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Most Popular Articles

Evidence-based practice: step by step: the seven steps of evidence-based practice.

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 110(1):51-53, January 2010.

Go to Full Text of this Article


CE: Acute Ischemic Stroke

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 121(9):26-33, September 2021.

Nursing Continuing Professional Development (NCPD)

The Systematic Review: An Overview

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 114(3):53-58, March 2014.

States Move to Ban Pelvic Exams on Unconscious Women

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 120(5):17, May 2020.

CE: Evidence-Based Practice for Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Management

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 123(1):32-37, January 2023.

Staffing Ratios and Burnout

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 120(5):13, May 2020.

Original Research: Patient-to-Nurse Violence During One-to-One Assignments: A Silent Epidemic

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 123(2):28-35, February 2023.

Original Research: How Magnet Hospital Status Affects Nurses, Patients, and Organizations: A Systematic Review

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 120(7):28-38, July 2020.


CE: Postpartum Depression: A Nurse's Guide

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 121(7):32-43, July 2021.

Evidence-Based Practice Step by Step: Critical Appraisal of the Evidence: Part I

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 110(7):47-52, July 2010.

COVID-19: Impact on Nurses and Nursing

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 121(5):19-21, May 2021.

EBP 2.0: From Strategy to Implementation

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 119(4):50-52, April 2019.

CE: Caring for Patients After Ileostomy Surgery

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 123(2):36-41, February 2023.

Evidence-Based Practice, Step by Step: Asking the Clinical Question: A Key Step in Evidence-Based Practice

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 110(3):58-61, March 2010.

Increasing Nurse Retention

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 119(8):10, August 2019.

The Silent Epidemic of Workplace Violence

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 123(2):7, February 2023.

JBI's Systematic Reviews: Study Selection and Critical Appraisal

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 114(6):47-52, June 2014.

JBI's Systematic Reviews: Data Extraction and Synthesis

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 114(7):49-54, July 2014.

Community Health Nursing

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 109:19, January 2009.

Original Research: TikTok's ‘Dancing Nurses’ During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Content Analysis

AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 122(12):24-31, December 2022.

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Applied Nursing Research

ISSN: 0897-1897

Most Downloaded Articles

The most downloaded articles from Applied Nursing Research in the last 90 days.

Tai Chi for older nurses: A workplace wellness pilot study

Mary Val Palumbo, Ge Wu and 3 more February 2012

The effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions on the psychological well-being of nurses: A systematic review

Virpi Sulosaari, Eda Unal, Fatma Ilknur Cinar Open Access April 2022

Application of the Roy Adaptation Theory to a care program for nurses

Annette M. (Browning) Callis December 2020

The efficacy of religious and spiritual interventions in nursing care to promote mental, physical and spiritual health: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Rocío de Diego-Cordero, Paola Suárez-Reina and 3 more Open Access October 2022

Is verbatim transcription of interview data always necessary?

Elizabeth J. Halcomb, Patricia M. Davidson February 2006

Resilience as a mediator between compassion fatigue, nurses' work outcomes, and quality of care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Leodoro J. Labrague, Janet Alexis A. de los Santos October 2021

The experiences of critical care nurses caring for patients with COVID-19 during the 2020 pandemic: A qualitative study

Jacqueline M. Gordon, Terry Magbee, Linda H. Yoder June 2021

Inpatient fall prevention from the patient's perspective: A qualitative study

Bethany Radecki, Staci Reynolds, Areeba Kara October 2018

Nursing ethics in an era of pandemic

Cheryl Dellasega, Mary Louise Kanaskie December 2021

Reducing nurses' stress: A randomized controlled trial of a web-based stress management program for nurses

Rebekah K. Hersch, Royer F. Cook and 5 more November 2016

Nurses' occupational satisfaction during Covid-19 pandemic

Bella Savitsky, Irina Radomislensky, Tova Hendel June 2021

A practical application of Katharine Kolcaba's comfort theory to cardiac patients

Robin Krinsky, Illouise Murillo, Janet Johnson May 2014

“It's just more personal”: Using multiple methods of qualitative data collection to facilitate participation in research focusing on sensitive subjects

Jennifer Heath, Heidi Williamson, Lisa Williams, Diana Harcourt October 2018

Nurses' pandemic lives: A mixed-methods study of experiences during COVID-19

Kathleen Gray, Paulette Dorney, Lori Hoffman, Albert Crawford August 2021

Evaluation of bedside shift report: A research and evidence-based practice initiative

Victoria Schirm, Geneva Banz, Caitlin Swartz, Marva Richmond April 2018

Effect of peripheral IV based blood collection on catheter dwell time, blood collection, and patient response

Deborah F. Mulloy, Susan M. Lee and 3 more Open Access April 2018

The relation between patient education, patient empowerment and patient satisfaction: A cross-sectional-comparison study

