dominated forest use locally. Scarce commodities such as sandalwood, ebony, cinnamon, and pepper were under state and/ or royal control. In Hunan, a highly centralized administration encouraged land clearance in order to enhance local state revenues so as to increase the tax base and support a bigger bureaucracy and militia. State encouragement was also given to migrations into the forested hill country of south China later on. Simply, forests everywhere were being exploited and were diminishing in size as a response to increasing population numbers and increasing complexity of society. In the subtropical world, change was just slower than that unleashed by the Europeans with their new aims, technologies, and intercontinental trade links, but no less severe. Measures of destruction are hard to come by, but between 1860 and 1950 in South and Southeast Asia, 216,000 square kilometers of forest and 62,000 square kilometers of interrupted or open forest were destroyed for cropland.

During these centuries deforestation was also well underway in Europe itself, which was being colonized internally. This was particularly true in the mixedforest zone of central European Russia, where over 67,000 square kilometers were cleared between around 1700 and 1914.

The insatiable demand in all societies for new land to grow crops and settle agriculturalists has been matched by a rising demand for the products of the forest themselves. For example, the European quest for strategic naval stores (masts, pitch, tar, turpentine) and ships’ timbers made major inroads into the forests of the Baltic littoral from the fifteenth century onward and those of the southern United States after about 1700. Alternative construction timbers like teak and mahogany were utilized from the tropical hardwood forests since the beginning of the eighteenth century.

The Last Hundred Years

The pace of transformation increased during the first half of the twentieth century. In the Western world demands for timber accelerated. New uses (pulp, paper, packaging, plywood, chipboard) and relatively little substitution of other materials boosted use, while traditional uses in energy production, construction, and industry continued to loom large. The indispensable and crucial nature of timber in many Western economies gave it a strategic value akin to that of petroleum in economies today. In the tropical world the massive expansion of population by more than half a billion on a base of 1.1 billion resulted in extensive clearing for subsistence, accompanied by an expansion of commercial plantation agriculture. In all perhaps 2.35 million square kilometers of tropical forest were lost between 1920 and 1949. The only encouraging feature in the global picture during these years was the reversion of farmland to forest. This had begun in the eastern United States with the abandonment of “difficult” and hard-to-farm lands in New England in favor of easier-to-farm open grasslands, and continued with the abandonment of some cotton and tobacco growing lands in the southern States. A similar story unfolded in northern Europe with “marginal” farms.

The most publicized deforestation—the deforestation everyone thinks of when the word is mentioned— occurred after 1950. Since then the temperate coniferous softwood forests have about kept up with the demands of industrial societies for supplies of timber and pulp. But the focus of deforestation has shifted firmly to the tropical world. Here, better health and nutrition have resulted in a population explosion and an additional 3.5–4.0 billion people. These are often landless people who have moved deeper into the remaining forests and farther up steep forested slopes. They have no stake in the land and therefore little commitment to sustainable management. In addition chain saws and trucks have moved felling from the province of the large firm to the enterprising individual. Since 1950 about 7.5 million square kilometers of tropical forests have disappeared, Central and Latin America being classic examples. In addition, the tropical hardwood forests are being logged out for constructional timber at a great rate, while wood is cut for domestic fuel in prodigious quantities in Africa, India, and Latin America. Globally, fuel wood–cutting now roughly equals saw timber extraction—about 1.8 billion cubic meters annually compared to 1.9 billion cubic meters. Cutting wood for fuel is forecast to rise rapidly in line with world population increases.

The long and complex chronicle of deforestation is a significant portion of world history. It is one of the main causes of terrestrial transformation, whereby humankind has modified the world’s surface, a process that is now reaching critical proportions. One thing is certain: with an ever-increasing world population (another 2–3 billion by 2020), many will want to exploit resources and the process of deforestation will not end. Others will want to restrict forest use and preserve it. The tensions between exploitation and preservation will be intense.



deforestation research paper conclusion

Good Research Paper On Deforestation

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Deforestation , Forest , Environment , World , Soil , Environmental Issues , Climate , Ecology

Words: 1925

Published: 2020/10/06

Environmental Law

Introduction Deforestation is a revolution of forestland in a range of land uses. The approximate figures for deforestation revealed that there had been substantial worldwide deforestation that occurred in the years 1990-2010. According to National Geographic website, deforestation refers to the clearing of the forests on a substantial scale that may result in the destruction of the quality of the land area in a territory. The forests encompass at least thirty (30) percent of the land area across of the globe. Studies had shown that the size of Panama is being dissipated each year. Thus, it is forecasted that the rain forests on earth may totally disappear in the next one hundred years if the present rate of deforestation continues. The main reason why the forests are being torn down is because of money and to finds lucrative means to support their families. Deforestation is strongly connected to agriculture as the farmers cut tress to give additional space to plant crops or to graze livestock. Majority of small-time farmers clear acres of land in order to feed their families as they cut down the trees and burn them. This is called the “slash and burn” process in agriculture. According to Culas, tropical deforestation is one of the most severe environmental problems that we face today. It has become one of the biggest problems in the world since deforestation is associated with biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation. Despite the damaging effects of deforestation on the present ecological condition of tropical streams, it is unfortunate that there had been hardly investigations conducted to resolve the problem. In addition, amidst the glaring evidence of the negative losses that that had affected these streams, the deforestation issue continues to persist. It is a global concern since tropical forests is of high importance in biodiversity conservation and minimizing the greenhouse effects. Thesis Statement: Deforestation is a critical threat for the world’s ecosystem which can affect the future of all mankind which can be prevented by creation of stronger policies to protect the forest areas.

