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How to Write a Research Paper | A Beginner's Guide
A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides analysis, interpretation, and argument based on in-depth independent research.
Research papers are similar to academic essays , but they are usually longer and more detailed assignments, designed to assess not only your writing skills but also your skills in scholarly research. Writing a research paper requires you to demonstrate a strong knowledge of your topic, engage with a variety of sources, and make an original contribution to the debate.
This step-by-step guide takes you through the entire writing process, from understanding your assignment to proofreading your final draft.
Table of contents
Understand the assignment, choose a research paper topic, conduct preliminary research, develop a thesis statement, create a research paper outline, write a first draft of the research paper, write the introduction, write a compelling body of text, write the conclusion, the second draft, the revision process, research paper checklist, free lecture slides.
Completing a research paper successfully means accomplishing the specific tasks set out for you. Before you start, make sure you thoroughly understanding the assignment task sheet:
- Read it carefully, looking for anything confusing you might need to clarify with your professor.
- Identify the assignment goal, deadline, length specifications, formatting, and submission method.
- Make a bulleted list of the key points, then go back and cross completed items off as you’re writing.
Carefully consider your timeframe and word limit: be realistic, and plan enough time to research, write, and edit.
There are many ways to generate an idea for a research paper, from brainstorming with pen and paper to talking it through with a fellow student or professor.
You can try free writing, which involves taking a broad topic and writing continuously for two or three minutes to identify absolutely anything relevant that could be interesting.
You can also gain inspiration from other research. The discussion or recommendations sections of research papers often include ideas for other specific topics that require further examination.
Once you have a broad subject area, narrow it down to choose a topic that interests you, m eets the criteria of your assignment, and i s possible to research. Aim for ideas that are both original and specific:
- A paper following the chronology of World War II would not be original or specific enough.
- A paper on the experience of Danish citizens living close to the German border during World War II would be specific and could be original enough.
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Note any discussions that seem important to the topic, and try to find an issue that you can focus your paper around. Use a variety of sources , including journals, books, and reliable websites, to ensure you do not miss anything glaring.
Do not only verify the ideas you have in mind, but look for sources that contradict your point of view.
- Is there anything people seem to overlook in the sources you research?
- Are there any heated debates you can address?
- Do you have a unique take on your topic?
- Have there been some recent developments that build on the extant research?
In this stage, you might find it helpful to formulate some research questions to help guide you. To write research questions, try to finish the following sentence: “I want to know how/what/why…”
A thesis statement is a statement of your central argument — it establishes the purpose and position of your paper. If you started with a research question, the thesis statement should answer it. It should also show what evidence and reasoning you’ll use to support that answer.
The thesis statement should be concise, contentious, and coherent. That means it should briefly summarize your argument in a sentence or two, make a claim that requires further evidence or analysis, and make a coherent point that relates to every part of the paper.
You will probably revise and refine the thesis statement as you do more research, but it can serve as a guide throughout the writing process. Every paragraph should aim to support and develop this central claim.
A research paper outline is essentially a list of the key topics, arguments, and evidence you want to include, divided into sections with headings so that you know roughly what the paper will look like before you start writing.
A structure outline can help make the writing process much more efficient, so it’s worth dedicating some time to create one.
Your first draft won’t be perfect — you can polish later on. Your priorities at this stage are as follows:
- Maintaining forward momentum — write now, perfect later.
- Paying attention to clear organization and logical ordering of paragraphs and sentences, which will help when you come to the second draft.
- Expressing your ideas as clearly as possible, so you know what you were trying to say when you come back to the text.
You do not need to start by writing the introduction. Begin where it feels most natural for you — some prefer to finish the most difficult sections first, while others choose to start with the easiest part. If you created an outline, use it as a map while you work.
Do not delete large sections of text. If you begin to dislike something you have written or find it doesn’t quite fit, move it to a different document, but don’t lose it completely — you never know if it might come in useful later.
Paragraphs are the basic building blocks of research papers. Each one should focus on a single claim or idea that helps to establish the overall argument or purpose of the paper.
