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The 4 Ps of Marketing: What They Are and How to Use Them

Learn what the 4 Ps are and how they can help you on your next marketing endeavor.

[Featured image] A man holding a tablet stands in front of a whiteboard where the 4 Ps of marketing are listed in green marker.

The four Ps are a “marketing mix” comprised of four key elements—product, price, place, and promotion—used when marketing a product or service. Typically, businesses consider the four Ps when creating marketing plans and strategies to effectively market to their target audience. 

Although there are many other “marketing mixes,” the four Ps are the most common and foundational to creating a successful marketing plan. In this article, you will learn more about their purpose, history and find a detailed breakdown of the four Ps. 

What are the 4Ps of marketing? (Marketing mix explained)

The four Ps are product, price, place, and promotion. They are an example of a “marketing mix,” or the combined tools and methodologies used by marketers to achieve their marketing objectives. 

The 4 Ps were first formally conceptualized in 1960 by E. Jerome McCarthy in the highly influential text, Basic Marketing, A Managerial Approach [ 1 ]. There, McCarthy noted that while the text of the book was  “similar to that found in the traditional texts, the approach is not.” 

McCarthy’s novel approach was influenced by the still-recent “marketing mix” concept, which Harvard Business School professor Neil. H. Borden popularized in the 1950s. In fact, Borden himself had been influenced by a 1948 study written by James Culliton, in which the author equated business executives to “artists” or “mixer[s] of ingredients” [ 2 ]. Rather than using the same approach for every situation, then, Culliton and Borden recognized that successful executives instead mixed different methods depending on variable market forces. 

McCarthy streamlined this concept into the four Ps—product, place, price, and promotion—to help marketers design plans that fit the dynamic social and political realities of their time and target market. In effect, the purpose of the four Ps remains the same today as when McCarthy first published his book: “developing the ‘right’ product and making it available at the ‘right’ place with the ‘right’ promotion and at the ‘right’ price, to satisfy target consumers and still meet the objectives of the business” [ 3 ]. 


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The four Ps

The four Ps form a dynamic relationship with one another. Rather than one taking priority over the other, each is considered equally important in crafting a strategic marketing plan. 

The product is the good or service being marketed to the target audience. 

Generally, successful products fill a need not currently being met in the marketplace or provide a novel customer experience that creates demand. For example, the original iPhone filled a need in the market for a simplified device that paired a phone with an iPod, and the chia pet provided a humorous experience for consumers that was utterly unique.    

As you are working on your product, it is essential to consider your target audience and their unique needs. Some questions to consider when working on a product include: 

What is your product? 

What does your product do? Does the product meet an unfilled need or provide a novel experience? 

Who is your product’s target audience? 

How is your product different from what others offer? 



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Price is the cost of a product or service. 

When marketing a product or service, it is important to pick a price that is simultaneously accessible to the target market and meets a business’s goals. Pricing can have a significant impact on the overall success of a product. For example, if you price your product too high for your targeted audience, then very few of them will likely purchase it. Similarly, if you price your product too low, then some might pass it up simply because they are concerned it might be of inferior quality and cut into your potential profit margins. 

To identify a successful price, you will want to thoroughly understand your target audience and their willingness to pay for your product. Some questions you might ask yourself as you are considering your product’s price include:

What is the price range of your product’s competitors? 

What is the price range of your target audience? 

What price is too high for your audience? What price is too low? 

What price best fits your target market? 

Place is where you sell your product and the distribution channels you use to get it to your customer. 

Much like price, finding the right place to market and sell your product is a key factor in reaching your target audience. If you put your product in a place that your target customer doesn’t visit—whether on or offline— then you will likely not meet your sales target. The right place, meanwhile, can help you connect with your target audience and set you up for success. 

For example, imagine you are selling an athletic shoe you designed. Your target market is athletes in their early twenties to late thirties, so you decide to market your product in sports publications and sell it at specialty athletics stores. By focusing on sports stores over shoe stores in general, you are targeting your efforts to a specific place that best fits your marketing mix.  

To decide the best place to market and sell your product, you should consider researching the physical or digital places that your target audience shops and consumes information. Some questions to consider include: 

Where will you sell your product?

Where does your target audience shop? 

What distribution channels are best to reach your target market? 

Promotion is how you advertise your product or service. Through promotion, you will get the word out about your product with an effective marketing campaign that resonates with your target audience. 

There are many different ways to promote your product. Some traditional methods include word of mouth, print advertisements, and television commercials. In the digital age, though, there are even more marketing channels that you can use to promote your product, such as content marketing, email marketing, and social media marketing .  

 Some questions to consider as you are working on your product promotion include: 

What is the best time to reach your target audience? 

What marketing channels are most effective for your target audience? 

What advertising approaches are most persuasive to your target audience?


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Other marketing mixes

The four Ps aren’t the only marketing mix used today. Some other modern marketing mixes include the five Ps, the seven Ps, and the 5 Cs. Although each of these reflects certain aspects of the four Ps, they also each possess some unique elements that alter their emphasis on the marketing process.  

The five Ps

The five Ps are product, price, place, promotion, and people . 

Today, many marketers use the five Ps over the four Ps because it centers the experiences of customers and staff in the marketing process. Typical considerations include how a customer behaves, their experience with the product, and their overall satisfaction with the business.  

The seven Ps

The seven Ps are product, price, place, promotion, people, processes , and physical evidence . 

The seven Ps are a further elaboration of the five Ps, adding considerations of the processes that define the customer experience and the physical evidence that the target market needs to see to become customers. While processes might involve the specific customer service processes that define a product, physical evidence can be websites or store displays that help the target market imagine themselves using the product. 

The five Cs

The five Cs are customer, company, competition, collaborators, and climate. 

In some respects the five Cs reflect many of the same concerns of the four and five Ps, but with added emphasis on external factors, such as possible outside collaborations and competitive research. 

Furthermore, while “climate” refers to the social, political, and economic context surrounding the market, “customer” refers to the target market and customer experience. “Company,” meanwhile, refers to the place of the company and their available resources in the marketing process. 

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Effective marketing takes time, but the proper preparation can yield outstanding success. As you look to your next marketing endeavor, define your Ps with Marketing Mix Implementation from IE Business School. Just getting started in marketing? Build the skills you need for an entry-level role with the Meta Social Media Marketing or Marketing Analytics Professional Certificates on Coursera.


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Frequently asked questions (FAQ)

What is the most important out of the 4 ps ‎.

All of the 4 Ps—product, price, place, and promotion—are important components of your marketing strategy. They work most effectively when marketers use them in conjunction with one another. You may find yourself focusing on one or another at different phases of business development. For example, you might focus on product and price at earlier stages, while place and promotion might become priorities at a later stage when you’re preparing to introduce the product to the market. ‎

Are the 4 Ps of marketing still useful? ‎

Although the 4 Ps of marketing has been around since the 1960s, the concept is still considered useful, even as marketing rapidly evolves and becomes increasingly digitized. You can think of the 4 Ps as comprising the foundation to developing effective marketing strategies. At the same time, it’s a good idea to use some of the other models—the 5 Ps (product, price, place, promotion, and people) or the 5 Cs (customer, company, competition, collaborators, and climate)—to build a more thorough approach to marketing. ‎

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Article sources

1. Oxford Reference. “ E Jerome McCarthy , https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100143321.” Accessed July 29, 2022. 

2. Guillaum Nicaise. “ The Concept of the Marketing Mix , http://www.guillaumenicaise.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Borden-1984_The-concept-of-marketing-mix.pdf.” Accessed July 29, 2022.

3. HathiTrust. “ Basic Marketing: a managerial approach , https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.30000041584743&view=1up&seq=1.” Accessed July 29, 2022.

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Novel Bangsal

The global appeal of conditional cash transfers (CCTs) has been evident based on the number of developing countries that have implemented or are actively showing interest in them. Despite its popularity, past experiences indicate CCTs like the country’s 4Ps program, encounter substantial implementation challenges from a “governance and anti-corruption perspective”. Putting adequate accountability mechanisms in key CCT activities are therefore critical—especially when there is a scale-up of implementation—to mitigate the risks associated with CCT, and to effectively implement these programs.

research paper about 4ps

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Several international studies of control and accountability mechanisms in Conditional Cash Transfer Programs (CCTPs ) found that fraud, errors, and corruption remain problematic despite state-led measures. Therefore, the use of social accountability initiatives is recommended to complement the state-led efforts. These are the twin findings of the studies reviewed for this paper (listed in the Bibliography) covering several countries in Latin America, five countries in Africa and the Middle East, and the Philippines as well as a field review of CCTP integrity systems in the Philippines in 2013. The paper summarizes good practices in use of social accountability and calls for much more research and evidence to fill the knowledge gaps.

Jennifer Lam

The Philippine government implemented the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) and patterned it after Latin American conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs, with the goals of poverty reduction and social development. With the insufficiency of research focusing on the 4Ps’ indirect effects, the program’s social impact remains unknown. Since the beneficiaries receive cash transfers from the government, they might be obliged to reciprocate their actions through civic engagement activities. In this study, civic engagement is defined as the overall activeness of citizens to work and positively impact their lives through participation in political and communal activities. Using propensity score matching, the researchers found that beneficiaries of the 4Ps tend to vote and participate in organizations more than the non-beneficiaries. However, this is accounted mostly to Luzon. Moreover, the study concluded that the 4Ps alone is not sufficient to improve civic engagement outcomes as they are also dependent on other factors which include, but are not limited to: geographical location, educational attainment and employment status, cultural diversity and uniqueness of organizations.

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Many developing countries are providing conditional cash transfers (CCT) to address development challenges among its poorest people. In the Philippines, this has been expanded significantly, such that in a span of five years, the amount of cash transfers to the poor has increased by 3300%, with Php34B given for 2013 alone. This rapid expansion has made the government logistics for delivering cash transfers more complicated and difficult. As such, it has partnered with GRemit to tap GCash's network of merchants to help reach the poor in all areas in the country. This paper evaluates its current implementation thru GRemit to determine if this system is more efficient, secure and less costly, based on interviews with program implementers and randomized surveys of 194 CCT beneficiaries in San Jose, Mindoro Occidental. Based on the survey results, the report proceeds to analyze the feasibility of fully adopting mobile money systems in the community by applying Van Dijk's (2006) S...

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What Are the 4 Ps of Marketing?

How To Use the 4 Ps of Marketing in Your Marketing Strategy

The Bottom Line

The 4 Ps of Marketing and How To Use Them in Your Strategy

Product, price, place, and promotion are the four factors of the marketing mix

research paper about 4ps

Investopedia / Julie Bang

The four Ps are the key considerations that must be thoughtfully reviewed and wisely implemented in order to successfully market a product or service. They are product, price, place, and promotion.

The four Ps are often referred to as the marketing mix . They encompass a range of factors that are considered when marketing a product, including what consumers want, how the product or service meets or fails to meet those wants, how the product or service is perceived in the world, how it stands out from the competition, and how the company that produces it interacts with its customers.

Since the four Ps were introduced in the 1950s, more Ps have been identified, including people, process, and physical evidence.

Key Takeaways

Understanding the 4 Ps of Marketing

Neil Borden, an advertising professor at Harvard, popularized the idea of the marketing mix—and the concepts that would later be known primarily as the four Ps—in the 1950s. His 1964 article "The Concept of the Marketing Mix" demonstrated the ways that companies could use advertising tactics to engage their consumers.

Decades later, the concepts that Borden popularized are still being used by companies to advertise their goods and services.

Borden's ideas were developed and refined over a number of years by other key players in the industry. E. Jerome McCarthy, a marketing professor at Michigan State University, refined the concepts in Borden's article and named them the "four Ps" of marketing. McCarthy co-wrote the book Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach , further popularizing the idea.

At the time the concept was introduced, it helped companies breach the physical barriers that could hamper widespread product adoption. Today, the Internet has helped businesses to overcome some of these barriers.

People, process, and physical evidence are extensions of the original Four Ps and are relevant to current trends in marketing.

Any successful marketing strategy should be revisited from time to time. The marketing mix you create is not intended to be static. It needs to be adjusted and refined as your product grows and your customer base changes.

These Are the 4 Ps of Marketing

Creating a marketing campaign starts with an understanding of the product itself. Who needs it, and why? What does it do that no competitor's product can do? Perhaps it's a new thing altogether and is so compelling in its design or function that consumers will have to have it when they see it.

The job of the marketer is to define the product and its qualities and introduce it to the consumer.

Defining the product also is key to its distribution. Marketers need to understand the life cycle of a product , and business executives need to have a plan for dealing with products at every stage of the life cycle.

The type of product also dictates in part how much it will cost, where it should be placed, and how it should be promoted.

Many of the most successful products have been the first in their category. For example, Apple was the first to create a touchscreen smartphone that could play music, browse the internet, and make phone calls. Apple reported total sales of the iPhone for FY 2022 at $205.4 billion. In 2021, it hit the milestone of 2 billion iPhones sold.

Price is the amount that consumers will be willing to pay for a product. Marketers must link the price to the product's real and perceived value, while also considering supply costs, seasonal discounts, competitors' prices, and retail markup.

In some cases, business decision-makers may raise the price of a product to give it the appearance of luxury or exclusivity. Or, they may lower the price so more consumers will try it.

Marketers also need to determine when and if discounting is appropriate. A discount can draw in more customers, but it can also give the impression that the product is less desirable than it was.

UNIQLO, headquartered in Japan, is a global manufacturer of casual wear. Like its competitors Gap and Zara, UNIQLO creates low-priced, fashion-forward garments for younger buyers.

What makes UNIQLO unique is that its products are innovative and high-quality. It accomplishes this by purchasing fabric in large volumes, continually seeking the highest-quality and lowest-cost materials in the world. The company also directly negotiates with its manufacturers and has built strategic partnerships with innovative Japanese manufacturers.

UNIQLO also outsources its production to partner factories. That gives it the flexibility to change production partners as its needs change.

Finally, the company employs a team of skilled textile artisans that it sends to its partner factories all over the world for quality control. Production managers visit factories once a week to resolve quality problems.

Place is the consideration of where the product should be available—in brick-and-mortar stores and online—and how it will be displayed.

The decision is key: The makers of a luxury cosmetic product would want to be displayed in Sephora and Neiman Marcus, not in Walmart or Family Dollar. The goal of business executives is always to get their products in front of the consumers who are the most likely to buy them.

That means placing a product only in certain stores and getting it displayed to the best advantage.

The term placement also refers to advertising the product in the right media to get the attention of target consumers.

For example, the 1995 movie GoldenEye was the 17th installment in the James Bond movie franchise and the first that did not feature an Aston Martin car. Instead, Bond actor Pierce Brosnan got into a BMW Z3. Although the Z3 was not released until months after the film had left theaters, BMW received 9,000 orders for the car the month after the movie opened.

4. Promotion

The goal of promotion is to communicate to consumers that they need this product and that it is priced appropriately. Promotion encompasses advertising, public relations, and the overall media strategy for introducing a product.