The latest trends in deforestation show that it had occurred in the temperate and sub-tropical areas in 19th and 20th centuries and has not been felt in the developed temperate countries. Majority of the temperate countries have started to recover their forest areas. Although tropical deforestation has been considered as a modern event in the world during 1990-2010, it has gained its momentum in the tropical regions in the globe. Even though not all deforestation has been intentional, may believe that the destruction of forests may be a result of a combination of both natural and human factors. Some of the human factors include wildfires and overgrazing to stop the growth of new trees. In fact, deforestation carries various negative effects on the environment such as the loss of habitat for several rare species. At least 70 percent of the parcels of land, plants and animals living in the forests die of deforestation since such act caused the destruction of homes. However, many of these ecosystems provide essential environmental services for human benefit such as biodiversity conservation, carbon storage and water supply. The degradation of forests has occurred through logging, forest fires and other effects that are related to forest fragmentation. Forest degradation has the tendency to affect deforestation which had been exacerbated by climate change and ocean temperatures. Other negative effects of deforestation may result to frequent droughts and longer dry seasons, which had been the shown by the forest conversion which had taken place for the past four decades. To be able to understand deforestation, forest fragmentation and biomass collapse, it is important to study the land-use interactions and socio-environmental impacts.

Effects of Deforestation

The negative effects of deforestation can be a result of the combination of human and natural factors including wildfires and overgrazing that hinders the growth of new trees. Another detrimental effect of deforestation on the environment is a loss of habitat for several species on Earth such as plants and animals that live in forests. Its effect on soil erosion can result to the loss of nutrients in plants by exposing them to the heat of the sun. Since the soil moisture is exposed to heat, it dries up and the so the nutrients evaporate. The rain washes also flushes down the soil surfaces leading to erosion. Deforestation has also affected majority of the farmers due to the clearing forests for agriculture deteriorates as the areas are cleared. When this event occurs happens, the ecosystem services provided by the forests will be reduced which include the quality of water and soil nutrients which may result to a reduced crop yield.. The intensity of deforestation at the local level has the tendency to affect not only the water quality, water flow downstream, but also the biodiversity and nature tourism of the identified forestlands. Deforestation can lead to flash floods and the change of ownership from the state to people who reclaimed their property. Biodiversity loss is caused by habitat fragmentation and deforestation. Biodiversity is the main cause of loss of original habitat, diminution of the remaining area, augmented isolation of the remnants, and the augmented remnant area under edge effects. Butt argued that activities such as illegal and intensive cuttings for high market value such as timber, and other household uses like fuel wood, forest disease and ineffective forest management among others have accelerated the deforestation rate in the watershed area. Aside from this, the water holding capacity of the soil is reduced, thus resulting to erosion, destruction of aquatic habitat and a decline of the water quality. Furthermore, the elimination of a forest cover from steep slopes has drastically accelerated the frequency of landslides and surface runoffs. The best approach to quantify the climatological effects of deforestation is through the implementation of ideal scenarios, wherein the land forest area is removed and replaced by a single land cover type such as bare soil or grass. The early global climate model (GCM) studies on tropical deforestation had been mainly focused on Amazon deforestation. The rate of deforestation at the local level carries detrimental effects within the national level through soil erosion, siltation, and nutrient runoff, which is a result of a river system or sea, and has the tendency to injure the ecology and the fishery. Other effect of deforestation is that it can drive climate change. The soil can quickly dry out since most of the forest soils are moist, and without any protection from the trees to serve as sun block coverage. The logging operations of some companies serve as the source of wood and paper products in various parts of the world which had caused the cutting-down of several trees every year.

Environmental Laws and Policies

In 1985, the Tropical Forestry Action Plan (TFAP) was created in order to address the weak forest governance and limited institutional capacity in tropical forest countries. However, it failed to appreciate the complex drivers of deforestation. As a result, the creation of national planning exercises severely discounted the rights and livelihoods of forest-dependent peoples, and accelerated deforestation in other countries by opening up new areas to logging. Since the Kyoto Protocol in 2000, there were frustrations that attended the Kyoto approach that had given way to favor deforestation and other forest related activities. This prompted the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP) meeting in Montreal in 2005 wherein a group of nine nations led by Papua New Guinea and Costa Rica, created the Coalition for Rainforest Nations (CfRN) to formal propose the concept of “Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries” or (REDD). Such proposal was intended to call upon the parties to the UNFCCC to acknowledge the problem on deforestation within developing nations as well as the resulting carbon emissions. The emergence of REDD in 2005 became the initial tangible effort to review the terrestrial carbon cycle, tropical deforestation, into a global environmental governance regime.

There should be policies enacted which should be aimed to reduce the emissions from deforestation can provide a way for tackling global warming and climate change. Such policies should be enacted for the purpose of striking a balance between the protection of human environment and the economical growth. These policies and regulations can effectively solve the problem on deforestation. Akkermans, et al. argued that the response of surface climate to deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions should be carefully studied for the purpose of enhancing realism compared to preceding impact studies. Trees should also be planted in order to aid in promoting the water cycle of returning water vapor to the atmosphere. The role of the trees is to cover the forest soil and without which, these forest lands can easily become barren deserts for lack of protection from the sun. Another purpose of the trees is to absorb the greenhouse gases which can cause global warming. When the world has reduced forest lands, it can result to substantial amounts of greenhouse gases that can enter the atmosphere. Thus, the end result is a more severe case of global warming. The best and fastest solution to deforestation is to prevent the cutting of trees. Another practical solution is to handle the forest resources is by ensuring that the forest environments shall remain intact. As the trees are being cut down, it must be balanced by the planting of new trees that will substitute the older trees inside forests. Hence, it best to monitor the planting of a significant number of new trees to protect our forests. Other possible solution to prevent deforestation is by forest regrowth. It has been referred to as an intermediate vegetation stage that carries mixed characteristics of the preceding and following fallow stages such as grass and young secondary forest. Thus, it is recommended to make that the proportion is equally split and allocated to the two vegetation types. Another recommendation is the creation of specific project activities which aim to lessen the deforestation and the reinforcement of forest land-tenure and formulation of land-use plans of countries in different parts of the world. Another solution is the implementation of site-based activities including community-based forest protection, use of fuel-efficient stoves, agricultural intensification, and development of non-timber forest products.