Mei-Yu Yeh, Shu-Chen Wu, Tao-Hsin Tung February 2018

The role of job satisfaction, work engagement, self-efficacy and agentic capacities on nurses' turnover intention and patient satisfaction

Silvia De Simone, Anna Planta, Gianfranco Cicotto February 2018

The effect of hospitalization on patients' emotional and psychological well-being among adult patients: An integrative review

Naif Alzahrani October 2021

The impact of perceived workload on nurse satisfaction with work-life balance and intention to leave the occupation

Peter Holland, Tse Leng Tham, Cathy Sheehan, Brian Cooper October 2019

Frontline nurses' burnout and its associated factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea

Eun-Young Noh, Yeon-Hwan Park and 3 more Open Access October 2022

Promoting older adult fall prevention education and awareness in a community setting: A nurse-led intervention

Tiffani Chidume February 2021

Falls prevention: Identification of predictive fall risk factors

Natalie Callis February 2016

Causes of workplace violence against nurses from patients and their relatives: A qualitative study

Hande Yesilbas, Ulku Baykal December 2021

Determining if nurses are involved in political action or politics: A scoping literature review

Donna M. Wilson, Frederick Anafi and 4 more August 2020

Evidence-Based Nursing

(EBN) publishes critical commentaries and summaries of the most valid research in nursing, from other international healthcare journals.

Evidence-Based Nursing systematically searches a wide range of international healthcare journals applying strict criteria for the validity of research and relevance to best nursing practice. Content is critically appraised and the most relevant articles are summarised into succinct expert commentaries, focusing on the papers` key findings and implications for nursing practice.

Evidence-Based Nursing is co-owned by RCNi and BMJ.

EBN welcomes new critical voices. To find out more about writing for us please see here .

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3 November 2022

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Social jetlag and quality of life among nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study

Amid drastic changes in the educational environment and continued substitution of in-person learning with online learning owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to analyze the predictors of quality of...

Being a nursing student during the coronavirus pandemic: a mixed methods study

The COVID-19 pandemic led to major changes in people’s lives via protective strategies aimed at limiting the transmission of COVID-19, including social distancing, lockdowns, cancelled or limited leisure activ...

The variables in the rationing of nursing care in cardiology departments

The rationing of nursing care is a complex process that affects the quality of medical services.

The experience of diabetic retinopathy patients during hospital-to-home full-cycle care: A qualitative study

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major blinding eye diseases worldwide. Psychological, emotional and social problems of DR patients are prominent. The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of ...

Construct validity of advanced practice nurse core competence scale: an exploratory factor analysis

Determining the core competence of advanced practice nurses is foundational for promoting optimal design and implementation of advanced practice nursing roles. Core competencies specific to the contexts of the...

Nurses’ perceptions of critically ill patients’ eye care: a qualitative study in Iran

Despite the high prevalence of ocular complications in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), eye care, as an important component of the care plan, has not received much attention from nurses. To ...

Impact of ethical climate, moral distress, and moral sensitivity on turnover intention among haemodialysis nurses: a cross-sectional study

While several studies have been performed on turnover intention among nurses, limited studies have considered the ethical perspectives on turnover intention among haemodialysis nurses. The purpose of this stud...

The association between team resilience and team performance in nurses during COVID-19 pandemic: a network analysis

Compared to other healthcare workers, nurses are more vulnerable to the potentially devastating effects of pandemic-related stressors. Studies have not yet investigated the deeper characteristics of the relati...

From the first to the fourth critical period of COVID-19: what has changed in nursing practice environments in hospital settings?

The COVID-19 pandemic reinforced the need to invest in nursing practice environments and health institutions were led to implement several changes. In this sense, this study aimed to analyze the impact of the ...

Consensus recommendations on the role of nurses in the care of headache patients: protocol for a european e-delphi study

Nurses play an important role in the treatment of headache patients at the specialized headache centers in Europe, however, a unified definition of nursing tasks and conduction of tasks is lacking. The objecti...

Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the self-directed learning instrument in Chinese nursing students

In a rapidly changing healthcare environment, Self-directed learning (SDL) ability is recognized as a crucial condition for nursing students and nurse to deal with severe challenges positively. Developing SDL ...

Nurses’ reflections on caring for sexual and gender minorities pre-post stigma reduction training in Uganda

Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) have a significant HIV burden worldwide. Data from eight countries across sub-Saharan Africa found a pooled HIV prevalence of 14% among MSM and 25% a...

Factors associated with the extent of nurses’ involvement in promotion of the nursing profession: a cross-sectional study among nurses working in diverse healthcare settings

To examine factors associated with promotion of the nursing profession, to the nursing community, other healthcare professionals and the general public, by nurses employed in diverse healthcare settings.

Post-traumatic growth in caregivers of children hospitalized in the PICU due to traffic accident: a qualitative study

Globally, tens of millions of children are hospitalized every year for non-fatal traffic accident injuries, being confronted with an injured child can be extremely stressful for parents. Understandably, a sign...