Marketers tend to tie together promotion and placement elements to reach their core audiences. For example, In the digital age, the "place" and "promotion" factors are as much online as offline. Specifically, where a product appears on a company's web page or social media, as well as which types of search functions will trigger targeted ads for the product.

The Swedish vodka brand Absolut sold only 10,000 cases of its vodka in 1980. By 2000, the company had sold 4.5 million cases, thanks in part to its iconic advertising campaign. The images in the campaign featured the brand's signature bottle styled as a range of surreal images: a bottle with a halo, a bottle made of stone, or a bottle in the shape of the trees standing on a ski slope. To date, the Absolut campaign is one of the longest-running continuous campaigns of all time, from 1981 to 2005.

The four Ps provide a framework on which to build your marketing strategy. Think through each factor. And don't worry when the factors overlap. That's inevitable.

First, analyze the product you will be marketing. What are the characteristics that make it appealing? Consider similar products that are already on the market. Your product may be tougher, easier to use, more attractive, or longer-lasting. Its ingredients might be environmentally friendly or naturally sourced. Identify the qualities that will make it appealing to your target consumers.

Think through the appropriate price for the product. It's not simply the cost of production plus a profit margin. You may be positioning it as a premium or luxury product or as a bare-bones, lower-priced alternative.

Placement involves identifying the type of store, online and off, that stocks products like yours for consumers like yours.

Promotion can only be considered in the context of your target consumer. The product might be appealing to a hip younger crowd or to upscale professionals or to bargain hunters. Your media strategy needs to reach the right audience with the right message.

Product, price, promotion, and place form the four Ps of the marketing mix. These are the key factors that are involved in introducing a product or service to the public.

When Did the 4 Ps Become the 7 Ps?

The focus on the four Ps—product, price, place, and promotion—has been a core tenet of marketing since the 1950s. Three newer Ps expand the marketing mix for the 21st century.

What Are Some Examples of the 4 Ps of Marketing?

How Do You Use the 4 Ps of Marketing?

The model of the 4Ps can be used when you are planning a new product launch, evaluating an existing product, or trying to optimize the sales of an existing product.

A careful analysis of these four factors—product, price, place, and promotion—helps a marketing professional devise a strategy that successfully introduces or reintroduces a product to the public.

The four Ps of marketing—product, price, place, promotion—are often referred to as the marketing mix. These are the key elements involved in planning and marketing a product or service, and they interact significantly with each other. Considering all of these elements is one way to approach a holistic marketing strategy .

Neil Borden. " The Concept of the Marketing Mix ."

E. Jerome McCarthy. "Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach." Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1960.

Apple. " Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations (Unaudited) Q4 2022 ," Page 1.

Apple Insider. " At 2 Billion iPhones Sold, Apple Continues to Redefine What Customers Want ."

Harvard Business School: Technology and Operations Management. " UNIQLO: What’s Behind the Low-Cost High-Quality Casual Wear? "

Smart Insights. " Campaign of the Week: The Longest Running Print Ad Marketing Campaign in History ."

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The Lived Experiences of Former Pantawid Pamilyang Pilpino Program (4PS) Student-Beneficiaries

102 Pages Posted: 8 May 2019

Marygrace Pineda


Frederick Edward Fabella

FEU Roosevelt ; Mary the Queen College of Quezon City

Date Written: March 2019

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the lived experiences of former Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) student-beneficiaries. The theories guiding this study were Human Capital Theory (1990), Social Capital Theory (1988), and The Concept of Experience by Dewey (1934). The study followed the theory and methods of the phenomenological research model proposed by Giorgi (2009) that allowed informants to provide personal perspectives and reflections on their experiences. The following three research questions guided the study: 1)What are the students’ distinct experiences as former beneficiaries of 4Ps? 2) How would the students describe their lives and values as 4Ps former beneficiaries?and 3) How are these experiences of being a former 4Ps recipient reflected in the co-researchers lives today?Interviews conducted to gather perceptive data from co-researcherswere transcribed, examined, coded, and broken down into themes emerged throughout the research process. The themes identified based on the distinct experiences of students as former beneficiaries of 4Ps were Financial Distress, Psychological Distress, andFinancial Security. Identified themes based on description of lives and values of participants as former 4Ps beneficiaries were Reduced Poverty, Spiritual Growth, and Social Growth. Identified themes based on reflection on the lives of co-researchers from gained experience as a former 4Ps member were Improved Confidence, Motivation, and Improved Academic Performance. The findings of the study may help in improving the 4Ps program and the experiences that will be brought by the said program to the present and future beneficiaries.

Keywords: 4Ps Program, Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, Concept of Experience, Social Capital Theory, 4Ps Student-Beneficiaries, Phenomenology, Live Experienced, Giorgi, Human Capital Theory

Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation

Marygrace Pineda (Contact Author)

Antipolo national high school ( email ).

Olalia Rd., Brgy. Sta. Cruz Antipolo City, Rizal 1870 Philippines

FEU Roosevelt ( email )

Sumulong Highway Cainta, Rizal 1900 Philippines

Mary the Queen College of Quezon City ( email )

Diliman Quezon City Philippines

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EAST ASIAN DEVELOPMENT NETWORK EADN WORKING PAPER No. 71 (2013) Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps): Examining Gaps and Enhancing Strategies in Cebu City, Philippines Adrian Boyett D. Agbon Fiscalina Amadora-Nolasco Elmira Judy T. Aguilar Rhoderick John S. Abellanosa Lauren Ligaton University of San Carlos Cebu City, Philippines 1 Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps): Examining Gaps and Enhancing Strategies in Cebu City, Philippines* Adrian Boyett D. Agbon, Fiscalina Amadora-Nolasco, Elmira Judy T. Aguilar, Rhoderick John S. Abellanosa, and Lauren Ligaton *This work was carried out via a grant from the Global Development Network/East Asian Development Network (GDN/EADN), which was administered by the Philippine Institute for Development Studies as EADN Secretariat and University of San Carlos (USC), Cebu City, Philippines. The views expressed in this paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the EADN and USC. 2 Acknowledgements We would like to thank - The East Asia Development Network (EADN) for the financial support extended to this project as part of their research capacity building; - - Dr. Josef Yap, President of Philippine Institute of Development Studies (PIDS) and regional coordinator of the East Asia Development Network (EADN); - Our mentor, Dr. Fernando T. Aldaba of Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Economics, for his comments and suggestions; - The research participants during the EADN regional conference in Manila last July 2012 for their insights during the conference; - Christian Mina, research associate of PIDS, for helping us with our econometric analyses, and to Maureen Rosellon and Renier de Guzman, both also from PIDS, who served as our point persons during the course of the project; - DSWD Central...

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...Marketing and Audience Research Research Report Word Count: 1800 Executive Summary The topic of this report is the predictors of Online Retail Shopping. It centres on the question of what are the determinants of Australian consumers’ attitudes toward online retail shopping. A sample size of depth interviews will be analysed, cross referenced and used to infer behavioural patterns. The target audience is English speaking adults in Australia who have previously engaged in online retail shopping. 1.1 Importance of the Research Online shopping is gaining exponential momentum in modern society, and empirical evidence indicates this trend will only continue to grow (Hooson 2011). Given that marketing ultimately drives every product, service, idea and attempt to influence consumer behaviour – it is an invaluable tool for any company. In order to effectively market your product, research into the wants, needs and behaviour of your target audience is integral to the development of your businesses collateral and positioning. Marketing Research is one of the few tools that allows researchers to get primary evidence into what actually shapes the buying behaviour of consumers; as well as opinions, attitudes and beliefs about certain brands or products. Once accumulated, this information can be used to discern the most effective means of marketing. Considering the number of industries with high barriers to entry, substantial costs in establishment, and growing......

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Research Proposal

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Researching and Writing

.... ReseaRching and WRiting a disseRtation a guidebook foR business students Colin Fisher second edition . Researching and Writing a Dissertation: A Guidebook for Business Students . We work with leading authors to develop the strongest educational materials in management, bringing cutting-edge thinking and best learning practice to a global market. Under a range of well-known imprints, including Financial Times Prentice Hall, we craft high-quality print and electronic publications which help readers to understand and apply their content, whether studying or at work. To find out more about the complete range of our publishing, please visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk . Researching and Writing a Dissertation: A Guidebook for Business Students Second edition Colin Fisher with John Buglear Diannah Lowry Alistair Mutch Carole Tansley . Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk First published 2004 Second edition 2007 © Pearson Education Limited 2004 © Pearson Education Limited 2007 The right of Colin Fisher to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,......

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...Your Food You are employed by a market research agency. The agency is highly regarded for the quality of research that it carries out on behalf of many high-profile clients. You have been assigned to handle a commission from Levi Roots. Within the next 18 months, his company wants to launch a new ‘packaged sandwich’ product that will be offered alongside its existing portfolio of products in the UK market. Task 1 P1, P2 and M1 You and your boss will be meeting with Levi Roots to discuss the market research options available. Before this meeting you have to provide part of a pack that will be given to Levi to explain the process you will be undertaking. You are tasked with describing the types of market research that could be used and explaining how different research methods could be used to make a marketing decision about whether or not there is a market for a ‘packaged sandwich’ product as part of the Levi Roots range. Also, explain which market research methods you recommend using (as they are the most appropriate) to enable Levi to identify whether the market is of sufficient size to be profitably exploited? P1 Describe types of market research Grading Tip Make sure that you identify in your pack the main types of market research – primary/secondary, qualitative/quantitative, and internal/external. Give examples of each type and the advantages of each method. P2 Explain how different market research methods could be used to make a marketing......

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Analysis of Disney Products

...Pascal Muhammadi Entrée 5 NIK 29113193 ================================================================================= What research methods do you think Disney applied to tailormade their products? Please explain which method(s) is used to which product. It is expected that you could explain the method(s) to definestrategies for at least 5 products. 1. ESPN As one of the business chain, Disney would use Quantitative Method to support the research. Because of television business involves million viewers, and the research needs to cover at least thousand viewers to make the research accurate, thus quantitative method is the better method than others. To make it easier, Disney will hire marketing research firm such as AC Nielson to provide the data, and ask the firm to provide such data, thus they may understand what the current 4P and also what are the SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats). 2. Walt Disney Studio This type of business is focusing on creating films on cinema, and the suitable research method for the business is Qualitative Method. Rotten tomatoes, one of the famous film critics will always give comment on all kind of movies. As one of the trustworthy film critic, Disney could analyze the critic to understand what kind of movie that audiences want to watch. 3. Disney Cruise Ship Disney cruise ship provides one package of entertainment on boat, from theatrical performances to fancy restaurant. Based on the business......

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Managing Human Resource

...Primery Research Proposal 1. Proposal topic name approved by your Supervisor : Ans : yes 2. The name of the topic is mentioned in the order form : Ans : yes 3. The name of the approved topic to work has given below : Ans : An evaluation on pricing strategy of online Marketing and its impact on customer demand management - A Case Study of Adidas UK Please amend the title as per feed back provided by the tutor. Please strictly follow the structure and guidelines. Order Id: EHUK4113 Please read the additional requirements (Please add research hypothesis). NOTE: Please read carefully sample proposal, Marks sheet and guidelines. - need proper Gantt chart like sample attached - need to check how they give marks (mark sheet) so that client can get more marks Page 1/6 Primery Research - need nice presentation, need page numbering and proper table of content - Please check tutor's feedback on proposal A and fix the proposal accordingly. 4. The aim, objectives and research questions of the Proposal are already approved : Ans : yes 5. The attachment of already approved aims, objectives and research question details has already sent in the order form to follow throughout the research : Ans : yes 6. All the documents send in this regards are properly visible, readable and understandable : Ans : yes 7. A structured outline of the Proposal has provided by the SUPERVISOR : a. Number of journals : Ans : 18 b. Number of books : Ans : 4 c. Number of......

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Places to Go for Business and Managment

...Team Meeting #1 9/25/2013 -All team members were present -Decided on our topic: Security Issues involved with the transition from IPv4 to IPv6-Goal for next week: have all of our research papers together to divide among the team Team Meeting #2 10/2/2013 -All team members were present -Shared research papers among the team. Discussed potential topics for next semester to get a better idea of what to include in this phase of the paper. Team Meeting #3 10/9/2013 -All team members were present. - Discussed important points to cover based on our research, and laid down a rough outline for the background and introduction. Created and shared Google docs for the outline and for collaborative list of citable resources. Goal for this week: continue research and begin filling in the outline. Team Meeting #4 10/16/2013 -All team members were present -Continued filling in the outline. -Goal for next week: Have it mostly complete! Team Meeting #5 10/23/2013 -All team members were present -Busy week for everyone. Continued filling in the outline. Team Meeting #6 10/30/2013 -All team members present. -Continued filling in rough draft. Working on continuity. Team Meeting #7 11/6/2013 -All team members were present -Mostly done with rough draft. Working to add more technical info into body. Team Meeting #8 11/13/2013 -All team members were present -Not much progress this week. Team focused on project 2. Team Meeting #9 11/20/2013 -All team members......

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...Graduate School Writing a research proposal for a PhD or MPhil application: A guide for potential students Some Schools and Departments may require you to write an outline research proposal and submit this with your application to study for a PhD or MPhil. The content and structure of the proposal will inevitably vary depending on the discipline area and the nature of the project you wish to pursue. In some cases you may be provided with some guidance in terms of what information should be included in the proposal and, if this is the case, you should read this carefully and follow it. However, where this is not the case, the general guidance, and suggested headings, provided here should help you to structure and present your ideas clearly in your proposal. Your overall aim is to produce a research proposal that is clear and coherent in every respect. You should therefore avoid the use of overly long sentences and of technical jargon. It is important that the proposed research is realistic and feasible so that the outcomes can be achieved within the scale of a typical research degree programme, which is typically three years full-time for a PhD (or two years for an MPhil). Although you should write the proposal yourself, it is best if you discuss its contents with your proposed supervisor before you submit it. Your research question For most projects there is usually one main question that you would like to address, which can sometimes be broken down into several......

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Stress Issue in Ministry of Defence

...TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1.3 PURPOSES OF THE STUDY 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY CHAPTER TWO 2.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 RESPONDENT OF THE STUDY 2.3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS USED 2.4 RESEARCH PROCEDURE 2.5 DATA ANALYSIS CHAPTER THREE 3.0 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.2 DISCUSSION / ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS 3.2.1 SECTION A: LEVEL OF WORK 3.2.2 SECTION B: EMOTIONAL ASPECTS 3.2.3 SECTION C: PHYSICAL ASPECTS 3.2.4 SECTION D: SOCIAL / WORKING ENVIRONMENT ASPECTS CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 CONCLUSION 4.1 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 RECOMMENDATION 4.1 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH REFERENCES APPENDIXES CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY Stress is body's way of responding to any kind of demand. It can be caused by both good and bad experiences. When people feel stressed by something going on around them, their bodies react by releasing chemicals into the blood. These chemicals give people more energy and strength, which can be a good thing if their stress is caused by physical danger. But this can also be a bad thing, if their stress is in response to......