Deforestation is a critical threat for the world’s ecosystem which can affect the future of all mankind. Aside from the negative effects of deforestation brought about by the combination of human and natural factors such as wildfires and overgrazing, it hinders the progress of human life. It also causes the loss of habitat for several species on Earth such as plants, trees and animals. Deforestation also causes soil erosion and the loss of nutrients in plants by exposing them to the heat of the sun. When soil moisture is exposed to heat, the nutrients in plants evaporate and the rain washes also leads to erosion. Deforestation affects the livelihood of the farmers due to the clearing forests. Thus, agriculture deteriorates as the areas are cleared.


Adhikari, B., Di Falco, S., & Lovett, J. C., 2004. Household characteristics and forest dependency: Evidence from common property forest management in Nepal. Ecological Economics, 48(2), 245-257. Agarwal, B., 2001. Participatory exclusions, community forestry, and gender: An analysis for South Asia and a conceptual framework. World Development, 29(10), 1623-1648. Akkermans, T., Thiery, W., & Van Lipzig, N., 2014. The Regional Climate Impact of a Realistic Future Deforestation Scenario in the Congo Basin. Journal of Climate, 27(7), 2714-2734. Bieber, A., Silva, P., Sendoya, S., & Oliveira, P., 2014. Assessing the Impact of Deforestation of the Atlantic Rainforest on Ant-Fruit Interactions: A Field Experiment Using Synthetic Fruits' Plos ONE, 9(2), 1-9. Boyd, W., 2010. Ways of Seeing in Environmental Law: How Deforestation Became an Object of Climate Governance. Ecology Law Quarterly, 37(3) 843-916. Butt, A., 2015. Hazards to environmental health of Rawal watershed due to rapid urbanization & deforestation. Middle East Journal of Business, 10(1), 57-59. Cacho, O., Milne, S., Gonzalez, R., & Tacconi, L., 2014. Benefits and costs of deforestation by smallholders: Implications for forest conservation and climate policy, Ecological Economics, 107, 321-332. Culas, R.J., 2014 Causes of Deforestation and Policies for Reduced Emissions (REDD+): A Cross-Country Analysis. IUP Journal of Applied Economics, 13, 4, 7-27. Durieux, L., L. A. T. Machado, & H. Laurent, 2003. The impact of deforestation on cloud cover over the Amazon arc of deforestation. Remote Sens. Environ., 86, 132–140. Hahn, M, Gangnon, R, Barcellos, C, Asner, G, & Patz, J. 2014. Influence of Deforestation, Logging, and Fire on Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon, Plos ONE, 9(1), 1-8.  Iñiguez–Armijos, C, Leiva, A, Frede, H, Hampel, H, & Breuer, L. 2014. Deforestation and Benthic Indicators: How Much Vegetation Cover Is Needed to Sustain Healthy Andean Streams? Plos ONE, 9(8), 1-10. Medvigy, D, Walko, R, Otte, M, & Avissar, R., 2013. Simulated Changes in Northwest U.S. Climate in Response to Amazon Deforestation. Journal of Climate, 26(22), 9115-9136. National Geographic, 2015. Deforestation. Web. [online]. Retrieved on January 17, 2015, from < http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation-overview/>. Pasgaard, M., & Chea, L. 2013. Double Inequity? The Social Dimensions of Deforestation and Forest Protection in Local Communities in Northern Cambodia, Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies 6(2), 330-355. Petrisor, A. 2015. Using Corine Data to Look at Deforestation in Romania: Distribution & Possible Consequences, Urbanism. Architecture. Construction 6 (1),83-90. Souza, J., Siqueira, J., Sales, M., Fonseca, A., Ribeiro, J., Numata, I., Cochrane, M., Barber, C., Roberts, D., & Barlow, J., 2013. Ten-Year Landsat Classification of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in the Brazilian Amazon, Remote Sensing, 5(11), 5493-5513.

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Critical Analysis, Research Paper Deforestation essay

Forests are a vital component of the ecosystem, and they are also at a huge risk due to the heightened levels of deforestation that is part in many places all over the world. Deforestation is a crisis which requires immediate attention so that its consequences cannot reach levels that are unmanageable. They provide shelter to millions of both animals and plants species, and when they are destroyed through deforestation, there is a risk that some of these species may be rendered extinct. In the past, a lot of emphases have been put in the advocacy of protecting forests and vegetation cover, but still, the forest is being destroyed in pursuit of development (Bala, 6553). Crisis discipline as defined by Soule is the ability to responding appropriately to environmental signals relevant to the wellbeing of human civilization and natural biological systems. In simple terms crisis discipline ability to enact the relevant legislation, policies, and regulations which will contain various processes than endanger the environment mostly due to the high pursuit of human civilization. Therefore, crisis discipline is the best way of handling the problem of deforestation. “Crisis discipline” is a key term that illustrates the importance of conservation and protection of natural resources to prevent environmental degradation which in turn leads to climate change; deforestation is a menace that is destroying rainforests, and in this case, palm oil production is discussed in details regarding its promotion of deforestation.