Evaluating knowledge and attitudes scales for the care of older adults among nursing students in Ghana

Understanding nursing students’ knowledge about and attitudes toward older adults’ using context-specific survey instruments can help to identify and design effective learning and teaching materials to improve...

Factors affecting the transition to adulthood of Korean young adults with spina bifida: a qualitative study

Transition to adulthood to live independently while self-managing health and daily life without parental help is crucial for young adults with chronic conditions. Despite its importance as a precursor to effec...

Barriers and facilitators in the implementation of mobilization robots in hospitals from the perspective of clinical experts and developers

Early mobilization can help reduce severe side effects such as muscle atrophy that occur during hospitalization. However, due to time and staff shortages in intensive and critical care as well as safety risks ...

The role of Advanced Practice Nurses in creating the Kidney Transplant candidate care map (APN-preKT): a convergent-parallel mixed methods research protocol

Waiting time for kidney transplants (KT) is an important health determinant for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). During this time, ongoing evaluation and participation is necessary in order to guara...

The impact of training chemotherapy safety standards with a smartphone application on the knowledge, attitude, and performance of nurses

Nurses who play the leading role in caring for patients, especially nurses in the chemotherapy department who are constantly exposed to high-risk drugs and their side effects, should pay more attention to occu...

Mediating effect of resilience between social support and compassion fatigue among intern nursing and midwifery students during COVID-19: a cross-sectional study

To examine the mediating effect of resilience between social support and compassion fatigue among intern nursing and midwifery students during COVID-19.

Evaluation of parental stress in neonatal intensive care unit in Iran: a national study

More attention is paid to the survival and treatment of the sick infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and parental stress is not considered. The purpose of this study was to determine samples of t...

Development and psychometric evaluation of a self-management behaviours scale in rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA-SMBS)

Self-management behaviours can be crucial to improving disease symptoms and health outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Currently, the tools available for measuring self-management behaviours in RA ...

The relationship between job stress and patient safety culture among nurses: a systematic review

Work stress is one of the leading causes of physical and mental problems among nurses and can affect patient safety. Nurses experiencing stress are more prone to make errors, which has consequences for the saf...

Using a simulation-based approach to promote structured and interactive nursing clinical handover: a pre- and post-evaluation pilot study in bilingual Hong Kong

Effective clinical nursing handover involves the transfer of responsibility and accountability for patient care between nurses, leading to better patient safety and continuity of care. Nurses in bilingual cont...

Transformational leadership and predictors of resilience among registered nurses: a cross-sectional survey in an underserved area

High resilience increases nurses' ability to cope with job-related stressors and enhances job satisfaction and, consequently, their retention. The study aims to identify resilience predictors and perceptions o...

The relationship between attitude and self-efficacy of labor support with supportive behaviors from the perspective of midwives

Effective support given by a midwife during labor and childbirth is associated with numerous positive outcomes. Yet the delivery of such support can be hindered by negative workplace cultures. The purpose of t...

Barriers to nurses’ therapeutic communication practices in a district hospital in Ghana

Patients accessing health care enter the hospital environment with extreme anxiety, fear and distress which impacts their interactions with nurses and other health care professionals who are expected to help a...

What is nursing professionalism? a concept analysis

Nursing professionalism plays an important role in clinical nursing. However, a clear conceptual understanding of nursing professionalism is lacking.

Depression, anxiety and stress among metastatic breast cancer patients on chemotherapy in China

This study aimed to assess the level of depression, anxiety and stress among metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT) in Beijing, China.

Testing the association between the enabling and enacting factors of patient safety culture and patient safety: structural equation modelling

Despite evidence linking a safety culture with patient safety, the processes by which aspect of safety culture influences patient safety are not yet well understood. Thus, this study aimed to test a theoretica...

Comprehensive assessment of factors contributing to the actual turnover of newly licensed registered nurses working in acute care hospitals: a systematic review

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the demand for nursing care increased, making the retention of nurses even more important. Among staff nurses, it is reported that the turnover rate of newly licensed registered n...

The mediating effect of critical thinking between interest in learning and caring among nursing students: a cross-sectional study

Previous studies have explored the influence of interest in learning on caring and critical thinking, as well as the relationship between caring and critical thinking. However, the mediating effect of critical...

Association between career adaptability and turnover intention among nursing assistants: the mediating role of psychological capital

High turnover intention of nursing assistants was detrimental to the sustainability of long-term care. Career adaptability is an important determinant in reducing turnover intention, but little research has ex...

Development and initial validation of the psychological capital scale for nurses in Chinese local context

Psychological capital is affected by different cultures and professional characteristics and its constituent dimensions and evaluation tools are heterogeneous. There is a lack of measurements for assessing nur...

Perspectives on Deprescribing in long-term care: qualitative findings from nurses, aides, residents, and proxies

Deprescribing initiatives in the long-term care (LTC) setting are often unsuccessful or not sustained. Prior research has considered how physicians and pharmacists feel about deprescribing, yet little is known...