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...Write a REPORT based on * Key changes back to late 19 century i.e post Industrial Revolution, and also post 1st and 2nd world wars.( Many authors consider most changes occurred after the 1950’s) * Map the key most impacting changes which have affected the Seller/Buyer relationship& conduct research regarding the evolution of selling over these years. * Study historic and contemporary attitudes to sales and selling; current and past techniques, methods and attitudes towards selling. * Discuss your findings and embellish your work with plenty of examples * Look at the CRITERIA SHEET on the next page to explore the criteria against which you will be marked to help you with your tasks and allocate time and effort accordingly! * Fill in and download a criteria sheet which you will find on Bb under ‘Assignments’ and attach to your essay FOR YOUR REFERENCE….. A REPORT is.. ‘A document, which conveys information and (sometimes) recommendations from a researcher who has investigated a topic in detail.’ People who need the information for a specific purpose will usually request a report like this ’ Headings, diagrams, tables, etc may be used ensuring you SOURCE them. Title page This should for this assignment include a title which indicates the central theme of the report, tutor, module, author’s name and P number, word count Executive summary The purpose of an executive summary is to provide the briefest possible statement of the......

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...The Business Research Process Kelly Van Fossen Business Research / RES351 December 9, 2013 Marcus Sherrill The Business Research Process The business research process is a sequential process involving several clearly defined steps. This paper will illustrate how the process is implemented in a business environment using a real-life example. The business research process involves six stages that include clarifying the research question, research proposal, research design strategy, data collection and preparation, data analysis and interpretation, and research reporting (O’Neil, V.J). The real-life model that will be used for this paper is the case study of evaluating storytelling as a method for training at Wisconsin Electric-Wisconsin Gas Company (O’Neil, V.J.). The theory of storytelling as a method for training versus field training is the motivation for performing the research. They identified the research question (stage 1) as “Is storytelling an effective method for training Wisconsin Electric-Wisconsin Gas?” (O’Neil, V.J.). The research proposal (stage 2) was skipped in this case study. The research design strategy (stage 3) was “to determine the effectiveness of storytelling” (O’Neil, V.J.) in the case study. They used Donald Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels of Evaluation where they identified four primary questions to guide the research. These questions included participant reaction, what was learned from the technical and leadership lessons, was the behavior......

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Impact of Media

...Semester: 6 Date of Submission: April 27, 2013 Course: Business Research Methods Abstract Do you ever notice what do you watch during the Prime Time; An Indian Drama, or a Turkish one, or any local? Now days, mostly people are inclined towards these Turkish dramas like “Ishq-e-Mamno”, “Fatima Gul” and so many more and are so mesmerized by their outlook that they have started to forget their own culture. This problem was identified by observation and through a survey. We conducted a survey on different age groups like mothers, teenagers (13-18) and minors (8-13). We conducted this research to see the impact of this media on our generation whose minds are so innocent. In back 2001 it was common to view Indian news channels in our country and it was to believe what they say as we don’t have our 1 single news channel but finally from 2003 and onwards Pakistani media and news channel over came this threat. After news channels we had a fever of daily soups to watch again from India and it was common to have knowledge of their rituals. Finally got rid of them and we faced a challenge of foreign content again and this time we had turkey as our opponent. Now a day’s according to the interviews conducted and data collected from our research we concluded that it’s very hard for our people to escape from the web of foreign content Table of Contents Abstract 2 Introduction 4 Literature Review 5 Research Question and Objective 9 Conceptual Framework 9 Selection......

Words: 5720 - Pages: 23

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4Ps (Price, Place, Promotion and Product) model is a useful tool for companies to plan and implement market strategies, after analyzing by 4Ps model, companies would have a better way to plan what or who is their target market, what is their obstacle and what they should do. Here is the simple graph of 4Ps model.

Case – McDonald’s

McDonald’s is world-famous. One of the key reasons is that it has great Market strategy. How can it have such a great plan? In this part we’ll discuss how environment affect its strategy.

The marketing mix is a term used to describe the four main marketing tools (4Ps): 1. Product 2. Price 3. Promotion 4. Place through which products are sold to customers.

Using detailed information about its customers, McDonald’s marketing department can determine: 1. What products are well received? 2. What prices consumers are willing to pay? 3. What TV programs, newspapers and advertising consumers read or view? 4. What restaurants are visited?

But how do McDonald’s get detail info about its customers? Therefore, it needs Market research, which is also needed to be done before using 4Ps model.

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Of course readers can skip this part to see the 4Ps part directly. (at page 5)

Market research and analyzing

Market research is the format which enables McDonald’s to identify this key information. Accurate research is essential in creating the right mix to win customer loyalty.

In all its markets McDonald’s faces competition from other businesses. Additionally, economic, legal and technological changes, social factors, the retail environment and many other elements affect McDonald’s success in the market.

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Market research identifies these factors and anticipates how they will affect people’s willingness to buy. As the economy and social attitudes change, so do buying patterns. McDonald’s needs to identify whether the number of target customers is growing or shrinking and whether their buying habits will change in the future.

Market research considers everything that affects buying decisions. These buying decisions can often be affected by wider factors than just the product itself. Psychological factors are important, e.g. what image does the product give or how the consumer feels when purchasing it. These additional psychological factors are significantly important to the customer. They can be even more important than the products’ physical benefits. Through marketing, McDonald’s establishes a prominent position in the minds of customers. This is known as branding.

There are a limited number of customers in the market. To build long-term business it is essential to retain people once they have become customers. Customers are not all the same. Market research identifies different types of customers.

After analyzing, McDonald’s can tailor communication to the needs of specific groups. It is their needs that determine the type of products and services offered, prices charged, promotions created and where restaurants are located. To meet the needs of the key market it is important to analyze the internal marketing strengths of the organization. Strengths and weaknesses must be identified (by using SWOT analyzing), so that a marketing strategy which is right for the business can be decided upon.

The analysis will include the:

1. Company’s products and how appropriate they are for the future 2. Quality of employees and how well trained they are to offer the best service to customers 3. Systems and how well they function in providing customer satisfaction e.g. marketing databases and restaurant systems 4. Financial resources available for marketing.

Then, McDonald’s has marketing objectives.

A marketing plan must be created to meet clear objectives. Objectives guide marketing actions and are used to measure how well a plan is working. These can be related to market share, sales, goal, reaching the target audience and creating awareness in the marketplace. The objectives communicate what marketers want to achieve.

Long-term objectives are broken down into shorter-term measurable targets, which McDonald’s uses as milestones along the way. Results can be analyzed regularly to see whether objectives are being met. This type of feedback allows the company to change plans. It gives flexibility. Once marketing objectives are set the next stage is to define how they will be achieved. The marketing strategy is the statement of how objectives will be delivered. It explains what marketing actions and resources will be used and how they will work together.

At this point the 4Ps is put together Product

The important thing to remember when offering menu items to customers is that they have a choice. They have a huge number of ways of spending their money and places to spend it. Therefore, McDonald’s places considerable emphasis on developing a menu which customers want. Market research establishes exactly what this is. However, customers’ requirements change over time. What is fashionable and attractive today may be discarded tomorrow. Marketing continuously monitors customers’ preferences.

In order to meet these changes, McDonald’s has introduced new products and phased out old ones, and will continue to do so.

The customer’s perception of value is an important determinant of the price charged. Customers draw their own mental picture of what a product is worth. A product is more than a physical item, it also has psychological connotations for the customer. The danger of using low price as a marketing tool is that the customer may feel that quality is being compromised. It is important when deciding on price to be fully aware of the brand and its integrity. A further consequence of price reduction is that competitors match prices resulting in no extra demand. This means the profit margin has been reduced without increasing sales.

Therefore, in Taiwan, for example, we have discount for lunch or dinner. Notice that McDonald’s doesn’t rise the product’s price, it use “discount” to retain the quality in customers’ mind.

The promotions aspect of the marketing mix covers all types of marketing communications. The methods include advertising. Advertising is conducted on TV, radio, cinema, online, poster sites and in the press (newspapers, magazines). What distinguishes advertising from other marketing communications is that media owners are paid before the advertiser can take space in the medium. Other promotional methods include sales promotions, point of sale display, merchandising, direct mail, telemarketing, exhibitions, seminars, loyalty schemes, door drops, demonstrations, etc.

McDonald’s knows about the people it is serving the more it is able to communicate messages which appeal to them. Messages should gain customers’ attention and keep their interest. The next stage is to get them to want what is offered. Showing the benefits which they will obtain by taking action, is usually sufficient. The right messages must be targeted at the right audience, using the right media. For example, in US, McDonald’s try to advertise to mothers with children. It took advertising space in cinemas during Disney films. The right media depends on who the viewers, readers or listeners are and how closely they resemble the target audience.

Place in the marketing mix, is not just about the physical location or distribution points for products. It encompasses the management of a range of processes involved in bringing products to the end consumer.

As we can see, Taiwan is full of McDonald’s because of franchising. Also, we have delivery service in some area.

McDonald’s uses Market mix in separated ways.

Once the marketing strategy is in place, various responsibilities are given to different individuals so that the plan can be implemented. Systems are put in place to obtain market feedback which measure success against short-term targets. McDonald’s ensure that this is done with tightly controlled, finite marketing budget.

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Apple 4ps, Research Paper Example

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Marketing Mix (4Ps)

When an organization plans to introduce a new product or service, it usually undertakes a marketing planning process commonly known as 4Ps. 4Ps stands for Product, Price, Promotion, and Place. The marketing mix or 4Ps ensure that businesses have carefully planned the introduction of a new product or service into the market. Product stands for the company product or service that may be offered to the targeted market segments. The company may decide upon a product or service by identifying an opportunity in the market such as unmet need or it may believe it can offer better product to the customers than the current offerings. Price involves deciding upon the price that will be charged for a particular product or service. The company may do market research, take into account its production costs as well as indirect costs, study competitors’ pricing behavior, and the income levels of the targeted market segments in deciding upon a price.

Promotion requires choosing channels that may be used to promote product as well as communicate with the targeted market segments. Place means deciding upon distribution channels. This paper focuses on Apple Inc. which is difficult to categorize into any single industry. This is because the company is a major player in multiple industries including personal entertainment, communication, and computing. Fortune annually publishes a list of the world’s most admired companies and Apple topped the list for fourth straight time in 2011 (Fortune) which demonstrates the effectiveness of Apple’s marketing mix.

Founded in 1997, Apple designs, manufactures, and markets a range of products including mobile communication devices, personal computers, portable digital music players, software, and other hardware products. The company’s products and services include Macintosh (“Mac”) computers, iPhone, iPad, iPod, Apple TV, iOS and Mac OS X operating systems, iCloud, and iTunes store. (Apple Inc.). Apple is probably the only technology company that remains highly profitable despite maintaining tight control over both the hardware and software. The company refuses to license its products even if it means sacrificing potential increase in market share. This tells us that the company doesn’t accept any compromise on quality because product differentiation is one of the company’s major competitive strategies.

The company only offers a product or service if it expects to become one of the leading players in the respective market at which the particular product or service is targeted. In addition, products or services also have to demonstrate seamless compatibility with the company’s other products because Apple believes in total user experience which is why it maintains total control over hardware and software. Steve Jobs advised Google’s new CEO Larry Page to focus on few products in which Google wants to compete in the long run and get rid of the rest because they are dragging down the company (Giles & Chan, 2011). This advice reflects Apple’s own approach to business as the company is only focused on products that could take advantage of its core competencies.

Apple competes more on the basis of superior products, services, and overall customer experience rather than prices. Even though the company does try to keep prices affordable for most of its customers as is evident by the pricing structures of iTunes music store and iPad series of tablet devices, it has greater pricing power than the competitors. Thus, Apple’s products and services have lower price elasticity of demand as compared to the competition because Apple has a very loyal customer base which do not mind premium prices for Apple’s products because Apple outcompetes its competitors in terms of product quality, design, innovative features, and ease of use.

Apple’s market power means it is able to negotiate more attractive terms from the suppliers which allows it to price its products competitively while offering better quality and functionality than the competition. Another reason Apple is able to offer competitive prices is due to its lower distribution costs. Apple maintains direct control over the distribution of most of its products and services which means it doesn’t have to share the profit margins with distribution partners. It’s not a surprise that Apple is still able to earn attractive profit margins at prices at which its competitors may be barely breaking even or even losing money. In addition, Apple also offers multiple variations of its most popular products to make them affordable for almost everyone in the targeted market segment.

The company’s greatest promotion tool is customer satisfaction and the resulting word-of-mouth marketing. Apple has built a reputation for cutting-edge and superior technology which means the customers anxiously wait for each new product and do not mind standing in long lines for hours, just to be the first ones to try the new product or model. One another great promotion tool utilized by the company is its annual keynote address which has received free and widespread media coverage in the past, also due to Steve Jobs charismatic personality. Steve Jobs also made sure at each keynote address to not only promote Apple’s products and services but also compare them with the competition and emphasize the superiority of Apple’s products and services. Apple extensively trains every sales associate so that they provide exemplary customer service as well as promote Apple’s products to millions of visitors who come to Apple’s retail outlets every year.

The company distributes its product and services through both internet and brick-and-mortar distribution channels. Most of the distribution through brick-and-mortar channels occurs through the company’s own stores though Apple also has distribution agreements with retailers such as Wal-Mart and Best Buy for products such as iPod’s family of portable music devices and iPhone’s family of smart phones. As of September 24, 2011, the company had a total of 245 U.S. retail stores and 112 international retail stores. The company opened 40 new retail stores last year out of which 28 were international markets (Apple Inc.).

Apple’s focus on overall customer experience means the company gives the same attention to distribution as it does to the actual products and services. Apple educates all of its employees about the company’s products so that they are able to understand customers’ needs and offer solutions. When the company launches new products, it trains its sales associates in the use of new products as well (Megrund, 2011). Apple also makes sure that it hires people who are already passionate about its products (Frankel, 2007). Thus, it is no surprise that Apple’s retail stores are so much more profitable than the competitors. Needham & Co. estimates Apple stores’ profit margin to be 26.9% while Best Buy’s pre-tax profit margin (excluding online sales) is paltry 1% (Kane & Sherr, 2011).