In places such as China, forests are disappearing at a fast rate, and indigenous trees are being replaced by fast-growing eucalyptus plantations. Ancient forests play a vital role and are crucial to biodiversity because they provide habitat to many native species of plants and animals. If preventive measures are not implemented, it can have severe consequences with irreversible effects such as desertification and global warming. Illegal logging is the biggest problem so far and this due to the high demand for pulp, paper, and timber which are necessary to meet many needs of human beings (Gorte, 5). Human civilization has brought a lot of devastation to the environment, and there is a need for regulation of the human activities which pose a danger to our forests. The aspect of crisis discipline is effective in this juncture because it brings sanity between preserving the forest cover and empowering human civilization. In many regions around the world, governments have enacted laws, policies, and regulations to contain this deforestation menace.

According to research deforestation accounts for one-fifth of the entire greenhouse gas emissions. If more logging is done this emission of greenhouse gas will increase and this will escalate the rate of climate change. This means that if the current scenario persists global temperatures will rise and this will, in turn, lead to drought and forest fires. All these consequences are irreversible and pose a big danger to the alienation of many species of plants and animals all over the world. In some countries, such as Thailand and Indonesia deforestation is a major problem since large acres of forest cover are lost annually. This indicates that quick regulations and laws need to be enacted in these areas because rainforests are endangered. For example, palm oil one of the products that is highly demanded as it is used in preparing processed foods (Lawrence, 26). It is a cheap and versatile product, but it has severe environmental consequences. The industry of palm oil is booming, and this has led to cutting down of million acres of rainforest especially in Norway.

Countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia palm oil production are high, and they account for 88% of the global supplies of palm oil. In Norway, palm oil production tripled in the year 2000, and this usage continued to escalate over the years and in the year 2012 a campaign was formed which was addressed as ‘stop eating rainforest’ (Buizer, 8). This campaign was launched to expose the link between palm oil production and deforestation. The nation also set out regulation of production of foodstuffs with palm oil, and now the regulations are that large-scale companies should not use palm oil, and if they have to use it, they must use it in very tiny amounts.

Palm oil production has been on the spotlight for a long period now, and it is also responsible for human rights violations mainly because the companies that produce it have gone to the extent of removing indigenous people and communities from their lands. This presents modern-day slavery especially in countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia. The demand for palm oil is skyrocketing in the whole world and this has led to massive destruction of the rainforests and this crisis has been addressed in many forums and the only solution that has been formulated is to replace the usage of palm oil with the controversial trans fats (Nepstad, 1120). According to research palm oil production is the number one leading cause of forest destruction, and this problem is no longer a local problem it is a global problem which requires joint efforts to control and regulate it. What is happening in many countries is that people are clearing forests to expand plantations and these plantations are pushing deep into the heart of some of the most biologically diverse ecosystems. Also, the clearing of forest to pave the way for plantation is releasing globally significant carbon pollution which has the potential of causing climate change.

To me palm oil production is a disaster in the making, and if it is not prohibited or managed, we will all pay a huge price for it. This is the reason such organizations such as Rainforest Action Network is putting more efforts in ensuring that the major companies responsible for the massive production of palm oil withdraw their products from the shelves. The effects of palm oil productions are severe, and the stakes are high, and thus the crisis requires urgent attention and the government and other agencies responsible for the conservation of rainforests have the mandate to ensure that this crisis of deforestation due to palm oil production is mitigated. The only way of managing this crisis is by adopting stronger responsible palm oil policies which will regulate the biggest snack food producers to use alternative means to produce their products other than palm oil (Nobre, 10760). Many companies so far have adhered to the calls of changing their practices to reach zero deforestation commitment in all industries, and this means the use of alternative methods of production. It is by joint efforts that this problem of excessive deforestation in pursuit of palm oil will be addressed, and the role of everyone to ensure that they play their part in ensuring that biodiversity is maintained and protected.

The conflict of palm oil production has been in the spotlight for a long time, and a lot has been said regarding its destruction of the rainforests and its effects into the environment in the future. Crisis discipline as mentioned in our book, also embraces care discipline (Pezzullo and Cox, 17). This is why I believe the concept of crisis discipline comes in, and entails regulations and policies which stops the exploitation of natural resources such as rainforests for the advancement of the human civilization. Illegal logging and palm oil production go hand in hand as both target rainforests, and they also create massive destruction to the forests. The challenges of implementing these policies and regulations are that companies are not willing to find alternative methods of producing their products.

The fact is that people are using tree products without moderation and this unethical in nature because humans are aware of the consequences of deforestation. People tend to ignore the problem of deforestation because it does not have direct effects on them but the long-term effects are extensive and severe. Crisis discipline has the mandate to ensure that natural resources such as forests are used in moderation in a way that is manageable without degradation of the environment and other future effects such as desertification and climate change. Deforestation is a means by which animals homes are destroyed, but people are busy cheating themselves that they are creating a more diverse world, but this is delusion by itself. For example, people are wasting paper products and what they are failing to understand is that they are wasting forests. In my example, palm oil production may be a booming business, but on the ethical part of it, it can be viewed as destruction of the rainforests which take years to replace. However, reforestation is not the solution to deforestation because before the new forest matures, damage has already taken place, and some of the species has already been lost. Therefore, the only solution to deforestation is by stopping the rampant destruction of the rainforest and put stringent measures that will stop issues such as illegal logging and palm oil production among others.