The influence of professional identity on how the receiver receives and responds to a speaking up message: a cross-sectional study

Research focused on understanding what enables or hinders health professionals to speak up about a safety concern has been to date predominately atheoretical and speaker focused. However, the role the receiver...

Primary health care nurses’ mental health knowledge and attitudes towards patients and mental health care in a South African metropolitan municipality

In South Africa, there are on-going calls to integrate mental health services into existing primary health care (PHC) programmes such as Tuberculosis (TB). Successful service integration and quality service de...

Translation and psychometric evaluation of the persian version of the “Nursing Profession Self-Efficacy Scale”

Self-efficacy demonstrates the general competence of nurses in providing nursing care. Evaluation of nurses' self-efficacy is of particular importance to improve nursing care. The existing self-efficacy scales...

The psychiatric mental health nurse’s ethical considerations regarding the use of coercive measures – a qualitative interview study

In psychiatric inpatient care, situations arise where it may be necessary to use coercive measures and thereby restrict individual autonomy. The ethical principles of healthcare, i.e., respect for autonomy, be...

Does perceived organization support moderates the relationships between work frustration and burnout among intensive care unit nurses? A cross-sectional survey

Intensive care unit (ICU) nurses are at high risk of burnout and warranting attention. Existing literature found that work frustration was related to burnout, whilst perceived organization support influenced t...

Effectiveness of point of care ultrasound (POCUS) simulation course and skills retention for Japanese nurse practitioners

In Japan, the nurse practitioner (NP) system has only been in place for a short time, and there is no ultrasound (US) simulation course for NPs. Therefore, NPs may have to attend US simulation courses for phys...

Knowledge, practice, and associated factors of preoperative patient teaching among surgical unit nurses, at Northwest Amhara Comprehensive Specialized Referral Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia, 2022

Preoperative teaching practice is very important to surgical clients in freeing them from anxiety and post-operative complications. The preoperative education received by the patients depends on the knowledge ...

Nurse-led telehealth intervention effectiveness on reducing hypertension: a systematic review

Hypertension is a public health concern for many countries. The World Health Organization has established a global objective to reduce the prevalence of non-communicable diseases, including hypertension, which...

Minimum wiping pressure and number of wipes that can remove dirt during bed baths using disposable towels: a multi-study approach

Friction irritation by wiping increases the risk of skin problems. In bed baths with cotton towels, wiping three times with weak pressure (10–20 mmHg ≈ 1333–2666 Pa) can remove dirt while maintaining skin barr...

Transformational leadership in development of transformative education in nursing: a qualitative study

Regarding the dynamic and increasing needs of communities, changes in the education system are essential to train competent healthcare professionals. The study aimed to explore the experience of educational di...

The impact of distance education on nursing students course performance in a sino-foreign cooperative program during the onset of COVID-19: a quasi-experimental study

The outbreak of COVID-19 changed many studies’ teaching mode in higher education profoundly, including nursing. This study evaluated the impact of distance education on the course performance of nursing studen...

Face-to-face and online teaching experience on experimental animals and alternative methods with nursing students: a research study

Animal models are increasingly used in Nursing science to study care approaches. Despite the scientific relevance and the ethical debate surrounding the use of experimental animals, there is a scarcity of scho...

Burnout and quality of life in nursing staff during the COVID-19 pandemic

To investigate the association between burnout and quality of life among nursing staff at intensive care units during the new coronavirus pandemic and identify the influence of sociodemographic variables.

The effects of continuous nursing via the WeChat platform on neonates after enterostomy: a single-centre retrospective cohort study

Temporary enterostomy is an effective treatment for various neonatal intestinal diseases. However, family caregivers find it challenging to provide the required nursing care. Nursing management is very importa...

Incidence, time to occurrence and predictors of peripheral intravenous cannula-related complications among neonates and infants in Northwest Ethiopia: an institutional-based prospective study

Peripheral intravenous cannulas (PIVC) are venous access devices commonly used for the administration of intravenous fluids, drugs, blood products, and parenteral nutrition. Despite its frequent use, it has co...

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Annual Journal Metrics

Citation Impact 3.189 -  2-year Impact Factor  (2021) 3.622 - 5-year Impact Factor (2021) 1.559 - SNIP (Source Normalized Impact per Paper) 0.631 - SJR (SCImago Journal Rank)

Speed 38 days to first decision for all manuscripts (Median) 77 days to first decision for reviewed manuscripts only (Median)

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BMC Nursing

ISSN: 1472-6955

‘We need to give dementia the attention it surely deserves’


Clinical content

Latest clinical articles.