Apple Inc. (n.d.). Form 10-K . Retrieved March 31, 2012, from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/AAPL/1646831833x0x512287/5a5d7b14-9542-4640-841d-e047ec28bb96/AAPL_10K_FY11_10.26.11.pdf

Fortune. (n.d.). World’s Most Admired Companies 2011. Retrieved March 31, 2012, from http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/mostadmired/2011/index.html

Frankel, A. (2007, November 1). Magic Shop . Retrieved October 3, 2011, from http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/120/magic-shop.html

Giles, T., & Chan, M. (2011, October 22). Jobs Told Google’s Page to Cut Bloat to Avoid Becoming Microsoft . Retrieved March 31, 2012, from http://news.businessweek.com/article.asp?documentKey=1376-LTFP6U0YHQ0X01-3MTMRFEDTG0SB4L0HQ03662H25

Kane, ,. Y., & Sherr, I. (2011, June 15). Secrets From Apple’s Genius Bar: Full Loyalty, No Negativity . Retrieved March 31, 2012, from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304563104576364071955678908.html

Megrund, S. (2011, September 6). Apple Trains Retail Employees On Upcoming iOS Software Releases . Retrieved March 31, 2012, from http://appadvice.com/appnn/2011/09/apple-trains-retail-employees-on-upcoming-ios-software-releaseshttp://appadvice.com/appnn/2011/09/apple-trains-retail-employees-on-upcoming-ios-software-releases

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Write By Example Of This 4ps In Marketing: McDonalds Vs Burger King Research Paper

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Business , Products , Burger , Marketing , Brand , Burger King , Customers , Strategy

Words: 1400

Published: 03/08/2023



The aim of this paper is to understand the role of 4Ps in developing the marketing strategy of any product or brand. The 4Ps of marketing is known as the marketing mix which is defined as, “the set of actions, or tactics, that a company uses to promote its brand or product in the market” . In this paper the marketing mix of McDonalds and Burger King will be reviewed and compare. Both the companies are close competitors. McDonalds is one of the well-known fast food brand world -wide. McDonald’s face competition from various businesses in all the markets, and various environmental changes also impacts the success of the brand in different markets. The company believes in creating loyal customers by understanding the needs and demands and meeting those needs in a better way than its competitors in the market . Burger King, also known as BK is a US based brand, head-quartered in Miami. The brand was founded by Insta – Burger King in 1953. The brand has global presence and is well known for its hamburgers. The prime competitors of Burger King are McDonalds, KFC, Pizza Hut, Wendy’s etc. .

The marketing mix of McDonalds and Burger King is discussed further in this report.

4Ps of McDonalds The marketing mix of McDonalds comprises of four elements that is product, price, place and promotion of marketing mix, which helps the brand to fulfil its marketing objectives. The 4Ps of the brand are discussed below.

The prime emphasis of McDonalds is on developing its menu on the basis of its customer’s needs, which is quiet dynamic in nature as the requirements of the customer’s changes over a period of time. And to deal with these changes McDonalds keep introducing new products and rule out the old ones . McDonalds also take care that they offer huge choice in their menu to their potential customers. The market research of McDonalds continuously monitors their customer’s preferences. The company is aware that the sale of its products in the menu will depend on the product life cycle (figure 1). The marketing strategies of the brand and the resources invested on the product will also depend on the stage of the product . The list of products that the brand offers is French fries, hamburgers, cheese burgers, snack wraps, salads, shakes, Big Mac, desserts, soft drinks, beverages etc. The product portfolio of the company is in different stage of cycle, but growing in popularity but Big Mac is at maturity stage. Figure 1: Product life cycle

PRICE Pricing is a crucial element of marketing where customer’s perception of value plays a vital role in determining the price of the product. Customers have a tendency to develop their own mental picture about the worth of the product . McDonalds pricing strategy is divided in two categories, branded affordability (BA), where the products are low priced and branded core value products (BCV), which are slightly higher than the BA. This strategy is adopted by the brand to deal with customer’s price perceptions .

Promotion covers every aspect of the market communications with the potential customer. Advertising is one of the promotional strategies employed by any company through television, radio, online, cinema, posters or print media. The promotional strategy of the company is developed to create awareness in public, to make them feel positive and remember it . McDonalds uses mostly television, print media, and online campaigns to reach its target customers. The prime target of McDonald’s is on Children. They mostly advertise on happy meals on which the brand offers one free toy . Figure 2: Effective Promotion

PLACE Place is the location of the physical distribution of the products. McDonalds is very aggressively and widely spread in whichever city or country it is located, which are very accessible for its target customers .

4Ps of Burger King (BK)

The marketing mix of Burger King is the response of the brand for dealing with the dynamic and saturate condition of the restaurant industry. The marketing mix of Burger King, aims to increase competitiveness against its competitors . The marketing mix of the company is as follows. PRODUCT The prime focus of the brand is on burgers as their main product. The product line of the brand includes burgers, chicken and fish, salads, sides, beverages and desserts. Apart from the diverse product line, it offers its customers with the option of Value meals and kids meals. The product mix of Burger King aims to achieve economies of scale through large scale production of their limited product line . The prime strategy of Burger King is “have it your way”, which enables their customer to individualise their orders.

The pricing strategy of Burger King is primarily based on their strategy of minimisation of costs and prices. The brand follows market-oriented pricing strategy and also bundle pricing strategy. The company provides option to their customers to choose from value meals or kids meals which are more affordable than individual orders . The brand uses a combination of competitive pricing and psychological pricing .

Burger King employs various strategies to promote their products. The brand applies advertising, sales promotions, public relation and personal selling for marketing communications strategies to promote its product line. But primarily BK relies on advertising for promotions. The company uses print media, TV and online marketing for advertising. The brand also gives coupons for sales promotions and various other offers through website and mobile app. The sales employees also encourage customers to more products by using personal selling techniques. And the Burger King McLamore foundation provides scholarships and financial helps for educational programs, as part of it public relation strategy. Thus the company applies a successful combination of promotion mix for marketing its products .

Burger King has worldwide presence and its products are available at its restaurants. Apart from restaurants, it is also available on websites and mobile apps. The customers of BK could also access coupons from the mobile app of BK for freebies and special offers. The company website could also be used by their customers for placing orders. But the brand prime focus is on their restaurant as the place of distribution of their products . The brand is present in 79 countries with almost 13000 outlets .

A comparison 4Ps – McDonalds Vs Burger King

McDonalds and Burger King are close competitors, and so their marketing mix components are also quiet similar. Both the American brands are business rivals for more than sixty years . The products offered by both brands are almost similar at a similar price band, and the place of distribution is also same that is outlets, and online distribution. The prime difference observed is in their promotion strategies. As McDonald applies more advertising than Burger King, and applies more celebrity endorsements . Though the products line offered is same, but both brands apply innovation on their products to compete with each other. McDonalds believe more on advertising for their promotional strategy whereas, Burger King combines advertising, personal selling, sales promotions and public relations for promoting their products.

Bhasin, H. (2016, May 7). Marketing Mix of Burger King. Retrieved from www.marketing91.com: http://www.marketing91.com/marketing-mix-of-burger-king/ Bhasin, H. (2016, May 7). Marketing Mix of McDonalds. Retrieved from www.marketing91.com: http://www.marketing91.com/marketing-mix-mcdonalds/ ET. (2016). Definition of Marketing Mix. The Economic Times. Greenspan, R. (2015, November 24). Burger King's marketing mix (4ps) analysis. Retrieved from www.panmore.com: http://panmore.com/burger-king-marketing-mix-4ps-analysis McDonald's Corporation. (2008). Marketing at McDonald's. Britain: McDonald's Corporation. McMurray, T. (2013, February 26). McDonalds Vs Burger King (Marketing Mix). Retrieved from prezi.com: https://prezi.com/3w3feq8xkqfd/mcdonalds-vs-burger-king-marketing-mix/ Ross, S. (2016). McDonald's Vs Burger King: Comparing Business Models. Retrieved from www.investopedia.com: http://www.investopedia.com/articles/markets/111015/mcdonalds-vs-burger-king-comparing-business-models.asp

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Related Topics

4 P’s of Marketing

Product, Price, Promotion, Place

What are the 4 P’s of Marketing?

The “4 P’s of Marketing” refer to the four key elements comprising the process of marketing a product or service. They involve the marketing mix, which is a set of tools that a company uses to influence consumers into buying its product. The marketing mix addresses factors such as:

4 P’s of Marketing

History of the 4 P’s of Marketing

The individual who conceptualized the 4 P’s of Marketing was a Harvard University professor named Neil Borden. In 1964, Borden introduced the idea in one of his published articles called “The Concept of the Marketing Mix.” he mentioned that many companies could use the framework to increase the likelihood of their success when advertising their products.

Marketing Mix

A product is any good or service that fulfills consumer needs or desires. It can also be defined as a bundle of utilities that comes with physical aspects such as design, volume, brand name, etc. The type of product impacts its perceived value, which allows companies to price it profitably. It also affects other aspects such as product placement and advertisements.

Companies can change the packaging, after-sales service, warranties, and price range, or expand to new markets to meet their objectives. Marketers must understand the product life cycle and come up with strategies for every stage in the life cycle, i.e., introduction, growth, maturity, and decline.

The price of a product directly influences sales volume and, consequently, business profits. Demand, cost, pricing trends among competitors, and government regulations are crucial factors that determine pricing. Price usually reflects the product’s perceived value rather than its real value. This means that pricing can be increased to promote exclusivity or reduced to create access.

Thus, pricing involves making decisions in terms of the basic price, discounts, price alteration, credit terms, freight payments , etc. It is also important to analyze when and if techniques like discounting are required or appropriate.

3. Promotion

Promotion involves decisions related to advertising, salesforce, direct marketing, public relations, advertising budgets, etc. The primary aim of promotion is to spread awareness about the product and services offered by a company. It helps in persuading consumers to choose a particular product over others in the market. Promotional efforts include the following:

4. Place (or Distribution)

Place involves choosing the place where products are to be made available for sale. The primary motive of managing trade channels is to ensure that the product is readily available to the customer at the right time and place. It also involves decisions regarding the placing and pricing of wholesale and retail outlets.

Distribution channels such as outsourcing or company transport fleets are decided upon after cost-benefit analysis. Small details such as shelf space committed to the product by department stores are also included.

Extensions to the 4 P’s of Marketing

New marketers recommend expanding the 4 P’s of Marketing to include services as well. They include:

More Resources

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Research Article

Introducing the 4Ps Model of Transitioning to Distance Learning: A convergent mixed methods study conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic

Contributed equally to this work with: Farah Otaki, Shroque Zaher

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Methodology, Writing – original draft

Affiliation Strategy and Institutional Excellence, Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

ORCID logo

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Validation, Writing – original draft

Affiliation College of Medicine, Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing – original draft

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Writing – original draft

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing – original draft

Affiliation Institute for Excellence in Health Professions Education, Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Roles Conceptualization, Validation, Writing – original draft

* E-mail: [email protected]


Table 1

Significant concern has been raised regarding the effect of COVID-19 on medical education. This study aimed to shed light on the distance learning experiences of medical students and their instructors at the Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences (MBRU) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. A convergent mixed methods approach was utilized. Qualitative and quantitative data was collected using a survey of closed-ended followed by open-ended questions. The percentage of the total average of satisfaction among stakeholders was 76.4%. The qualitative analysis led to developing the 4Ps Model of Transitioning to Distance Learning, which encapsulates four interrelated themes. It would be helpful to leverage the lessons learned to tailor blended medical programs with a reasonable mélange of experiences. The study also contributes to the mixed methods research by showcasing a means of adapting it to evaluate critical situations reliably and rapidly.

Citation: Otaki F, Zaher S, Du Plessis S, Lakhtakia R, Zary N, Inuwa IM (2021) Introducing the 4Ps Model of Transitioning to Distance Learning: A convergent mixed methods study conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. PLoS ONE 16(7): e0253662. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253662

Editor: Haoran Xie, Lingnan University, HONG KONG

Received: March 11, 2021; Accepted: June 10, 2021; Published: July 15, 2021

Copyright: © 2021 Otaki et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


The novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has forced universities worldwide to take immediate action to move to deliver courses via online platforms. High quality distance learning typically takes months, if not years, to get off the ground, but COVID-19 forced institutions to make that transition in a matter of weeks [ 1 ]. Institutions that had already embraced online education, and digitized learning and teaching, were at an advantage at the onset of the pandemic. Having a solid instruction design team, working closely with the academic staff proved to be critical to effectively transitioning to distance learning [ 2 ].

Distance learning is proven to be an effective method of acquiring knowledge [ 3 ]. It provides opportunities for students to work independently, expand their agency, and learn to use novel tools and strategies. It does, however, solicit concerns around matters such as: student engagement in a virtual environment, as well as participation in discussions, where the transition from the workplace or medical school setting to the home could result in isolation and in struggles with establishing boundaries between work and home, which could affect students, faculty, and support staff [ 4 ].

By their very nature (e.g., those aimed at developing clinical skills), some courses are more difficult to be adapted to an online format, resulting in understandably high levels of stress and uncertainty for both students and instructors. Accordingly, concerns were raised regarding the effect of COVID-19 on medical education, especially concerning the medical students who have been in the process of preparing for or undertaking assessments that require clinical exposure [ 5 ]. Also, many students are transitioning from preclinical to clinical stages, which is already associated with high levels of student anxiety and uncertainty [ 6 , 7 ].

However, the adoption of online education during the pandemic has shown that it is possible to virtually achieve several teaching objectives, particularly for preclinical students who have had their entire curriculum moved to online formats [ 8 ]. The pandemic introduced novel methods of delivering education to medical students (e.g., online webinars via zoom and virtual dissection sessions). Such advanced technological approaches have the potential to maximize engagement among medical students [ 9 ].

There are many helpful documents in the literature to support institutions undergoing such abrupt transitions, focusing on how to design learning environments, pedagogies, and strategies to engage learners [ 1 , 2 , 10 – 12 ]. One reference emphasized the importance of not comparing emergency remote instruction to established online learning under these circumstances [ 2 ]. The importance of organizational structures in facilitating critical collaborations between students, faculty, and digital information departments during such turning points are emphasized in the literature [ 13 ].

At the College of Medicine (CoM) at the Mohammad Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences (MBRU), the transition to online learning took place in March 2020. As is the case with many universities, MBRU is focused on continuously improving andragogical strategies and leveraging existing adult and experiential learning theories to maximize engagement and participation [ 14 ]. The learners’ active adaption [ 15 , 16 ] remains at the core of the experiences offered by the university. At the same time, the scope is broadened to embrace the learning that occurs through social interactions and that which appears at the level of the wider society (through “embeddedness” in the world) [ 17 – 19 ]. MBRU is also interested in developing and maintaining Instructional Design (ID), which is defined as a system of procedures for developing education and training programs consistently and reliably [ 20 ]. ID models such as that of ‘Morrison-Ross-Kemp’ [ 21 , 22 ] consider instruction from the learners’ perspective. While acknowledging the challenges posed by the rapid transition to distance learning, the emergency instructions, through capitalizing on the insights offered by holistic experiential learning theories [ 23 ], were still framed as much as possible in alignment with these preset guidelines.

From this perspective, this study aims to reflect on the distance learning experiences of undergraduate medical students and their instructors at MBRU during these unprecedented times. This is expected to provide valuable insights that can inform future learning and teaching, especially in relation to maintaining the “embeddedness” of the learners (i.e., their engagement and participation, which are considered cornerstones in experiential learning when looked at from a social constructionism perspective) despite the physical distancing. Accordingly, in this study, we strive to address the following research questions: how was the rapid transition to distance learning, due to COVID-19, perceived by undergraduate medical students and instructors, and how do those perceptions relate to one another? From a constructionist perspective [ 17 ], which variables converged to maintain the embeddedness and active participation of the students throughout the transition and thereafter? How can we leverage the lessons learned from this experience for MBRU and other similar higher education institutions?

Materials and methods

Context of the study.