Deforestation is flourishing due to the economic benefits it brings to the local people, companies and other firms that use rainforest resources to further their businesses. Due to these economic benefits, more people are venturing into illegal logging, palm oil production among others. In fact, a significant number of people depend on rainforest to earn a living. Agriculture and logging are the leading economic activities that promote deforestation, and therefore crisis discipline has the mandate to enact laws, regulations, and policies that govern the manner in which these economic activities. The demand for materials such as timber, palm oil, and pulp is increasing and if these laws and regulations are not implemented the rainforests will get diminished, and this will have severe consequences on the environments.

The demand for wood and palm oil will only escalate in the future because of the growing population in the world. This means more destruction of the rainforest if preventive measures are not put in place in the form of laws, policies, and regulation. Crisis discipline, in this case, is very important as it helps in containing activities which destroy the environment such as deforestation. Food processing companies have been relying on palm oil in their production because of its availability, but on the ethical part, it is not right because of the activity of obtaining palm oil results to the destruction of the environment. I firmly believe the future of our planet is in for a big change because of the process involving deforestation. These changes include; rainforests turning into desert-like regions, and unpredictable and varied temperature and a great amount of greenhouse gases. Also, low biodiversity is likely to occur, and extremely nutrient deficient land is a possible result of deforestation.

To me deforestation is a huge problem that goes under the radar. It causes environmental degradation and climate change, and there is a need to treat it as a crisis and also find several ways of managing it. Crisis discipline is the best way of handling this problem as it involves the ability to respond to environmental signals which are relevant to the civilization of humans and natural biological systems. There are many reasons why people cut down trees and the main reasons for commercial purposes because a significant number of people depend on forests for their livelihood and survival. One of the biggest contributors of deforestation is palm oil production, and this is due to the high demand for palm oil by food processing companies. Palm oil production has led to massive rainforest destruction, and a lot of enactments have been made to control and reduce its production. Also, movements have been formed to counter the same since the effects are catastrophic. In this case, a lot is in stake because the rate at which forests are being destroyed and exploited is high and climate change such as desertification of places to be rainforests. Also millions of species will go to extinction if crisis disciple in not brought into action to curb this menace that is destroying rainforests.

Alkama, Ramdane, and Alessandro Cescatti. “”Biophysical climate impacts of recent changes in global forest cover.”” Science 351.6273 (2016): 600-604.

Bala, Govindasamy, et al. “”Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects of large-scale deforestation.”” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104.16 (2007): 6550-6555.

Buizer, Marleen, David Humphreys, and Wil de Jong. “”Climate change and deforestation: The evolution of an intersecting policy domain.”” (2014): 1-11.

Gorte, Ross W., and Pervaze A. Sheikh. Deforestation and climate change. Congressional Research Service, 2010.

Lawrence, Deborah, and Karen Vandecar. “”Effects of tropical deforestation on climate and agriculture.”” Nature Climate Change 5.1 (2015): 27.

Malhi, Yadvinder, et al. “”Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon.”” science 319.5860 (2008): 169-172.

Nepstad, Daniel, et al. “”Slowing Amazon deforestation through public policy and interventions in beef and soy supply chains.”” science 344.6188 (2014): 1118-1123.

Nobre, Carlos A., et al. “”Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need for a novel sustainable development paradigm.”” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences113.39 (2016): 10759-10768.

Phaedra C. Pezzullo and Robert Cox, Environmental Communication and the Public Sphere, 5thedition. London: Sage, 2017.

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Essay on Deforestation

List of essay on deforestation in english, essay on deforestation – essay 1 (150 words), essay on deforestation – essay 2 (250 words), essay on deforestation – essay 3 (300 words), essay on deforestation: causes and drawbacks – essay 4 (400 words), essay on deforestation: with causes and solution – essay 5 (500 words), essay on deforestation: introduction, impact, control and conclusion – essay 6 (650 words), essay on deforestation: causes and effects – essay 7 (750 words), essay on deforestation: with solution – essay 8 (1000 words).


Deforestation is the process of clearing trees and forest for other uses. Deforestation usually occurs due to city expansion. As habitats increase in cities, there is a need to create more space the for homes, organizations, and factories. This, however, has a damning effect on our environment.

Effect of Deforestation on the Environment:

Deforestation means fewer trees and more land. This has a serious adverse effect on our environment. On one hand, deforestation makes some animals homeless. Animals that survive in the forest might go extinct with less forest. On the other hand, deforestation is also the biggest cause of climate change around the world.

Preventing Deforestation:

Reducing or preventing deforestation is easier said than done. This is because trees are cut down because there is a pressing need to do so. Thus, to prevent deforestation we must try to reduce that need by making smarter choices in paper usage, city planning, migration, etc.


The essence of plant life in the forest is unquestionable. To ensure a greener environment we must all join the efforts in reducing deforestation.

Deforestation is definitely one of the most troubling of all problems which has plagued our environment. It is important more than ever to take care of the green cover or else it can jeopardize the existence of life on Earth. It is owing to the presence of green trees that we get the oxygen needed to breathe in.

However, because of excessive exploitation by humans, it has been seen that the trees are being cut down mercilessly. This act of cleaning the green cover is known as deforestation.

Educate people:

The best way to handle the problem of deforestation is by making sure that we educate the masses regarding the importance of green cover. When people understand as to how deforestation is leading to grave consequences, they will get the incentive to plant trees rather than uproot them.

Protect the Environment:

As we have continued to exploit the environment in a way that it is hard to get things back to normal, it is now important to immediately start protecting the environment. A lot of natural calamities are occurring these days because the ecosystem balance has been disturbed. Deforestation alone is responsible for a major amount of problems.

So, you need to understand as to how you can come up with ways to excite people about planting more trees and doing their bit for the sake of the environment. Think of your children and grand children. If we continue with our aggressive deforestation campaigns, they are not likely to have a healthy environment for survival. Is that what we really want?