How patients experience the impact of Lyme disease


Giving and receiving feedback: a training resource for student nurses


Renal system 2: acute kidney injury and other types of kidney dysfunction


Indwelling urinary catheter insertion 1: children and young people


Dementia 1: types, risk factors, and recognising signs and symptoms


Trauma nursing 5: identifying and assessing patients who self-harm


Impact of relatives keeping patient diaries in the intensive care unit


Vaping among young people: myths and misinformation about risks

Clinical series: trauma, trauma nursing 1: an overview of major trauma and the care pathway, trauma nursing 2: management of patients with rib fractures, trauma nursing 3: assessing and managing head injury, trauma nursing 4: recognising and managing haemorrhage in trauma, self-assessment.

Our Self-assessment articles offer bitesize continuing professional development (CPD). Each article comes with a multiple-choice assessment accompanied by feedback to help embed knowledge and understanding of that particular subject. If you score 80% or more in the assessment, you can download a personalised certificate to use as evidence of your CPD to count towards revalidation. Latest articles below. Find out more.

Renal system 1: the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys

The senses 4: touch – physiology of the sensation and perception of touch, safe blood transfusion in recipients of haemopoietic stem cell transplant, the senses 3: exploring the interrelated senses of smell and taste, the senses 2: vision – eye anatomy and the visual sensory system, the senses 1: hearing, balance and common pathologies of the ear, nasogastric tube insertion 2: placement in adult patients, nervous system 6: the autonomic nervous system – anatomy and function, nervous system 5: the peripheral nervous system – cranial nerves, nervous system 4: the peripheral nervous system – spinal nerves, nervous system 3: the central and peripheral nervous system ii, essential critical care skills 6: arterial blood gas analysis, essential critical care skills 5: management of fluid balance, journal club.

Nursing Times Journal Club articles are designed to help you increase knowledge and improve practice. We regularly select articles that we think would make a good topic for discussion or reflection and, therefore, the basis for a journal club. A bit like a book club, a journal clubs offer an opportunity to discuss selected articles with a group of colleagues, reflect on practice and share insights and ideas in a relaxed and sociable setting. Taking part in a journal club can contribute towards revalidation. Lastest articles below. Find out more.

Developing a standardised digital handover from hospital paediatric care

A preceptorship programme for school nurses and health visitors, supporting minority ethnic student nurses at university and in practice, transitions of care: helping older people to return home from hospital, professionalism in nursing 6: the nurse as innovator, professionalism in nursing 5: social media and e-professionalism, professionalism in nursing 4: record keeping, consent and capacity, professionalism in nursing 3: the value of self-care for students, professionalism in nursing 2: working as part of a team, professionalism in nursing 1: how to develop professional values, tailoring continence management to individual needs in residential care, using simulation to help paediatric nurses learn to break bad news, practical procedures.

These illustrated step-by-step guides offer the latest evidence-based guidance on how to perform practical procedures safely and competently. Whether a nursing student or experienced practitioner, Nursing Times Practical Procedures can be used to support and update your knowledge and as an educational resource when teaching other staff. Latest articles below. Find out more.

Nasogastric tube insertion 1: children and young people

Injection technique 1: administering drugs via the intramuscular route, out-of-hospital resuscitation 3: paediatric basic life support, out-of-hospital resuscitation 2: automated external defibrillator, out-of-hospital resuscitation 1: adult basic life support, early mobilisation 5: finding solutions to support patient mobility, early mobilisation 4: transferring patients safely using equipment, early mobilisation 3: moving patients from their bed to chair without aids, early mobilisation 2: comprehensive mobility assessment and goal setting, early mobilisation 1: risk factors, complications and costs of immobility, bowel screening: adherence factors and the nurse’s role in promotion, pulmonary administration medicines 2: dry powder inhalers and nebulisers, pulmonary administration medicines 1: procedure for use of pmd inhalers, systems of life.

Having a good knowledge of how the body works in health is essential to understanding disease processes and determining how they affect patients. To help you better understand anatomy and physiology of the human body, as well as the effects of illness and disease, we have developed an extensive range of illustrated articles on the Systems of Life. They are organised into series, for example, the nervous system and the cardiac system. Latest articles below. Find out more.

Nervous system 2: the central and peripheral nervous system I

Nervous system 1: introduction to the nervous system, the endocrine system 8: kidneys, heart and skin, endocrine system 7: ovaries and testes, placenta (pregnancy), bitesize learning videos, ▶ video 1: immediate and necessary care, ▶ video 2: leg ulcer assessment, ▶ video 3: vascular assessment, ▶ video 4: wound cleansing and wound-bed preparation, ▶ video 5: leg ulcer prevention, ▶ video 6: leg ulcers – self-supported care, you're the panel.

Each month, Nursing Times considers a real-life case heard by the Nursing and Midwifery Council’s fitness to practise panels and which has been specially selected for us by the regulator. We give you the facts of the case, as presented to the panel, and you get a chance to consider what decision you would have made, as well as the chance to consider and reflect on practice, behaviour and where learning is needed. Visit the section for decisions and reasons.