On 8 th March 2020, all educational activities in the UAE were suspended temporarily due to the onset of COVID-19. The CoM at MBRU transitioned all educational activities (Teaching, Assessment, and Administration) to the online environment, resuming activities after two weeks (as of the 22 nd of March 2020), with all employees (faculty and staff) working remotely. The rapid transition was regularly punctuated by policy guidance within the country’s health and education regulatory framework and involved four interrelated aspects. The first one involved supporting faculty members in delivering the content, which involved raising their awareness of available resources worth leveraging and offering them a series of relevant learning and development opportunities. The second aspect involved managing the curriculum changes. The transition also involved several measures to facilitate the students’ distance learning experiences, which included assuring their technical readiness for the transition, including but not limited to the quality of their internet connectivity, maintaining connectedness through instilling open communication channels, and continuous engagement and protecting their health and wellbeing. The last aspect of the transition is related to transitioning all assessments to the online environment [ 24 ].

The Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) program of CoM is a six-year undergraduate program following a spiral curriculum and divided into three phases. The first academic year constitutes Phase 1 and introduces students to basic concepts in medicine. The second and third academic years represent Phase 2, where teaching is organized around body organ systems and integrated with clinical medicine. The fourth through sixth academic years constitute Phase 3, through which the students undergo their clinical rotations followed by an internship as a wrap-up.

The transition took place eight weeks into the 15-week second semester of the medical program. Phases 1 and 2 students had just completed their mid-term In-Course Assessments (ICA) with the year four students (i.e., the only cohort in Phase 3) midway through their 4 th of a total of 5 clinical rotations [ 24 – 26 ].

Research design

Ethical approval for the study was granted by the MBRU Institutional Review Board (Reference # MBRU-IRB-2020-032). A convergent mixed methods study design was utilized to develop a systemic understanding of the stakeholders’ perceptions regarding the rapid transition to distance learning. Quantitative and qualitative data was concurrently collected and analyzed. The integration of data sources (i.e., students and instructors) and types (i.e., quantitative and qualitative) is meant to raise the validity of the generated findings and relied on joint model analysis [ 27 – 29 ].

Data collection

The data was collected using a contextualized version of a validated survey [ 30 , 31 ]. The version of the survey, adapted for this study, aimed to assess students and instructors’ perception regarding the rapid transition to distance learning due to COVID-19 and its effect on the learning and teaching at the CoM.

The adapted survey was composed of four segments. The first segment is a Likert-type scale of five points (1: Strongly Disagree, 2: Disagree, 3: Neutral, 4: Agree, and 5: Strongly Agree) across seven components, as per Table 1 . Out of those seven components, three were replicated as is for both students and instructors, two other students’ components were replaced for the instructors with corresponding alternatives designed to reflect the other side of the same coin, and 2 were unique to the students.



The second section targeted two out of the four participating cohorts: Year 3 and Year 4. The question asks the respective students to rate the extent to which distance learning prepared them for the upcoming clinical clerkships on a scale of zero to ten. For the students in Year 4, it would be their second clinical sciences’ year. As for the Year 3 cohort, they are transitioning from Phase II to Phase III (hence, from basic to clinical sciences).

The third section of the adapted survey entailed the following two dichotomous questions (Yes/ No), each followed by a separate open-ended question asking the participant to elaborate on the answer to the preceding question:

As for the last section of the survey, it was designed to be exploratory to solicit for qualitative data using the following open-ended questions:

In this data collection initiative, no personal identifiers were recorded. Participation was entirely voluntary. The privacy of the students and the data confidentiality were protected. The survey was assembled throughout June 2020. In the respective academic year, CoM had 115 in-house and adjunct instructors and served a total of 197 students across four cohorts Classes of 2022, 2023, 2024, and 2025 (i.e., Years 4, 3, 2, and 1, respectively). Out of those 197 students, as per Table 2 , 83 responded (i.e., overall response rate = 42.13%, with the response rates varying across cohorts). A written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to completing the survey.



Data analysis

Quantitative analyses..

The quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 27.0. The descriptive analysis constituted of computing an overall score of satisfaction for both stakeholders combined (i.e., across the five components that are common to both stakeholders), along with a score of satisfaction for the students (i.e., across all seven components) and another one for the instructors (i.e., across the five components that constituted the instructors’ tool). Then, the mean and standard deviation for each of the components of the tools and the scores: combined, and students and instructors, were then calculated. The validity tests of Cronbach’s Alpha and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were performed to ensure the internal consistency and check external variance, respectively, of the adapted tool.

To select the appropriate comparative analyses tests, a test of normality was conducted for each of the seven components, and for all three scores of satisfaction (combined, and students and instructors). The data of each of the seven components, independently, and the combined score of satisfaction, and that of the students and instructors, all turned out to be not normally distributed.

Accordingly, the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the combined score of satisfaction, and each of the five common components independently, between both groups of stakeholders (students and instructors), and the combined score of satisfaction, and that of the students and instructors, between those who answered ‘Yes’ (versus those who answered ‘No’) to each of the two dichotomous questions of the third section of the survey. The potentiality of association between the perceived readiness for transition for students of Classes of 2022 and 2023 (i.e., Years 4 and 3, respectively) and the dichotomous variables was also assessed using the same test. In addition, Chi-squared was used to determine any potential associations between the two dichotomous variables of the third section of the survey and the group of stakeholders and the cohort of students.

Finally, Bivariate Spearman Correlations were conducted to assess the extent to which the combined score of satisfaction, and that of the students and instructors, can be explained by changes in the stakeholders’ perception of the components of the scores, and whether the perceived readiness for transition for students of Classes 2022 and 2023 (i.e., Years 4 and 3, respectively) is associated with the students’ score of satisfaction and/ or the components of the respective score.

Qualitative analysis.

The data collection phase was completed before the start of the data analysis. Thematic analysis by five researchers (SZ, SDP, RL, NZ, and II) was carried out. The factors that could influence the researchers’ perceptions regarding the subject matter were recognized upfront. The qualitative data was divided into five datasets: one for each of the four cohorts of students and one encapsulating the data of all the participating instructors. The research process was inductive, based on the constructivist epistemology. In relation to the theoretical assumptions, the consistency was assured throughout the study, where one member of the research team (FO) facilitated and controlled for the uniformity and steadiness of the qualitative analysis process without engaging in the actual inductive analysis. This interpretative approach enabled the researchers to gain a thorough understanding of the phenomenon under investigation (i.e., rapid transition to distance learning at CoM at MBRU).

The six-step framework initially introduced by Braun and Clarke (2006) was adapted [ 32 ]. This multi-staged approach to thematic analysis has been used repetitively in research concerning health professions education [ 33 , 34 ]. NVivo software version 12 plus (QSR International Pty Ltd, Vic, Australia) was used to assign codes to the text fragments and expedite the classification of the data into categories and themes.

The analysis process started with the researchers acquainting themselves with the data, where they collectively skimmed through all the datasets and reflected upon them. Then, as the second step of the adapted approach, the text fragments that refer to the same aspect of the distance learning experience were compiled together, labelling each with an all-encapsulating title. This was done for each of the five datasets separately (each researcher was randomly assigned one of the five datasets). This is how the qualitative data was examined line-by-line while the researchers were assigning codes to text fragments until data saturation was attained.

The resulting categorization schemes for the five datasets were mapped onto each other to compare perceptions. The researchers reflected upon areas of harmony and discord within and across the datasets.

Following that, the discrete concepts that surfaced from the independent, concurrent analyses underwent several rounds of reflections. The multiple ways by which the concepts could relate to one another were identified. This led to the generation of categories that extensively cover all that surfaced in relation to the research questions, which set the stage for the researchers to work on step three of the adapted thematic analysis approach. Again, the researchers examined the categories to find the best way to merge them into higher order themes.

For the fourth stage, the generated themes and categories were then reviewed to ensure that the data within each grouping are sufficiently similar, and data in between the clusters are distinct enough to deserve isolation. To complete the stage, the researchers agreed on labels and documented explanations for all the themes and categories. This constituted the basis of the study’s conceptual framework, which guided the last step of reporting upon the findings [ 35 ].

Joint model analysis.

The findings from both types of analyses: quantitative and qualitative, were merged to result in a meta matrix. This mixed methods integration was done using joint display analysis, which ultimately led to meta inferences [ 36 , 37 ]. The findings of both analyses were compared (and contrasted) to weave together a meaningful narrative. The researchers looked for areas where the results of the two analyses confirmed each other. They also examined areas that were unique to one analysis (quantitative or qualitative) to build upon the generated insights. They investigated whether these unique areas complement the areas that were confirmed by both analyses. Throughout the iterative integration process, the researchers were open to potential discordances between the findings of the two analyses.

Quantitative analyses

The reliability score of Cronbach’s Alpha for the tailor-made evaluation tool that captured the stakeholders’ perception was 81.8%. The percentage of the total average of the students, instructors, and both groups of stakeholders combined were 73%, 81.64%, and 76.4%, respectively, as per Table 3 .



According to the PCA (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy), 73.6% of the variance can be explained by the instrument, which means the instrument is not only reliable but also, according to Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity, valid to measure what it is intended to measure (p<0.001). Along the same lines, the Bivariate Spearman Correlations showed how changes in all the respective components could explain the changes in each of the three scores.

The instructors, with a mean of satisfaction of 20.40(3.54), rated the distance learning experience at CoM higher than the students, with a mean of satisfaction of 18.48(4.15) (p = 0.015). In addition, the instructors were significantly more satisfied than the students in relation to the following two components: “the transition to the online environment was clearly explained” and “overall, I was satisfied with the distance learning” (p = 0.022 and 0.001, respectively). As for the remaining three components, common between the two groups of stakeholders, there were no significant differences. In addition, there was no significant difference between the two groups of stakeholders concerning their perception of whether or not, the transition significantly impacted the courses’ structure and delivery. Yet, the students perceived the transition to significantly affect their learning more than the instructors perceived the transition to affect their teaching (p = 0.002).

There seemed to be a statistically significant difference between the score of satisfaction between the cohorts within the students’ group of stakeholders (p = 0.001), with Year 1 having the lowest mean of satisfaction of 22.67(6.27), followed by Year 3 with a mean of satisfaction of 24.26(5.22), then Year 4 with mean of satisfaction of 27.40(4.59), and finally Year 2 with a mean of satisfaction of 29.75(4.52). As illustrated in Fig 1 , there was also statistical significance between the four cohorts across the seven components of the tool (p<0.05). Moreover, there was no significant difference between the students’ perception of whether or not the transition affected their learning in the courses across the cohorts. Yet, there was statistical significance across the cohorts in relation to how the students perceived the transition to having affected the courses’ structure and delivery (p = 0.018).



In relation to the level of perceived readiness to transition to the clinical years (i.e., Year 4 to Year 5, and Year 3 to Year 4), students in both cohorts rated themselves low (on the zero to ten scale) with a mean of 3.97(2.32), with students of Year 4 perceiving themselves to be significantly more ready than those of Year 3 (p = 0.004). The Bivariate Spearman Correlations showed that the level of perceived readiness is associated with the students’ score of satisfaction, and with 6 out of 7 of the components of the evaluation tool (p<0.05). The only component which turned out not to be associated with the perceived level of readiness is “the online courses’ materials available were adequate to meet my learning goals”. The level of perceived readiness was also not associated with whether or not, the students observed a change in the learning and courses’ structure and delivery.

The analysis also showed that there is an association between the scores of satisfaction (students and instructors, and combined) and whether, or not, the respective groups of stakeholders perceive the transition to have impacted the learning or teaching (p = 0.012) and the courses’ structure and delivery (p = 0.003), where the stakeholders who were more satisfied were significantly less likely to notice a change in the learning or teaching, and the courses’ structure and delivery.

Qualitative data

The qualitative analysis of the perception of the students and instructors showed an interplay between two interlinked themes: People and Processes. The stakeholders perceived this interaction to take place on the Platforms, which constituted the third theme of the analysis, all of which is guided by the last theme, namely: Policies. These four themes came together as per Fig 2 to constitute the study’s conceptual framework: 4Ps Model of Transitioning to Distance Learning.



Theme 1: People.

This theme refers to text fragments that pinpoint variables on individual or interpersonal levels that seemingly affected the perceived quality of the distance learning experience, the value obtained from the experience, and/or the stakeholders’ level of satisfaction with the transition.

On an individual level, the transition to distance learning affected the stakeholders differently. Some students highlighted that it increased the level of stress:

25-S-Y1: “…I felt more overwhelmed and stressed in comparison to how I felt when we used to have classes at the University. I was required to learn everything on my own, and that is not an easy task…it became more difficult to approach the professors in comparison to when I used to be on campus….” 61-S-Y4: “…days became monotonous, and with the lockdown and minimal engagement with the outside world, my motivation and discipline got affected, even my mental health….”

The students, especially those of Year 3, were particularly concerned about the absence of experiential clinical training:

52-S-Y3: “…learning about physical examination and history taking online, as opposed to actually doing them, was insufficient; I do not feel competent to do them in a clinical setting…”

Similarly, some instructors highlighted challenges that they faced due to the transition.

120- I: “…the working hours extended to overlap with the resting hours… I noticed some students experienced online classroom fatigue… at some point, we lost the boundaries between work and home; work and rest somehow overlapped…”

Some students expressed that the transition offered them a set of advantages and lessened the pressure on them:

55-S-Y1: “…I honestly felt like this has been a much-needed break. I do not feel peer-pressured (for lack of a better term). I am much more relaxed now, as I have struggled with this, prior switching to remote learning, given that most of the students around me are high achievers…” 11-S-Y4: “…I think I am performing better as distance learning allowed me to have more time on my hands. I organized my timings better than when I was experiencing ‘regular’ university days. I enjoyed a nice balance between studying, family time, and hobbies…”

It was also clear to the instructors that the transition to distance learning was an opportunity to empower the students, encourage them to be proactive, and engage in active learning.

117-I: “…it allowed for active, collaborative learning… the students identified their own learning needs…we discovered that via the online platform we can more effectively engage the students with the courses’ content…”

The instructors also indicated other advantages, most of which were on an individual level.

93-I: “…we benefitted a lot. We learned new teaching modalities. The transition certainly led to greater engagement as some of the quieter students felt more confident to ask their questions using the chat box…”

The instructors perceived the transition to have hampered the interactional aspect of the learning process. To some instructors, the relationships that they have with the students constitute the highlight of their job.

88-I: “…in the online environment, there is a ‘disconnect’ between student- teacher interactions and it is difficult to ensure the students stay involved…”

A lot of the students, especially the more junior ones, also yearned for more interaction.

35-S-Y1: “…the discussions that I used to have with my fellow classmates, during the sessions, were very beneficial; they constituted opportunities to learn from one another and clear-up any misconceptions about the lecture…”

Some students, especially the more senior cohorts, mainly those of Year 4 and those of Year 3, saw interactional value in the transitioning.

68-S-Y3: “…we did not have to get up too early or go back too late which made learning easier for us and more joyful since we got the chance to spend quality times with our families…”

Theme 2: Processes.