Deforestation can be defined as the removal of trees and clearing of forests for the personal and commercial benefits of human beings. Deforestation has emerged as one of the biggest man-made disasters recently. Every year, more and more trees and vegetation are being erased just to fulfill the various needs of the human race.

Deforestation happens for many reasons. The growing population is one of them. Rising human population needs more area for residential purpose. For this, forests are either burned down or cut to make space for constructing homes and apartments.

Deforestation is also done for commercial purposes. This includes setting up of factories, industries, and towers, etc. The enormous requirements of feeding the human race also create a burden on the land. As a result, clearing land for agricultural purposes leads to deforestation.

Deforestation impacts our earth in several ways. Trees are natural air purifiers. They absorb the carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen into the atmosphere. Deforestation results in uncontrolled air pollution. When there are fewer trees, there is lesser absorption of carbon dioxide and other pollutants.

Deforestation also disturbs the water cycle. Forests absorb the groundwater and release the water vapors to form clouds, which in turn cause rains. Roots of trees hold the soil intact and prevent floods. But when there are no trees, different kinds of natural calamities are bound to happen.

With deforestation, chances of floods, drought, global warming, and disturbed weather cycle all come into the play. Not only that, the disappearance of forests means the extinction of wild animals and plants, which are highly important parts of our ecosystem.

In order to curb these disasters, we must plant more trees. Restoration of existing vegetation is equally essential. Population control is another indirect method to save trees and forest areas.

Deforestation is the process of cutting down of trees and forests completely or partially for different reasons like manufacturing different products with various parts of the tree as raw material, to build structures and other buildings, etc. Deforestation in recent days has become the curse of our world that resulted in the destruction of nature and the environment.

Cause and Drawbacks:

Deforestation is mainly done for making better living assets for humans and this one side thought is the biggest drawback of this issue. Instead of doing only the cutting part humans should practice forestation along with deforestation. Whenever a tree or a forest is cut, another one should be planted at the same place or on other lands to promote the forestation.

Deforestation is the main cause for many natural deficiencies and the destruction of many animal, plant and bird species. If the practice of cutting down trees continues, then eventually even the world may get destructed along with the extinction of the human race.

It’s not like trees shouldn’t be used for any kind of production and urbanization or industrialization shouldn’t be done for the development, but the main factor is to compensate for every minus done. Through this, there will be a balancing between the reduction and plantation which will help, to an extent, in the rectification of problems faced by the world due to deforestation.

Deforestation has also affected the atmospheric air combination. The carbon content in the atmosphere has considerably increased over years due to many human activities like uncontrolled fuel combustion.

Forest has played a massive function of inhaling the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and exhaling oxygen during the daytime while they prepare food for themselves. This process is the reason for maintaining a balanced oxygen and carbon level in the atmosphere and that makes the life of us humans to breathe free.

Population growth is undeniably the major factor behind the increased deforestation level. The increased demand for more assets for better living has increased the need for deforestation as well. In such cases forestation should also be made as a follow-up process.

Controlling the overuse of assets can also help in reducing the deforestation rate. If humans start to use products that use a tree as raw material reasonably then it will help in avoiding deforestation as well. Deforestation not only is a life-threatening scenario for many animals and birds, but also the whole human species.

Deforestation refers to the elimination of plants and trees from a region. Deforestation also includes the clearing of jungles and plants from the region due to the numerous commercial motives.

Different Causes of Deforestation:

The below are the different causes of deforestation:

1. Overgrazing:

Overgrazing in jungles finishes recently renewed development. It makes the soil additional compact and invulnerable. The fertility of the soil also reduces owing to the devastation of organic substance. Overgrazing also results in the desertification and the soil erosion. Deforestation results in decreasing the overall soil’s productivity.

2. Shifting Cultivation:

Numerous agriculturalists destroy the jungle for farming and commercial motives and once productiveness of soil is shattered owing to recurrent harvesting, a fresh forest region is devastated. Hence, farmers must be recommended to utilize a similar area for agriculture and use some upgraded farming techniques and stop the deforestation.

3. Fuel Wood:

The maximum amount of forest is destroyed for the fuel wood. Around 86% of the fuel wood is utilized in rural regions in comparison to the 14% in urban parts and hence lead to more deforestation.

4. Forest Fires:

Recurrent fires in the forest regions are one of the major reasons of deforestation. Few incidents of fires are minor whereas the maximum of them are huge.

The industries related to the plywood and timber is mostly accountable for the deforestation. In fact, the huge demand for wooden things has resulted in the quick reduction of the forest.

6. Industry Establishment:

At times the industrial unit is constructed after deforestation. It means for a small achievement of few people, all other people have to bear a permanent loss. In this procedure, wild animals, valuable plant, and unusual birds get devastated. In fact, it adversely affects the quality of the environment.

7. Violation of Forest:

One more reason of deforestation is a violation by tribal on the land of forest for cultivation and other motives. Even though such type of land has a virtuous support for agriculture creation but still it creates environmental threats.

8. Forest Diseases:

Numerous diseases are instigated by rusts, parasitic fungi, nematodes and viruses that result in demise and deterioration of jungle. Fresh saplings are devastated owing to the occurrence of nematodes. Numerous diseases like blister rust, heart rot, and phloem necrosis, oak will, and Dutch elm, etc. destroy the jungle in large quantities.

9. Landslide:

The landslide lead to the deforestation in the mountains is a question of worry. It happened largely in the regions where growing actions are proceeding for the previous few years. The building of highways and railways mainly in hilly lands as well as the structure of large irrigation plans have resulted in enough deforestation and speeded the natural procedure of denudation.