What should happen to a nurse who failed to escalate a patient’s deteriorating condition?

What should happen to a nurse who failed to complete a risk assessment of a patient, did a registered nurse working in a care home handle three residents inappropriately, what should happen to a hospice nurse who made numerous errors in administering medication, what should happen to a nurse whose actions contributed to the death of a patient, what should happen to a nurse who supplied an incorrect consent form to a patient, what should happen to an intensive care nurse accused of several care failings, what should happen to a nurse who slept on duty while employed at a care home, what should happen to a nurse who was accused of moving a patient inappropriately, what should happen to a nurse who made medication errors and acted dishonestly, clinical zones.

Visit our clinical zones to find articles on best practice, latest evidence and innovation in a particular subject area. Each zone allows nurses to keep up to date with clinical articles, news and opinion across almost 70 subjects, from conditions to care settings. In total, the zones comprise an archive of over 6,000 double-blind peer-reviewed clinical articles. Among them you will find a range of different types of article, including practical procedures, systems of life, self-assessment, evidence reviews, award-winning innovation and much more. Browse the list below and click on those that you want to know more about.

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The Importance of Nursing Research

Nursing research has a tremendous influence on current and future professional nursing practice, thus rendering it an essential component of the educational process. This article chronicles the learning experiences of two undergraduate nursing students who were provided with the opportunity to become team members in a study funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research. The application process, the various learning opportunities and responsibilities performed by the students, and the benefits and outcomes of the experience are described. The authors hope that by sharing their learning experiences, more students will be given similar opportunities using the strategies presented in this article. Nursing research is critical to the nursing profession and is necessary for continuing advancements that promote optimal nursing care.

Throughout the 21st century, the role of nurse has evolved significantly. Nurses work in a variety of settings, including the hospital, the classroom, the community health department, the business sector, home health care, and the laboratory. Although each role carries different responsibilities, the primary goal of a professional nurse remains the same: to be the client's advocate and provide optimal care on the basis of evidence obtained through research.

Baccalaureate programs in the United States prepare students for entry-level nursing positions. The focus is to care for individuals throughout the human life span. Knowledge is acquired from textbooks, classroom and Web-based instruction, simulation, and clinical experiences. The goal of all programs is for students to graduate as safe, entry-level professionals, having received a well-rounded exposure to the nursing field. Students are exposed to evidence-based nursing practice throughout their curriculum; however, the allocated time for nursing research is often limited. Many programs require only one 3-credit hour course for nursing research. This amount of time is limited, despite the broad spectrum of nursing research and its influence on current and future nursing care.

Research is typically not among the traditional responsibilities of an entry-level nurse. Many nurses are involved in either direct patient care or administrative aspects of health care. Nursing research is a growing field in which individuals within the profession can contribute a variety of skills and experiences to the science of nursing care. There are frequent misconceptions as to what nursing research is. Some individuals do not even know how to begin to define nursing research. According to Polit and Beck (2006) , nursing research is:

systematic inquiry designed to develop knowledge about issues of importance to nurses, including nursing practice, nursing education, and nursing administration. (p. 4)

Nursing research is vital to the practice of professional nursing, and the importance of its inclusion during undergraduate instruction cannot be overemphasized. Only with exposure and experience can students begin to understand the concept and importance of nursing research.

The purpose of this article is to describe undergraduate students’ experiences of becoming aware of and participating in a federally funded research study from the National Institute of Nursing Research. As a part of funding for the study, which was an AREA award ( A cademic R esearch E nhancement A ward, R15 mechanism), there were designated opportunities for student involvement. The primary aim of the research study was to investigate the effects of gene-environment interactions on risk factors of preclinical cardiovascular disease in a cohort of 585 young adults who all had a positive family history of cardiovascular disease (i.e., essential hypertension or premature myocardial infarction at age 55 or younger in one or both biological parents or in one or more grandparents), verified in the medical record. Specific genes examined included cytochrome P-450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1; cytochrome P-450 2A; glutathione S-transferase mu 1; and glutathione S-transferase theta 1. Cardiovascular-dependent measures were diastolic blood pressure, endothelium-dependent arterial vasodilation, left ventricular mass indexed for body size, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance. The effects of ethnicity and gender were also explored.

Learning Opportunity

The learning process began with the principal investigator (M.S.T.) of the study visiting the junior class (class of 2007) of baccalaureate students at the Medical College of Georgia. This particular student group was chosen due to their academic standing because they would have the chance to take full advantage of learning directly from a nurse researcher for one full year before graduation. The principal investigator briefly presented and discussed the growing field of nursing research, the advancements made by nursing research, and the critical role of nursing research to nursing practice. The principal investigator also presented an overview of the funded research study and extended an invitation to students to apply for two part-time positions on the grant that were designed specifically for nursing student involvement. Students recognized the excellent opportunity and were intrigued with the future possibilities. They understood this option was unique and appeared to be a great pathway for becoming an active participant in learning the nursing research process through involvement in an official nursing research study.