This theme included the text fragments that refer to the core of distance learning and encapsulated three categories: learning and teaching, assessment, and organization and delivery.

Many students perceived the transition to be smooth and for the didactic learning and teaching, and assessment to be of the same quality, or in some cases even better, relative to that in a regular face-to-face set-up.

25-S-Y1: “…there were a variety of teaching methods that were put out for all students to benefit from…I valued having pre-recorded lectures, and virtual discussions on topics accompanied with question-and-answer sessions and regular feedback sessions….” 24-S-Y2: “…the schedule was flexible, and I was able to go through the lectures at my own pace. I was able to take detailed notes and repeat the points that I have missed…”

The lack of experiential clinical training left a prominent gap, from the perspectives of the entire student body and that of the instructors.

7-S-Y2: “…the Foundations of Clinical Medicine were affected the most. The course was adjusted, of course…it still is not the same as seeing a Simulated Patient…” 85-I: “…nothing can replace clinical skills training with real patients which is the core of medical teaching…simulation and clinical-based teaching could not be performed effectively. There were no interactions with patients…”

The students of Year 4, relative to the rest of the students, were more grounded and at ease with the absence of experiential learning and had faith that they would get opportunities to make up for it in the future.

20-S-Y4: “…the only missing component is clinical exposure, which we will get plenty of opportunities to make up for in the upcoming years…”

Some students highlighted that they needed to adapt their learning styles to cope with the changes.

34-S-Y1: “…I had to figure out a whole new way of studying, which is something I had already done at the beginning of this semester to become more accustomed to learning anatomy. I had to do it all over again because I needed to find a new way of studying that is more appropriate to distance learning, and that took some while…”

A few students believed that the transition impeded, for differing reasons, their performance in assessments.

68-S-Y3: “…I think the exams were affected negatively because we were barely given any input as to what to expect, which in some cases was frustrating. As a student, I need to know what lectures I will be tested on, or at least how many questions per course, all of which was transparently shared with us previously…”

Some students highlighted the impact that this had on the quality of feedback provided to them following exams.

80-S-Y3: “… in this course, we were not given adequate feedback neither for in-course nor for the final assessment…”

Others felt that doing the assessments from the comfort of their homes was more convenient.

33-S-Y2: “…during the assessments that we underwent online, I noticed I was much calmer. I am usually very stressed in the exam hall, and so from this perspective, the transition constituted a big advantage…”

Students, especially those more junior, faced plenty of challenges around the diversity of platforms and the scheduling application.

23-S-Y2: “…the diversity of channels and approaches was a bit confusing. Some courses were prerecorded, and others were real-time on teams or zoom. At some instances, it became very hard to keep-up with all that was going on online…”

Others felt that the workload increased due to the transition.

16-S-Y4: “…the quantity of the learning material significantly increased in an attempt to compensate for missed clinical hours…”

Some stakeholders highlighted the advantages of the transition in terms of program organization and delivery.

50-S-Y3: “…the learning process has been much more efficient in didactic courses than in university. The professors were all very receptive to feedback and questions…” 110-I: “…distance learning compelled me to try other modes of delivery. Distance learning also proved that not all lectures need to be delivered in the college within the confines of the classroom. We now have a repository of online material that can be accessed by students…”

Theme 3: Platforms.

The students and instructors repeatedly referred to the medium through which distance learning occurred. They highlighted how the tangible and the intangible came together to allow for the experiences to occur. Within this theme, two categories were grouped: the virtual environment and Information Technology (IT).

The transition to the virtual environment has been a challenge to a lot of the students, especially those of Year 1. This group of students had just started their higher education path when the outbreak started, which exacerbated the perceived uncertainty.

34-S-Y1: “…this was a completely new territory for me. At the beginning, it was strange to learn in this environment. The fact that we had to learn the hardest two courses of the semester and to build our foundation, in these new circumstances, was quite tough…”

Despite the perceived uncertainty that all stakeholders were experiencing, the students expressed appreciation of the virtual environments and online platforms.

39-S-Y2: “…they provided a good experience that is as close to the classroom as possible…video-recorded sessions were fantastic.” 51-S-Y4: “…in Family Medicine, we had students preparing presentations on topics that they were interested in which helped us maximize the entailed learning. The Team-Based Learning was great, and the effective use of Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) software helped in maintaining the momentum…”

Instructors also highlighted aspects of the online environment that they appreciated.

103-I: “…distance learning was a good method for engaging Clinical Adjunct Faculty. The schedules of those stakeholders are extremely packed; it is great to enable them to teach without needing to come on campus… This needs to be maintained on the long-run…” 106-I: “…it saved time…working from home rather than having to rush to a lecture hall…”

Some students reflected upon the limitations and challenges associated with the utilized platforms and the technical glitches that they faced along the way.

36-S-Y3: “…not knowing ‘where’ classes were held, on which platform…some instructors resorted to calling student names to increase engagement. This, at times, solicited my anxiety… 65-S-Y4: “…I do not think any Information Technology platform will offer a clinical experience that is congruent to what we get from face-to-face interactions and real-life experience…”

Theme 4: Policies.

The last theme is related to the ‘non-negotiables’, be it at the level of the institution or beyond. The pandemic constituted a reality check. Nations had to rapidly respond by instilling directives that imposed restrictions on all sectors, including but not limited to higher education. Within this sector, universities needed to adapt to the constraints by instilling institutional policies that minimized losses and maximized value in abidance with external restrictions.

The lockdown, quarantine, and the formal obligation to stay at home were the restrictions most highlighted by the stakeholders. The stakeholders also brought up other ministerial directives that affected the policies and procedures at MBRU.

45-S-Y3: “…social distancing is important in these times and it has been crucial to stay at home…” 19-S-Y2: “…another example is when the ministry issued new grading rules (regarding optional Pass/Fail). There was an understandable delay in communicating to the University and in turn to the students. This generated confusion; the students started speculating, which solicited panic…”

The restrictions caused challenges, including the inability to conduct Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE).

39-S-Y2: “…OSCE was cancelled and the grades were divided among the rest of the assessing activities; we had a written final exam, which was also a considerable shift from the usual structure of the course…” 92-I: “…the course material and assessment had to be restructured to account for the inability to conduct an OSCE…”

The other challenges were related to shortcomings of the experiences and/ or the medium in which the experiences are taking place, which could have been circumvented by endorsing and ensuring effective implementation of appropriate institutional policies.

12-S-Y3: “…the duration of the recordings exceeded the allocated 50 minutes duration of the session…” 15-S-Y3: “…I would have preferred for sessions that are not interactive to be pre-recorded…”

Most stakeholders expressed satisfaction with how the University applied the external directives, and how the support units provided the instructors with platforms for the alternative pedagogies.

9-S-Y2: “…the university did a great job at dealing with this crisis…” 33-S-Y2: “…the timeline got extended; we ended-up having more time to study and prepare for the assessments, which was a great plus…”

Mixed methods integration

Mapping the output of the quantitative analysis onto that of the qualitative analysis revealed a systemic perspective of the situation, illustrated in the study’s side-by-side joint display [ 29 ] ( Table 4 ). The convergence of findings enabled the development of the perceptions of students and instructors, of the transitioning to distance learning, and their interrelationships.



On its own, the quantitative analysis showed the attitudinal reactions of the two groups of stakeholders and how they relate to one another. These findings were confirmed and expanded upon by looking into the output of the inductive thematic analysis. Moreover, the qualitative data analysis, on its own, uncovered details about the platforms and the policies, which generated a more holistic perspective of what has been taking place. Through the meta-inferences, generated from the joint model analysis, it became apparent what the strengths and the opportunities for improvement around the experience are.

This study provides a timely reflection on a unique disruption in education in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, due to its sudden onset, rapid evolution, and global impact. As human activity came to a grinding halt, the consequential abrupt cessation of all intramural educational processes assumed historic proportions. The associated biological threat imposed additional stress and required appropriate mitigation measures. Medical professionals are familiar with rapid responses to emergencies, in general, and infectious outbreaks, in specific. However, as medical educators responsible for nurturing and graduating safe doctors, risk takes on entirely different connotations [ 38 ]. In medical education, the risk was two-fold: first, in the interruption of the educational process, and second, the exposure to a biological threat of medical students learning onsite in healthcare facilities.

This study found a high degree of satisfaction with institutional measures devised for distance learning and teaching across the surveyed stakeholders. The most vital voice of the student body endorsed the gained flexibility, the access to pre-recorded sessions and blended methods, and the multiplicity of digital learning tools. The stakeholders also appreciated the emergence of increased peer-collaboration and thrived on the chat box interactions during real-time virtual learning sessions. This is in alignment with the basis of experiential learning theories, which are founded upon human relations practices [ 23 ], and focuses on empowering individuals through self-awareness and self-actualization. As such, the cognitive and emotional processes of individual learners are facilitated by situational conditions [ 17 ]. On the assessment front, the students perceived benefits related to having extended preparatory time towards final examinations. Some students found taking exams in the quiet privacy of their homes de-stressing. Others appreciated the feeling of safety of staying at home during the pandemic, which was complemented by the emotional support provided by their families.

The instructors felt a sense of achievement in their enhanced capability on e-learning tools, adopting technology they would have been otherwise reluctant to use. Along the same lines, innovation, flexibility, and overcoming resistance to alternative technology-enhanced tools have been endorsed in the literature as transformational in medical education (Wayne, 2020). The robust establishment of distance learning at MBRU was particularly beneficial to off-site clinical faculty who could balance service commitments with academic engagements. Enhanced interaction through innovative techniques, like LAMS, allowed mutual tutor-student satisfaction. Virtual microscopy, already well established in the institution, is seamlessly blended with remote learning.

However, students’ satisfaction with the transition to learning was lower than the faculty transition to teaching. This could be attributed to the high level of uncertainty perceived by the students due to their pre-existing anxiety around their performance in assessments and progression. Specific qualitative inputs provide multifactorial explanations for the academic struggles reported by students. Early-stage learners grappled with the school to college transition, the brand-new curriculum content of medical foundations, lack of exposure to cadavers, and inability to live up to expectations of self-directed learning, clinical reasoning, and interpretative skills. They also did not get the chance to leverage the university’s resources as part of the “university life” to strengthen and build their character and resilience (e.g., student clubs and co-curricular activities). Counsellor support was boosted and proved invaluable in providing some degree of relief.

At the other end of the spectrum, deprivation of onsite, first-hand clinical exposure created anxiety in senior students at the critical juncture from preclinical to clinical years. Even in pre-COVID times, the preclinical to clinical transition is considered a period of workload and professional socialization stress [ 6 ]. The requirement for rapid adaptation induced by COVID isolation was bound to aggravate the situation. In contrast to satisfaction with the flexibility (expressed by many students), other students reported a struggle with exercising discipline in organizing their study schedules. Students missed classroom interactions and complained of content overload, affecting coping mechanisms. Loneliness, the absence of group dynamics, and balancing an intrusive home environment were psychosocial demotivators. It is worth noting that some of this anxiety might be due to the comparison that naturally takes place between the students in such spiral curriculums; all the years are interconnected and build upon each other, which is why the students tend to evaluate the quality of what they are receiving in relation to what others are going through. Such doubt in readiness and the resulting low level of self-efficacy (and perhaps self-esteem) can affect the students’ professional identity.

Revised assessment weightage and schedules that deviated from original plans and dissatisfaction with the quality of feedback were also areas of concern. The achievement of competence in Entrustable Professional Activities form the cornerstone of graduating safe physicians; their learning and subsequent assessment cannot be overemphasized [ 4 ]. Yet, the tussle between self-preservation and vulnerability of professional learning can be a moral dilemma [ 38 ]. An insightful analysis suggests a 3-point solution towards assessment, “focusing on outcomes, broadening the assessment toolbox, and improving the Undergraduate Medical Education (UME)-to-Graduate Medical Education (GME) transition” [ 39 ].

The lack of association between the perceived readiness to transition, and the availability and accessibility of resources online, is also worth highlighting. It was clear from the quantitative analysis that the extent of perceived readiness is not associated with the students’ satisfaction with the availability and accessibility of the resources. Although the students were quite satisfied with the online environment, they were acutely aware that there is no replacement (equivalent alternative) to real-life clinical experience and face-to-face interactions with patients. Similar views have been expressed by medical students from Southampton in the UK, who worried about the reduced learning exposure to certain specialties, the effect on preparation for skills-based examinations, and their immediate residency and career prospects [ 5 ].

Instructors felt supported in ensuring the delivery of content in keeping with curricular outcomes. There were specific challenges with the lack of on-screen, interactive exchanges. The modification of teaching clinical skills was a common discontent among instructors and students alike. Despite the professional and smooth conduct of an online OSCE (e-OSCE), specific domains of professional skills could not be tested. The need for competency is not that of the student alone. Instructors must be adaptable and should learn to engage with the students beyond didactic delivery [ 40 ].

Information Technology, including hardware, software, and the internet connection, upon which the whole experience was anchored, did not pose a significant challenge in the eyes of the stakeholders. Neither students nor instructors expressed any considerable degree of dissatisfaction or disruption associated with the platforms. This is of particular interest since it was the university’s first experience with remote proctored exams. The IT support to teaching and assessment was a yeoman effort. Worldwide, medical institutions have highlighted the efficacy of globalized outreach for continuity of education through digital platforms when their international students returned home during the pandemic [ 41 ]. Taking a step further, there is potential for inter-institutional collaboration in teaching beyond borders as we move forwards.

The perceived efficaciousness of distance learning, accompanied with the lessons learned from this experience, calls for sustaining components of what has been deployed at CoM in MBRU irrespective of how matters unfold pertaining to COVID-19. These components include variables that cultivate awareness which is the basis of experiential learning [ 42 ]. This happened through three tracks. The first relates to the commitment to a dialogue where interactions and relationality were fostered, and mutuality between unique beings was identified and positively reinforced. The second track has to do with phenomenology, where a form of tracking of immediate experiences took place. The third one dealt with field theory. The educators needed to move away from considering the learners in isolation and incorporate into their perspective the individual learners’ experiences and environments. As continuously reiterated in the literature related to the subject matter, the entire learning context is essential, rather than any single variable in isolation. Furthermore, the adopted perspective will remain incomplete if the interactions between those variables are not taken into account. From such a holistic, macro-level point-of-view, the insights from the current study urge a revisit of androgogic management of the human resource infrastructure interface. For the teacher-learner partnership to evolve under the present circumstances, reflecting on the experience and identifying innovative but feasible alternative routes adds value in the long run [ 4 ]. In terms of students, building self-directed learning capability [ 43 ], peer collaboration and access to diverse digital resources are clear winners. Instructors must sustain and step up in digital teaching, embracing technology, spearheaded by faculty development. Virtual reality and Artificial Intelligence platforms are galvanizing the available options. The sustainability of technology is a clear area of focus. Uncertainty of the IT environment at the remote users’ end is an area of concern and needs deliberation to search for risk mitigation. There is also the need to evaluate and maintain the quality of educational delivery and the long-term outcomes of courses and programs [ 44 ].