Worldwide Solution for the Deforestation:

The jungle is an essential natural reserve for any nation and deforestation slow down a nation’s growth. To encounter the necessities of the growing population, simple resources might be attained only with the help of afforestation. It is actually the arrangement of implanting plants for food and food growth. Moreover, the nurseries have a significant part in increasing the coverage of the forest area.

Deforestation is the cutting down of trees. It is basically changing the use of land to a different purpose other than the planting of trees.

There are many reasons which have led to large levels of deforestation all over the world. One of the major causes is ever growing population of the world. With the growth in population, the need for more land to live has been rising. This has further led to cutting down of trees. Also, with modernisation, there has been a substantial increase in the requirement of land for setting up of industries. This has again contributed to deforestation.

Mining is another activity of humans which has led to large-scale deforestation in many areas. The need to build road and rail network in order to increase connectivity to the mines has led to cutting down of trees. This has altered the climatic conditions in these areas.

Deforestation has had a huge impact on the environment. Lack of trees has led to less release of water vapour in the air. This has, in turn, led to the alteration of rainfall patterns in different regions. India is a country which is dependent on monsoon rains for agriculture. Frequent droughts and floods caused due to deforestation have affected the lives of many in different parts of the country.

Moreover, trees absorb the carbon-dioxide from the air and help to purify it. Without trees around us, the presence of harmful gases in the air has been rising. This has also led to global warming which is again a major environmental concern. Also, the ever-rising pollution level, especially in many cities in India is due to vast deforestation only.

Additionally, trees bind the soil around them and prevent soil erosion. Deforestation has led to the soil being washed away with winds and rain, making the land unfit for agriculture. Also, trees and forests are the homes to different species of wildlife. With shrinking forests, several of the wildlife has become extinct as they were not able to cope with the changing conditions. Also, there have been increased man and wildlife conflicts in recent times as the animals are forced to venture in the cities in search of food. All these are severe effects of deforestation and need urgent attention by all.

The Perfect Example:

New Delhi is the capital of India. There was once a time when Delhi was a beautiful city. But with modernisation, increase in population, deforestation and mining in the nearby Aravalli hills, Delhi has been reduced to a gas chamber. Such is the impact the Delhi has become one of the most polluted cities in the world. What better example can be there to understand what deforestation has led us to?

There are many ways in which we can reduce deforestation. We must protect our forests. Moreover, we must mark adequate land for our farming needs. There are some laws already in place which prohibit people from unnecessary felling of trees. What needs to be done is the proper execution of the rules so that everyone abides by it. Also, stricter punishments need to be in place for violators so as to deter other people from disobeying the laws. Alternatively, people need to ensure that for every tree felled, equal numbers of trees are planted so that the balance of nature can be maintained. Summarily, it has to be a collective duty of all and just the governments alone, if we really need to reduce deforestation.

It is true that we all need space to live. With the ever-growing population and urbanisation, there has been more than ever need to cut trees and make space. However, we must realise that it is not possible for us to live without having trees around us. Trees bring so many benefits such as giving us oxygen, utilising the harmful carbon dioxide and so many products we need in our daily lives. Without trees around us, there would be no life on the earth. We should all do the needful to protect trees and reduce deforestation.

Deforestation is also known as clearing or clearance of trees. It can be said to mean removal of strands of trees or forests and the conversion of such area of land to a use that is totally non-forest in nature. Some deforestation examples are the converting of areas of forest to urban, ranches or farms use. The area of land that undergoes the most deforestation is the tropical rainforests. It is important to note that forests cover more than 31 percent in total land area of the surface of the earth.

There are a lot of different reasons why deforestation occurs: some tree are being cut down for building or as fuel (timber or coal), while areas of land are to be used as plantation and also as pasture to feed livestock. When trees are removed with properly replacing them, there can as a result be aridity, loss of biodiversity and even habitat damage. We have also had cases of deforestation used in times of war to starve the enemy.

Causes of Deforestation:

It has been discovered that the major and primary deforestation cause is agriculture. Studies have shown that about 48 percent of all deforestation is as a result of subsistence farming and 32 percent of deforestation is as a result of commercial agriculture. Also, it was discovered that logging accounts for about 14% of the total deforestation and 5% is from the removal for fuel wood.

There has been no form of agreement from experts on if industrial form of logging is a very important contributing factor to deforestation globally. Some experts have argued that the clearing of forests is something poor people do more as a result of them not having other alternatives. Other experts are of the belief that the poor seldom clear forests because they do not have the resources needed to do that. A study has also revealed that increase in population as a result of fertility rates that are very high are not a major driver of deforestation and they only influenced less than 8% of the cases of deforestation.

The Environmental Effects of Deforestation:

Deforestation has a lot of negative effects on our planet and environment.

A few of the areas where it negatively affects our environment are discussed below:

i. Atmospheric Effect:

Global warming has deforestation as one of its major contributing factors and deforestation is also a key cause of greenhouse effect. About 20% of all the emission of greenhouse gases is as a result of tropical deforestation. The land in an area that is deforested heats up quicker and it gets to a temperature that is higher than normal, causing a change in solar energy absorption, flow of water vapours and even wind flows and all of these affects the local climate of the area and also the global climate.