The principal investigator established objective criteria for the application process. The criteria included writing a maximum 1-page essay sharing the reasons why the students wanted to join the research project as a team member and also sharing their personal and professional goals for involvement in the study. Many students were interested; thus, it was a very competitive process. The principal investigator reviewed the essays and selected approximately 10 prospective individuals for an interview. The interview was an extension of the essay. At the interview, the principal investigator further described the positions, provided a detailed overview of the grant, and had the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the student candidates. The students were encouraged to ask questions to further understand the expectations of the prospective opportunity. The interview also provided the students with increased exposure to the study's goal and more familiarization with the expectations of the funded positions.

After the interview process was completed, two individuals were selected, per the grant specifications. The selected individuals described the interview process as a positive experience that helped solidify their desire to become involved in the research study. The principal investigator emphasized that this job opportunity was designed to be a learning experience in which the students would be guided through the entire research study process and become members of a multidisciplinary team. Time responsibilities for each student included approximately 6 hours per week. The principal investigator communicated clearly that the nursing baccalaureate program was the first priority for the students, and thus provided a flexible work schedule.

Research Study Experience

The students began working in early april 2006. The first step in the work experience included 6 weeks of funded orientation. This was their first exposure to the research process; thus, it was important for the students to be provided with a strong foundation. Orientation included attending a team meeting and being introduced to the members of the multidisciplinary team (i.e., biostatistician, cardiologist, geneticists, nurse researcher, and psychologist, all of whom served as co-investigators, and the genetic laboratory personnel); reviewing the grant application; completing the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) (2000) ; completing the Roche educational program on genetics; and touring the worksite facilities. Reviewing the grant gave the students a better understanding of the specific aims and objectives of the study and the intended procedures of the genetic laboratory work in which the students would be involved. The complexity of the grant required the principal investigator to further explain and clarify specific details. The CITI training, which is required by the institution's Office of Human Research Protection, was completed online and took approximately 5.5 hours. The CITI program was presented in a tutorial format, and satisfactory completion of numerous quizzes was required. The task was tedious and time consuming, but valuable and essential, as it increased the awareness of the established codes of conduct for research. At the conclusion of the CITI training, the students understood the necessary policies and procedures for maintaining security and confidentiality of human subjects, the legal and ethical issues regarding the research process, and the essential procedures for research conduct.

Although the students had a basic understanding of genetics, they completed the Roche Genetics Education Program (2004) to gain a deeper understanding. The program was direct and easy to navigate and was excellent for all learning styles, as it contained both visual and auditory explanations. The explanations covered both basic and complex genetic concepts. Through the use of the genetics program, the students were able to comprehend abstract genetic details and to further understand the importance and influence of genetics on personal health. To conclude the orientation process, students were taught basic laboratory procedures, such as polymerase chain reaction and restrictive enzyme digestion, which were used to perform genotyping for the study. After these procedures had been observed several times, the students were given the opportunity to acquire hands-on experience with these laboratory techniques. Each of these components of the orientation process provided the students with the needed foundation for becoming involved in the research study.

After approximately 2 months of orientation, the students were ready to begin working in the genetics laboratory. One of the primary responsibilities of the students would be to further learn and become confident with genotyping techniques. The laboratory was shared among research personnel of several funded studies, with various research experiments being conducted concurrently. The students, under the supervision of the principal investigator and geneticist (H.Z.), also worked with experienced research assistants to perform the genotyping. The students maintained a daily log describing the laboratory genotyping procedures and experiments, and these logs were reviewed at team meetings. Although the actual procedure for polymerase chain reaction seemed straightforward, the students quickly learned that quality control must be used. Sometimes during genotyping, the DNA samples did not produce results. The students discovered that there are numerous contributing factors to successful polymerase chain reaction, such as quality of DNA templates, primer specifications, temperature settings, gel conditions, pipette measuring accuracy, and general laboratory techniques. Even the slightest error could result in permanent DNA sample loss, major experiment failure, or DNA sample contamination.

The students met with the research team members frequently to discuss and troubleshoot potential solutions and problem solve techniques that would foster improving the success rate and productivity of the genotyping. From the laboratory experience, the students learned that every detail must be considered and addressed precisely and meticulously when conducting experiments. Sometimes the process became frustrating, but the students soon discovered that patience and persistence were the most important attributes for a laboratory researcher to possess. The laboratory experience was an excellent hands-on learning opportunity. The students no longer viewed research as strictly information gathered from a journal or textbook, but rather as a physical act that required extreme concentration, dedication, and determination.