Yet, given the clear gap in clinical experiential learning, which constitutes the core of medical education, there is consensus across the board that full online programs would be limiting. Blended programs that entail a reasonable mélange of experiences foster active learning among students. There have been several identified ways of students’ curricular enhancement through inclusion in community education, telemedicine, and even in patient care with adequate physical and financial protection, which will provide upskilling for future physicians [ 45 ]. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of the impact on the education of the pandemic highlights, among many of the factors discussed in the preceding paragraphs, the opportunity for educational leadership in times of crisis and the challenge of executing it with budgetary constraints [ 46 ].

The COVID-19 experience is also a living example to demonstrate to students the health inequities and difficult ethical decisions in contemporary life or death scenarios; it constituted an invaluable experience that reinforces knowledge of health systems and standards of practice [ 8 ]. Resilience, grit, and tolerance have transformed from mere teaching points to demonstrable practice [ 8 ]. The tag: front-liner , has become a proud identity, inspirational for the budding physician.

This study is characterized by several limitations that are worth shedding light on. Although the focus on a single program enabled the development of thorough reflections and insights, the generalizability of the generated findings is limited to institutions that are characteristically and contextually like MBRU. It would be worthwhile for future studies to collect data from several programs and run a comparative analysis. The small sample size and low response rate were also limitations. The data collection extended until after the end of course assessments. Hence, the perception of the participating students might have been influenced by their performance in the respective exams and the accompanying emotions. There was also no differentiator between in-house versus adjunct faculty, and those who teach predominantly basic or clinical sciences- it would be interesting for future studies to collect the type of affiliation and engagement of the respective instructors to see if those variables play a role in the educators’ impression of the overall learning and teaching experience. Finally, it is worth exploring the perception of education leaders concerning the transition because they are critical to sustainable transformation.

This study introduced the 4Ps Model of Transitioning to Distance Learning, which explains how, in alignment with holistic experiential learning theories, differing variables related to People, Processes, Platforms, and Policies come together to enable the distance learning experience. While the response to the pandemic and the rapid transition to distance learning at CoM, during those unprecedented timings, was swift, plenty of challenges were faced, most of which were effectively circumvented. The virtual learning demonstrated efficacy in many aspects. In addition, the involved stakeholders were offered plenty of opportunities to develop themselves and the systems within which they operate. However, the gap resulting from the inability to compensate for experiential learning virtually was evident in this study since this type of training is integral to medical education and professional identity formation. Health professionals’ educators must adapt to new tools and engage in dialogue to maintain effective educational missions in preparation for any force majeure, COVID-19 or otherwise.

Supporting information

S1 file. instructors perspective 20210516: tool for obtaining instructors perpectives on transition to online learning..


S2 File. Students’ perspective 20210516: Tool for obtaining students’ perpectives on transition to online learning.



The authors would like to thank Dr. Fatemeh Amir Rad of Hamdan Bin Mohammed College of Dental Medicine (HBMCDM) at MBRU for her support in preparing the project proposal.

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Table Of Contents

What are the 4Ps and 4Cs of marketing

What are the 7Ps of marketing?

The key elements included in a marketing campaign are usually considered the 4Ps of marketing .

The 4Ps of marketing are considered a foundational model for businesses. They are the set of marketing tools used to pursue marketing objectives. 

In this blog we will cover:

What does the 4P mean in marketing? 

The 4Ps of marketing include Product, Price, Plan and Promotion. 

Did you know that apart from the 4Ps of marketing, we also have the 4Cs of marketing? They are the following: Consumer wants and needs, Cost, Convenience and Communication. They offer a much more consumer-based perspective on the marketing strategy. In this article, we are only going to discuss the 4Ps of marketing in detail. 

Who is the father of 4Ps of marketing? 

It was in 1960 that the modern form of 4Ps  was first proposed by Jerome McCarthy.  The concept still holds a lot of relevance because it is the easiest way to understand the fundamentals of marketing. 

The 4Ps of marketing is also called ‘the marketing mix. It is considered that the amalgamation of all of these makes for a good and effective marketing strategy. In this article, we will learn how the 4Ps of marketing will play into your marketing strategy. 

Before we move ahead, it is important to understand the value of market research.

Market research enables you to learn about your product from your audience’s perspective. Using it you can collect valuable data and plan your strategies. Survey tool like SurveySparrow offers engaging, easy-to-use surveys to cater to your need. You can try it now for FREE!

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Let us understand the importance of each of the Ps in marketing:

The product can be a tangible or intangible item that is manufactured to satisfy a customer’s needs. A tangible good can be anything from a smartphone, apparels, painting, etc. In contrast, an intangible good is a service, medical consultation, legal consultation, etc. 

Marketers should understand what the product entails for both the business as well as the end consumer. They should have a deep understanding of the USP of the product, what will act as a massive differentiator with the rest of the competitors, its most prized features, and so on. 

The higher the understanding of a product, the better it will be for the marketer to meet the target market’s requirements. 

Here are a few questions that marketers need to find answers for:

The most important thing that a product should do is to fulfill the demands of the market. Even if there is no market in the first place, the product should be so appealing that the consumers should be made to believe that this is what they were looking for. 

Marketers need to understand the lifecycle of a product and have a marketing plan to deal with prospective consumers in different stages of the buying cycle. Some of the most revolutionary consumer products of late that did not have precedents are Apple iPod and ebook reader. They had no contemporaries or predecessors. But the businesses which brought them into the market knew that the end consumers would love it. 

The second P in the 4Ps of marketing is Price. What does the Price of a product say? It determines the value of the product to its target audience. If the product pricing is based on the value it provides, perceived or otherwise, you will be able to attract buyers for it. Your target market needs to understand the product’s value. Only then they will be buying it. 

The product pricing strategy depends on a lot of factors. The amount of money you spend to take the product to the market might only be $100, but if the perceived value is extremely high, you can even charge $1000. Take the case of diamonds; other than perceived value, it has nothing going on for it. 

There are also cases where businesses sell some products at a premium to give the customer the feeling that they are buying a high-value product. In many cases, that may not even be the case, but it is people’s perception that the more they pay, the higher the value of the product. 

In other cases, businesses that want to sell in high volumes might want to reduce the prices to increase the number of products sold. Discounting the cost of the products might not always have a great result. Some customers might think that the business sells the product at a discount because it isn’t as good as was perceived by them. 

No matter how you price your product, you can be successful. But the success of your product depends on getting the price right according to your business model. 

Here are some questions that you need to ask to set your pricing:

When we refer to place in marketing, it is the market that we are talking about. The place where we are trying to sell the product is as important as the other 4Ps of marketing. The place decides how you will deliver the product and the kind of consumers who will be a part of the product. 

The primary goal of a marketer is to put the product in front of their target audience. You have to sell your products in a place where your customers are. The farther or difficult it is for them to reach out to you, the higher the friction. Eventually, your customers will seek out a product that is easier to buy. 

Since the online world has shrunk with respect to location, it still has its own issues that are to be dealt with. For example, if you sell a product to businesses, TikTok might not be your first destination to market. You will have to use avenues that are specific for B2B businesses. When you are selling, you need to choose the proper channels. 

If it is a traditional business, then trade conferences and meetups are a great way to attract clients. Placing yourself on the first page of Google search results is also one way to be at the right place. The idea is simple- go where your customers are. 

Here are some questions that you need to ask to get to the right place:

The answers to the above questions will clarify the ‘Place’ factor in the 4Ps of marketing. 

In the 4Ps of marketing, ‘Promotion’ also has a special place. It tells the end consumer why they need the product and why they should set aside a budget to get it. Once you have the other 3 Ps in the 4Ps of marketing ready, the next step is to optimize your marketing activities, aka promotion.

Before the dawn of the internet, businesses used mass marketing tools like TV ads, billboards, radios, pamphlets, and so on to capture the attention of their target market. The only problem with all of these methods is that there was no way you could target your consumers based on their unique characteristics. Thanks to the internet and the rise of digital tools, it is possible for businesses to target the right consumers after adding a variety of filters. 

Here are some questions that you need to ask to get your Promotions on target:

The answer to the above questions will help you to come up with the best promotion tactics possible. Thanks to the internet, we live in an era where there are superior tools to reach out to the target market. Marketers these days have various methods using which they can reach out to their target customers, nurture them, increase sales, and so on. 

Well, there are extensions to the 4Ps of marketing which has been included recently. Let us look at them.

There are direct interactions between the service providers and the end consumers when there is a service involved. For something like this, there is a lack of objectivity. This means that a lot of things such as attitude, appearances, communication style, behavior, etc., are essential for the business. These should be scrutinized and improved at regular intervals as customers will judge based on these parameters. 

For example, if you walk into a high-end restaurant, there will be an usher who greets and makes sure that you find a place to sit. The staff will be extra friendly and will be ready to accommodate your needs. All of this forms an impression on you. 

Physical Evidence:

The business’ brand image is hugely affected by how their office looks, the furnishing used, the atmosphere, the layout, and so on. All of these will form impressions on the consumer’s minds when they try to avail a service.

When you are on the lookout to learn guitar from an institute, if the whole place looks morose and doesn’t inspire you, the chances of you paying for the class becomes less, isn’t it?

There are standardized procedures that should be involved in cases of issues, policies, systems, buying process, refund and returns addressal, etc. While all the cases should be handled subjectively, there should be standardized procedures spelt out for each of these cases. End consumers will be disappointed if there is no handbook based on which actions are taken. It is also an assurance that they don’t end up getting the long end of the stick.

These three Ps of marketing are an extension to the 4Ps of marketing that has been traditionally used. 

How to use the 4Ps of marketing? 

The 4Ps of marketing model can be used when a new venture is being planned. An existing offer evaluated when a marketing campaign is readied, when you are trying to optimize your sales strategy with your target audience, and so on. The business can incorporate the 4Ps of marketing by asking the series of questions mentioned for each of the Ps. The answers to the questions will help define each brand’s marketing mix. 

How to develop a marketing mix? 

A marketing manager must have essential qualities such as intuition, creative thinking, and technical prowess. Still, there cannot be assumptions when it comes to getting your marketing right. To ensure that your four elements of the marketing mix are based on solid research and foolproof values, you need to follow the below process:

1. What is your Unique Selling Proposition (USP)?

The first thing that a marketer needs to be aware of is whether the product has a factor or a feature where it offers something that no other competitor does. If the USP is not visible, then you can ask your customers with the help of a market research survey to know what they think about the product or how their needs are met only with your offering. 

The key features and benefits of your product are measured here. Once you know them, it will be easy for you to use them in your marketing messaging and sales. Finding your USP applies to physical goods, online stores or even services. 

2. Know your customer:

Without having a deep understanding of who your customer is or what they want, 4Ps of marketing or any other concept will not help you. The product can be made better by concentrating on the customer or their expectations from you. Without knowing what they want, you will not be able to design a product they are looking for. The value that your product offers them will give you an idea of how you can market them effectively.

3. Knowing your competitors:

In this time and age, you cannot become successful without indulging in competitor research. You need to be at least one step ahead of them. Understanding what the competitor offers, how they price the product, the marketing channels they use, their communication strategy, and their product’s perceived value will put you in a better position to market yourself better. 

4. Understand your placement options:

At this stage, the business needs to know which places their average customer will frequent and the channels they would use. You can use multiple channels to gain visibility to your vast audience. If you are in a niche market, you need to find the most optimal channels to optimize your operations as much as possible. Where you are available, and the channels you use is also closely associated with the perceived value of your product. 

5. Develop communication strategy:

After completing all the above steps, you need to develop your marketing communication strategy. Words are powerful, and you need to employ them effectively. The promotion strategies should also be in line with the research that has been done. The objective is to make your brand appealing to prospective customers and ensure that they are well educated about the benefits and features of the product.

6. Develop the marketing mix:

At this stage, the brand needs to see how all the elements are coming together. All the variables in the marketing mix should be interdependent and rely on each other to make the strategy work. For example, the channels used should be able to validate the perceived value of the product. 

Wrapping Up…

Considering all the above elements of a marketing mix is one of the best ways to create a holistic marketing strategy. While a lot has changed over the years, the 4Ps of marketing can still be used in this digital age to get maximum success. Whether you are a startup or an established entity, finding your marketing mixing can be critical while positioning your brand in the marketplace. 

For finding your marketing mix 4Ps, you can use the help of an online survey tool like SurveySparrow . It will help you understand your market better and be used effectively as a customer experience management tool. Get in touch with us to know how we can help you while building your marketing mix. 

Content Marketer at SurveySparrow

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A Case Study on Absenteeism among 4Ps Students

School attendance and financial support, research paper (undergraduate), 2019, 26 pages, grade: 95, manit dapadap (author), table of contents.

Table of Contents

List of Figure

Background and Rationale

Theoretical framework, statement of the problem.

Review of Related Literature Related Literature

Related Studies

Significance of the study, scope and delimitation of the study, definition of terms.

Methodology Research Design Respondents of the Study Research Instrument Data Collection and Analysis Ethical Considerations

Results and Discussions Theme 1: Experiences in School of Working Students Theme2: Ways in Coping the Challenges as Working Students Theme 3: Lessons Learned as Working Students

Summary of Findings



Appendices Semi-structured interview


Figure 1. Thematic diagram of the results of the study

Poverty is one of the major problems that hindered the right to education. Crossman (2018) defined poverty as a social condition that is characterized by the lack of resources necessary for basic survival or necessary to meet a certain minimum level of living standards expected for the place where one lives. People in poverty typically experience persistent hunger or starvation, inadequate or absent education and health care, and are usually alienated from mainstream society.

Because of poverty, many families are left deprived of their basic needs. The children are forced to stop going to school to help their families. With this as t he main ground, the Philippine government initiated a program called the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) to address poverty in response to the country’s commitment to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This program aims to provide cash assistance to the less fortunate to alleviate their immediate needs and break the intergenerational transmission and cycle of poverty. Moreover, to benefit from the said program, there are certain conditions that members and beneficiaries must comply. These include enrolling their children in school and making sure that the latter maintain a class attendance of at least 85% per month.

However, absenteeism cases among students are evident although they are beneficiaries of the poverty alleviation program. Reyes et al. (2015) stated that the most commonly cited reason for not attending school among children in 4Ps families regardless of whether they are working or not is the lack of personal interest and the high cost of education. Thus, 4Ps is not the perfect solution to eradicate absenteeism in school for the program manifested weaknesses that call for an evaluation.

The school attendance rate in the Philippines has dropped among the older children, a general fact in the recent findings of the Philippine Statistics Authority (2018) revealed that children aged 14 years old showed a less impressive 91% and among the 17 and 18 years old managed a 70% and 57% attendance rate only. Students who live in communities with high levels of poverty are more likely to be four times chronically absent than others who have reasons beyond their control such as, unstable housing, unreliable transportation and a lack of access to health care (Balfanz, 2017). It is evident that the poorest children have the lowest school attendance rate caused by the inadequate human capabilities and limited access to social services. Relatedly, these are some of the key factors besetting our society to prevent individual the right to education.