Also, the burning of plants in the forest in order to carry out clearing of land, incineration cause a huge amount of carbon dioxide release which is a major and important contributor to the global warming.

ii. Hydrological Effect:

Various researches have shown that deforestation greatly affects water cycle. Groundwater is extracted by trees through the help of their roots; the water extracted is then released into the surrounding atmosphere. If we remove a part of the forest, there will not be transpiration of water like it should be and this result in the climate being a lot drier. The water content of the soil is heavily reduced by deforestation and also atmospheric moisture as well as groundwater. There is a reduced level of water intake that the trees can extract as a result of the dry soil. Soil cohesion is also reduced by deforestation and this can result in landslides, flooding and erosion.

iii. Effect on Soil:

As a direct result of the plant litter on the surface, there is a minimal and reduced erosion rate in forests largely undisturbed. Deforestation increases the erosion rate as a result of the subsequent decrease in the quantity of cover of litter available. The litter cover actually serves as a protection for the soil from all varieties of surface runoff. When mechanized equipments and machineries are used in forestry operations, there can be a resulting erosion increase as a result of the development of roads in the forests.

iv. Effect on Biodiversity:

There is a biodiversity decline due to deforestation. Deforestation can lead to the death and extinction of a lot of species of animals and plants. The habitat of various animals are taken away as a result of deforestation.

The total coverage of forests on the earth’s landmass is 30 percent and the fact the people are destroying them is worrying. Research reveals that majority of the tropical forests on earth are being destroyed. We are almost at half the forest landmass in destruction. How would earth look life without forests? It will be a total disaster if deforestation is encouraged. Deforestation is a human act in which forests are permanently destroyed in order to create settlement area and use the trees for industries like paper manufacture, wood and construction. A lot of forests have been destroyed and the impact has been felt through climate change and extinction of animals due to destruction of the ecosystem. The impacts of deforestation are adverse and there is need to prevent and control it before it can get any worse.

Deforestation is mainly a human activity affected by many factors. Overpopulation contributed to deforestation because there is need to create a settlement area for the increasing number of people on earth and the need for urbanization for economic reasons. Recently, population has greatly risen in the world and people require shelter as a basic need. Forests are destroyed in order for people to find land to build a shelter and then trees are further cut to build those houses. Overpopulation is a major threat to the forest landmass and if not controlled, people will continue to occupy the forests until there is no more forest coverage on earth.

Another factor influencing deforestation is industrialization. Industries that use trees to manufacture their product e.g. paper and wood industries have caused major destruction of forests. The problem with industries is the large-scale need for trees which causes extensive deforestation. The use of timber in industries is a treat to forests all over the world. In as much as we need furniture, paper and homes, it is not worth the massive destruction of our forests.

Fires are also a cause of deforestation. During episodes of drought, fire spreads widely and burns down trees. The fire incidences could result from human activities like smoking or charcoal burning in the forests. Drought due to adverse weather changes in global warming is a natural disaster that claim the lives of people and living things.

Agricultural activities such as farming and livestock keeping also cause deforestation because of the land demand in those activities. Deforestation for farming purpose involves clearing all the vegetation on the required land and using it for and then burring the vegetation hence the name ‘slash and burn agriculture’. The ranches required for cattle keeping among other livestock require a large area that is clear from trees.

Impacts of Deforestation:

Deforestation has a great impact on the ecosystem in different ways. Climate change is influenced by deforestation because trees influence weather directly. Trees usually act to protect against strong winds and erosion but in its absence, natural disasters like floods and storms could be experienced. Also, tree are important in replenishing the air in the atmosphere. Trees have the ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen. Without trees, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will be increased. Because carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, it causes global warming.

Global warming is a serious environmental issue that causes adverse climatic changes and affects life on earth. Extreme weather conditions like storms, drought and floods. These weather conditions are not conducive for humans and other living things on earth. Natural disasters as a result of global warming are very destructive both to animate and inanimate objects in the environment.

Loss of species due to deforestation has negatively affected biodiversity. Biodiversity is a highly valued aspect of life on earth and its interruption is a loss. There is a loss of habitat for species to exist in as a result of deforestation and therefore species face extinction. Extinction of some rare species is a threat we are currently facing. Animals that live and depend on forest vegetation for food will also suffer and eventually die of hunger. Survival has been forced on animals of the jungle due to deforestation and that is why human wildlife conflict is being experienced.

The water cycle on earth is negatively affected by deforestation. The existence of water vapor in the atmosphere is maintained by trees. Absence of trees cause a reduced vapor retention in the atmosphere which result in adverse climate changes. Trees and other forest vegetation are important in preventing water pollution because they prevent the contaminated runoff into water sources like rivers, lakes and oceans. Without trees, pollution of water is more frequent and therefore the water will be unsafe for consumption by human and animals.

Solutions to Deforestation:

Based on the serious impact of deforestation, it is only safe if solutions are sought to end this problem. The ultimate solution is definitely restoration of the forest landmass on earth. The restoration can be done by encouraging the planting of trees, a process called reforestation. Although reforestation will not completely solve the impacts of deforestation, it will restore a habitat for the wild animals and slowly restore the ecosystem. Major impacts like concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere require another approach. Human activities that contribute to carbon dioxide gas emission to the atmosphere have to be reduced through strict policies for industries and finding alternative energy sources that do not produce greenhouse gases.

Another solution is public awareness. People have to be made aware that deforestation has negative effects so that they can reduce the act. Through awareness, people can also be taught on ways of reducing the population e.g., family planning. On World Environment Day, people are encouraged to participate in activities like tree planting in order to conserve environment and that is how the awareness takes place.

In conclusion, deforestation is a human activity that is destructive and should be discouraged. Environmental conservation is our responsibility because we have only one earth to live in.

Deforestation , Environment , Forests

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    The conclusion is that the impact of early humans on the forest was far greater than expected; it may have been one of the major deforestation episodes in history, which left anything but the pristine forest that is such a feature of the romantic imagination of the past and the environmental rhetoric of the present.

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