After spending numerous months in the laboratory performing the required genotyping, the students had the opportunity to be exposed to another role of a nurse researcher. They performed literature reviews regarding the study. Although the students had written papers in their nursing school program that required literature citations, they were not familiar with all of the library resources available to them. In no time, the students learned which library and online resources had the most validity and what would be the most relevant to their study. The literature search results provided the students and principal investigator with information on new studies that had been conducted on gene-environment interactions regarding tobacco smoke exposure and cardiovascular disease. From the literature review experience, the students learned the importance of being selective and time efficient. Often when a search was first begun, thousands of articles were listed, but the students learned the importance of narrowing the searches to the specific areas of focus. After the students completed their searches, they met with the principal investigator, who provided direction on the articles identified as the most relevant to the study.

The students continued working with the principal investigator during data review, analysis, and preparation of dissemination of the results (i.e., the publishing process). They helped to prepare an abstract submission of the study presented at an international meeting ( Tingen et al., 2007 ). They also helped with the preparation of manuscripts of the study results. By the conclusion of their work experience, the students will have been exposed to and participated in the entire research process.

Benefits and Outcomes

From the students’ perspectives, this opportunity was extremely beneficial. Prior to this experience, the students were not familiar with nursing research. Their original perception of research was that it was conducted by people with chemistry, biology, biochemistry, and genetic degrees in laboratories at major universities. They now realize that nursing and research can be combined and that optimal nursing care is dependent on the latest research findings. In addition, the students believe this opportunity has been beneficial in learning that nurse researchers are valuable to nurses in other settings. For example, one of the long-term goals of this research study is to develop appropriate interventions for children who are more susceptible to and at risk for the harmful effects of tobacco smoke due to their genetic heritage. The information obtained by a nurse researcher can be disseminated to nurses who work directly with the individuals to whom the research applies. Practice that has shown to be effective through research allows nurses to better advocate for patients and provide the best possible care. Although the majority of nurses who provide patient care will be consumers of nursing research, implementing evidence-based nursing practice is crucial to provide optimal nursing care. Information from nursing research has the potential to directly impact the care provided to patients in all health care settings.

Now that the students have had the opportunity to become more familiar with nursing research through involvement as team members, they recognize that their future professional possibilities are endless. Nursing research is an emerging and growing field in which individuals can apply their nursing education to discover new advancements that promote evidence-based care. They learned the research process and the important roles that each team member plays during the study phases of conception, design, implementation, analysis, and dissemination. Each aspect of the research process is important and contributes to the overall success of the study.

The students also discovered the benefit of trying new things. Prior to this experience, they had little exposure to the research process and nursing research. Consequently, they had to be receptive to learning and recognize that acquiring new knowledge was a gradual process. At times, the students felt anxious because all aspects were new, but they realized that without trying, they would never advance and feel comfortable with the research process. As the students reflected, they thought this was an excellent growing experience professionally, scholastically, and personally. In addition, this opportunity benefited the students’ peers through discussions and their sharing of work responsibilities, the research process, and the importance of evidence-based practice. As future nurses, the students are strong proponents of nursing research, and this experience has also broadened their horizons regarding future professional growth and opportunities. In addition, they have a better understanding of the importance of scientific evidence to support their clinical practice. As a result, the students thought that a stronger emphasis should be placed on nursing research in undergraduate baccalaureate education and that more students should have the opportunity to participate as team members in nursing research studies.

The students were almost one full year into nursing school and thought they had learned about all of the possibilities for their futures when they were first presented with this learning opportunity. They knew their future options were numerous and included working in acute care and community settings. They also realized they could further their education and pursue graduate degrees to include a master's degree and become an administrator, educator, clinical nurse specialist, nurse anesthetist, or nurse practitioner, or potentially pursue a doctorate. They did not know there was an emerging and growing field in which their nursing education could be applied and furthered—the area of research and the role of becoming a nurse researcher. Prior to this experience, students perceived their possibilities for a professional career in nursing were tremendous. Now by being involved in the entire process of conducting a federally funded research study, they realized their future professional possibilities are limitless.

The authors of this paper hope that by sharing their experience, they will encourage both nursing faculty and nursing students to not only introduce the research process into the nursing curriculum, but also to consider making nursing research a tangible and more integrated process. They think that a more beneficial approach to the introduction of research may be achieved through incorporating research-related content into each nursing course throughout the educational process. This could be conducted in addition to the current curriculum plan of many schools of nursing that require a single and concentrated 3-hour research course with a goal of research becoming a positive experience for students that is enthusiastically received as a new learning opportunity. In addition, students who are involved as team members in a funded research study may be provided with scheduled classroom opportunities for making progress reports to their peers. Also, the students could field questions regarding the research project and their experiences. These activities may foster increased learning and interest about research among the students’ classmates.

As nursing students are the future members of the nursing profession, and for the profession to continue to advance, nursing research must be the foundation of comprehensive, evidence-based clinical practice. This may only occur with increased exposure to nursing research. Therefore, it is critical that the future members of the nursing profession be exposed to, develop an appreciation for, and become more involved in nursing research, and thus incorporate its outcomes into the delivery of optimal professional nursing practice.


The lead author was awarded a grant (NR008871) from the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research.

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