Balfanz (2012) pointed out in his study the reasons for absenteeism. These were presented into three categories that include illness, family responsibilities, and housing instability in the first category, to avoid bullying, unsafe conditions, harassment, and embarrassment that falls to the second category, and lastly, the lack of parent's interest or the students themselves in their studies or nothing stops them from skipping school. It was also stated that the primary characteristic of students who commit a lot of absences is they live in poverty.

In the case of T. National Agricultural School, the only agricultural school in the city, students’ absenteeism is one of the major problems. During the first semester of 2017-2018, a total of 246 (26%) of the students in junior high and senior high school students were placed in warning status, meaning they have incurred the maximum allowable absences. Some of these students are 4Ps beneficiaries. The comparative data on failure due to absences of the school for the last three years is quite increasing. Al though faculty and staff are always reminding the students of the rules on absenteeism and its consequences, still students continue to be absent in class. Home visitations were also done by the teachers to understand the reason behind students’ absenteeism and encourage them to be more present in class.

Different studies have been conducted on the occurrences of absenteeism in schools, yet absenteeism focusing on the 4Ps beneficiaries have not been explored yet. Hence, this qualitative study aimed to understand the reasons for absenteeism among the 4Ps beneficiaries in T. National Agricultural School.

This study draws its strength from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, a motivational theory in psychology that consists of a five-tier model of human needs. It is often depicted as hierarchal levels within a pyramid (McLeod, 2018).

The theory emphasized that people are motivated to achieve certain need while some needs take precedence over others. The first thing that motivates one's behavior is the physiological needs or the biological requirement for a human to survive like food and shelter. Next, safety needs or protection become primary. Thirdly, the love and belongingness or the interpersonal relationships like friendship are developed. Personal relationships with friends, family, and lovers play an important role in this level. Then, esteem needs are categorized into two namely, esteem for oneself and the desire for reputation or respect from others. Lastly, the self-actualization needs or seeking personal growth and peak experiences mold the person's full potential as a human being (McLeod, 2018).

Maslow believed that these needs play a major role in improving one's behavior. Physiological, security, social, and self-esteem are deficiency needs that emerged due to deprivation (Cherry, 2018). Satisfying these needs will avoid unpleasant feelings that may result in consequences.

Relatedly, to students who are in dire need, the physiological deficiencies that include the need for food, water, sleep, and warmth must be met. They achieved this through financial support as the beneficiary of the cash program. Once these lower-level needs are met, they could move on to the next level until all the levels are conquered. Hence, if the motivational theory is met, the behavior that molded him as an individual would be realized.

The theory is found to have an ample application in relation to the purposes of this study. As the physiological needs of the 4Ps beneficiaries are satisfied through the financial support from the program, he will be motivated to satisfy the next level and so on until he reached the self-actualization. He will eventually gain full potential as a human being. Hence, if the motivational theory is met, the behavior and act of an individual would be appropriate. As the relevant theory, this help determining and understanding why the 4Ps beneficiary’s absenteeism is prevailing.

The main purpose of this study is to understand the reasons of absenteeism of the 4Ps beneficiaries in T. National Agricultural School. Results from this study would shed light to solutions and interventions that would improve the 4Ps student-beneficiaries in school.

Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions:

1. What are the reasons of the absenteeism of the 4Ps student- beneficiaries? 2. How does absenteeism affect the academic performance of the 4Ps student- beneficiaries? 3. What are the measures to reduce absenteeism of 4Ps student-beneficiaries?

Review of Related Literature

This section shows different perspectives in the area and studies which try to elucidate the concepts. The purpose of this chapter is to present the importance and relevance of the study to the other studies conducted.

Related Literature

Absenteeism is the missing of the day in school. According to the Department of Education section 157 (Attendance and Punctuality), students who incur absences of more than twenty percent (20%) of the prescribed number of class or laboratory period during the school year or term should be given a failing grade and given no credit for the course or subject.

Based on the Child Trends Data Bank (2015), attendance is essential in school success among youths. It was shown that better attendance of students correlates to higher academic achievement. Students that are present in school regularly get a higher score during exams than their peers who are frequently absent. Chronic absenteeism is defined as missing ten percent or more of school days. Frequent absence is a strong predictor of undesirable outcomes including academic failure, dropouts, substance abuse, gang involvement, and criminal activity. It is also important for it serves as an early warning sign that a student is at risk for school failure and early dropout. Family health or financial concerns, poor school climate, drug and alcohol use, transportation problems, and differing community attitudes towards education are among the factors that are often associated with a child’s frequent absence from school.

In addition, Allen et al. (2018) revealed that absenteeism has immediate and lifelong negative effects on academic performance, social functioning, high school and college graduation rates, adult income, health and life expectancy. School absenteeism has been called a public health issue and a hidden educational crisis. It is a complex and varied phenomenon with often interrelated causes such as overlapping medical, individual, family and social factors, including chronic illness, mental health conditions, bullying, perceived lack of safety, health problems or needs of other family members, inconsistent parenting, poor school climate, economic disadvantage, and unreliable transportation. Remedies for absenteeism were also presented like informing the parents of the connection of school attendance to the achievements of the child, school attendance and care coordination with school personnel, cognitive behavior therapy, hence, families and schools are key collaborators in interventions.

Keter (2013) defined absenteeism as a practice of staying away from school without any reason that negatively affects the student’s performances. He has revealed the factors for students’ absenteeism such as phobic adolescence or the fear of physical changes, lack of interest, teacher approach, pamperness, private coaching, diseases, school infrastructural facilities like lack of libraries, and due to entertainment where students could divert their attention. He added that absenteeism could lead to depression, resulting in poor quality of education and moral degradation that give rise to drug abuse, early pregnancies, and uncontrollable act. He also presented aids for absenteeism like providing co-curricular activities to keep students busy when they are out of class and have up to date facilities to make students stay in school.

Due to poverty, some of the children tend to miss education, so the government established a program to help less fortunate families to make ends meet. According to the Philippine News Agency (2019), Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program is a human development measure that provides conditional cash grants to poor families to improve the health, nutrition, and education of Filipino children aged 0-18. For every household, a maximum of three children benefits the program. The beneficiary families receive ₱500 monthly for health consumption and ₱500 for educational purposes of each high school student per month for a total of ₱5,000 per child in a year. To benefit the program, DSWD sets conditions to follow. One of these conditions is the 85% attendance in school to children aged 3-18.

However, the Department of Social Welfare and Development (2015) officials in Region 8 delisted 100 out of 25,600 4Ps beneficiaries in Region 8 due to different violations ranging from absenteeism to family development sessions. The failure in undergoing check-up and deworming, gambling of 4Ps parents, pawning of ATMs and especially the absenteeism of student-beneficiaries in school are closely monitored.

Febie Plains, 4Ps provincial coordinator in Borongan City, called public teachers and school administrator to avoid “mercy compliance” to 4Ps beneficiaries. She asserted that cases of absenteeism among 4Ps beneficiaries were not reported, instead, tolerated by the teachers because the families get P300 pesos less. Moreover, Rebecca Picardal, school administrator, stressed that children are often absent because their parents leave them to take care of their younger siblings while parents tend to their farms (ESNS, 2017).

The above literature indicates that despite the presence of government programs to alleviate the social condition of the people, some of the student-beneficiaries are still absent in school.

A lot of studies have been conducted on students’ absenteeism.

Bruner et al. (2011) in his study stated that helping children at the beginning of their academic careers specifically getting them into the habit of attending school every day is the most important in determining success in school. Unfortunately, although teachers take roll every day, most schools currently do not use their data to monitor if they have a problem with chronic absence. However, it also stated that while the definition of truancy is left to states to determine, in most places it only refers to unexcused absences and is associated with student’s willfully missing school without the permission of an adult.

Chronic absenteeism was defined by Balfanz (2012) as the typical missed school days with both excused and unexcused absences. It is the missing 10 percent or in the practical term, it translates to 18 days a year. In other words, the detrimental impacts of missing school occur if a student is absent caused by illness, suspension, the need to care for a family member, or any other reason. The study revealed that the rate of chronic absenteeism steadily and substantially increases throughout high school. The highest rate is often observed in 12th grade.

Based on Brundage et al. (2017) study, top reported reasons among students' absenteeism were related to health with 92.6%, transportation with 53%, personal stress like sadness, depression and family emergencies with 41.8%, preferred activity outside the school like hanging out with friends and family with 41%, and school value with 38.8% ratings. The students presented ideas to improve their attendance in school which includes: decreased level of difficulty/strictness (less homework, more fair/consistent rules, more lenient dress codes), illness prevention (not getting sick), engaging environments (more interesting/fun/relevant/hands-on classes or instruction), improved climate/relationships (nicer peers or adults, less “drama”, less bullying), and school schedule (later start time, shorter classes, more time to pass between classes).

Siena (2015) recommended that the government should investigate implementing policies and programs that are comprehensive enough to consider all the capitals for better livelihoods. Nevertheless, the program had been successful in improving the human asset and became instrumental in improving the social, physical, and financial assets of its recipients. It was concluded that the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) was a successful intervention that brought about a positive impact on the live lihoods of its recipients.

However, it was found in the results of the study of Mella et al. (2013) that 4Ps is not the perfect solution to resolve the economic problem for there are many insufficiencies that the program faces and need further revisions. Reyes et al. (2015) stated that since 4Ps families are classified as poor, they are usually the one with less capability of sending their children to school. The largest share of their household budget is spent on food and other daily basic needs with a smaller share being left for education. This reason is more common among the secondary school-age children, which suggested that 4Ps families can send their children to school but only up to the elementary level. Since their families do not have enough income to support their daily basic needs, there is a pressure on the part of the children to earn for their families at a young age. Other reported reasons include housekeeping and taking care of siblings, cannot cope with school works, and supply-side factors like absence of school nearby or within the barangay.

In addition, Montilla et al. (2015) revealed that there were difficulties encountered by the teachers in handling 4Ps beneficiaries. Their findings showed 3 out of 11 (27%) encountered difficulties like absenteeism which is the most occurring reason, submitting projects, adequate school supplies and lack of attention. Murcia (2015) found out that the primary reason for the student’s absences is about their health status followed by classroom atmosphere, personal attitude, teacher factor and home-related reasons and the least reason that the students give was the physical environment.

From the reviewed studies, the results identified the different reasons for the students’ absenteeism whether they are 4Ps beneficiaries or not. Likewise, it discussed the implication of absences to the different fields and some aids to lessen cases of absenteeism, which are found to have a bearing in this study. Though Pantawaid Pamilyang Pilipino Program helps poor families in providing financial support for education, there is still a considerable number of students who miss 85% attendance because of different reasons.

This study could be valuable to the beneficiaries, members, teachers, DSWD and to the future researchers.

Beneficiaries. They are the primary subjects of absenteeism in this case study. The result of this research would help the students understand the importance of attendance as a guarantee for a good academic performance. This would also give them an overview of the government's support of their studies. Thereby, they must do their part by studying well.

Members. With this qualitative study, parents could gain different information about their children. They will be aware of the different effects on the frequent absenteeism done by their children with their performance in school and to their membership in 4Ps. The result of this study will inform the parents that their guidance is a big impact on their children’s education.

Teachers. The result of this study could help the teachers understand the reasons for their student’s absenteeism despite the financial support given by the poverty alleviation program. They could also help to inform both the parents and students about the effect of absenteeism on academic performance as well as their 4Ps membership.

School Administrators. Through this study, school leaders will be able to address student attendance concerns which may include going beyond eliciting student voice by taking a critical approach to leadership within the schools and recognizing the importance of building relationships among stakeholders.

Department of Social Welfare and Development. The researchers believe that the result of this study will be of great importance to the department since they are the ones monitoring the 4Ps. They will know the reasons behind the absenteeism of the beneficiaries if there are insufficiencies and lacking that the program gives. They will also implement hands-on monitoring on the attendance and the performance of the student beneficiaries in schools.

Future Researchers. This paper will serve as a reference for researchers who will conduct studies about 4Ps beneficiaries’ absenteeism.

In general, the focus of this qualitative study is to understand the reasons of absenteeism among the 4Ps beneficiaries in T. National Agricultural School for the school year 2018-2019. Likewise, the predicaments of the student’s absenteeism and its effect on their -performance and membership of the program was explored.

The information of this research was based on the perceptions and experiences of those students who are included in this study which were limited to five (5) students who have chronic absenteeism together with their parents and teacher-adviser.

To fully understand the research undertaking, the following terms are defined conceptually and operationally.

Absenteeism. It refers to chronic absences (Merriam Webster’s dictionary). In this study, it refers to the practice of staying away from school of 4Ps beneficiaries in T. National Agricultural School.

Title: A Case Study on Absenteeism among 4Ps Students

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Title: A Case Study on Absenteeism among 4Ps Students

The Marketing Mix (The 4Ps) (Research Paper Sample)

This report will be using the same company as in the "Roots report 1" which I attach the doc below. We just need to write the part "the marketing mix", but this part is consistent with the STP, which my other group member has done this part and I also attach the doc. For marketing mix part, I wish you to follow the guideline exactly, making sure answering every question properly. I hope you can explain the definition of marketing mix part first, and then the definition of 4Ps which are the components of marketing mix. After every single "P" has been given definition, you can explain how the company, Roots, has done for each "P". The definitions from my textbook has also been attached below. There is also an example about marketing mix I provide, you can read it and see it helps you or not. The division about the company we chose is "apparel" of roots, so make sure you read the stp part carefully because our part are based on that. Also, please attach the link you use for the writing at the end. If you have any questions, just email me. Thank you every much. just make sure that when you write the definition of marketing mix and 4ps, you can refer to the definition of textbook, but it's better to write the definitions in your own words. Also, for the stp doc, just ignore the grammar mistakes, I haven't corrected them yet. Thank you very much.

The Marketing Mix (The 4Ps) Name Course Instructor Date Roots Corporation Marketing mix refers to the set of marketing variables (product, price, place and promotion) that a company prepares to produce the desired effect on consumers. Firms desire to influence the demand for the product or service to be offered, seeking to gain more customers and build brand loyalty. There is a focus on creating value for customers and customer satisfaction. Marketing strategies relate to adding functions that make a product or service offered by a company to be purchased by the consumer. The 4 P's of marketing or marketing mix are the four basic pillars of a marketing strategy. The marketing mix is applied to the Roots Corporation. Product The product is the good or service that the consumers’ purchases, and in this case, there is a focus on the "apparel" division of the Roots company. Roots Company has marketed itself as a premium outdoor lifestyle brand, and target men, women and children with assorted outdoor clothes that are part of the branded lifestyle. However, there are other segments, and this marketing mix focuses on Canadian customers who earn an average income, values comfort and enjoy outdoor activities. Root sells stylishly comfortable sweats clothes that are associated with the Canadian company in the home market and the international market. The perceived product quality is what the customers get and have to choose from, makes Roots one of the recognized in the Canadian apparel market. There is a products mix with different apparel products that are undifferentiated to capture a wider market and expand the company’s reach. The company is also focused on making the best products without charging premium prices on all products. Price Price is another essential component of the marketing mix where the value of the products is placed and it is what the customers pay with their money. Discounts


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