George Orwell’s 1946 essay “Politics and the English Language” has had an enduring impact on thought about the relationship between politics and language. This impact is particularly obvious in light of the various critical review articles that have recently referenced the essay. For example, consider Mark Falcoff’s 2009 article in The National Review Online, “The Perversion of Language; or, Orwell Revisited,” in which he analyzes several common words (“activist,” “civil-rights leader,” “diversity,” and more). Falcoff’s close analysis of the ambiguity built into political language intentionally mirrors Orwell’s own point-by-point analysis of the political language of his day. Even 63 years after its publication, Orwell’s essay is emulated by contemporary thinkers.
It’s also important to keep track of citations at this stage to avoid accidental plagiarism . Each time you use a source, make sure to take note of where the information came from.
You can use our free citation generators to automatically create citations and save your reference list as you go.
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The research paper introduction should address three questions: What, why, and how? After finishing the introduction, the reader should know what the paper is about, why it is worth reading, and how you’ll build your arguments.
What? Be specific about the topic of the paper, introduce the background, and define key terms or concepts.
Why? This is the most important, but also the most difficult, part of the introduction. Try to provide brief answers to the following questions: What new material or insight are you offering? What important issues does your essay help define or answer?
How? To let the reader know what to expect from the rest of the paper, the introduction should include a “map” of what will be discussed, briefly presenting the key elements of the paper in chronological order.
The major struggle faced by most writers is how to organize the information presented in the paper, which is one reason an outline is so useful. However, remember that the outline is only a guide and, when writing, you can be flexible with the order in which the information and arguments are presented.
One way to stay on track is to use your thesis statement and topic sentences . Check:
- topic sentences against the thesis statement;
- topic sentences against each other, for similarities and logical ordering;
- and each sentence against the topic sentence of that paragraph.
Be aware of paragraphs that seem to cover the same things. If two paragraphs discuss something similar, they must approach that topic in different ways. Aim to create smooth transitions between sentences, paragraphs, and sections.
The research paper conclusion is designed to help your reader out of the paper’s argument, giving them a sense of finality.
Trace the course of the paper, emphasizing how it all comes together to prove your thesis statement. Give the paper a sense of finality by making sure the reader understands how you’ve settled the issues raised in the introduction.
You might also discuss the more general consequences of the argument, outline what the paper offers to future students of the topic, and suggest any questions the paper’s argument raises but cannot or does not try to answer.
You should not :
- Offer new arguments or essential information
- Take up any more space than necessary
- Begin with stock phrases that signal you are ending the paper (e.g. “In conclusion”)
There are four main considerations when it comes to the second draft.
- Check how your vision of the paper lines up with the first draft and, more importantly, that your paper still answers the assignment.
- Identify any assumptions that might require (more substantial) justification, keeping your reader’s perspective foremost in mind. Remove these points if you cannot substantiate them further.
- Be open to rearranging your ideas. Check whether any sections feel out of place and whether your ideas could be better organized.
- If you find that old ideas do not fit as well as you anticipated, you should cut them out or condense them. You might also find that new and well-suited ideas occurred to you during the writing of the first draft — now is the time to make them part of the paper.
The goal during the revision and proofreading process is to ensure you have completed all the necessary tasks and that the paper is as well-articulated as possible.
- Confirm that your paper completes every task specified in your assignment sheet.
- Check for logical organization and flow of paragraphs.
- Check paragraphs against the introduction and thesis statement.
Check the content of each paragraph, making sure that:
- each sentence helps support the topic sentence.
- no unnecessary or irrelevant information is present.
- all technical terms your audience might not know are identified.
Next, think about sentence structure , grammatical errors, and formatting . Check that you have correctly used transition words and phrases to show the connections between your ideas. Look for typos, cut unnecessary words, and check for consistency in aspects such as heading formatting and spellings .
Finally, you need to make sure your paper is correctly formatted according to the rules of the citation style you are using. For example, you might need to include an MLA heading or create an APA title page .
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Checklist: Research paper
I have followed all instructions in the assignment sheet.
My introduction presents my topic in an engaging way and provides necessary background information.
My introduction presents a clear, focused research problem and/or thesis statement .
My paper is logically organized using paragraphs and (if relevant) section headings .
Each paragraph is clearly focused on one central idea, expressed in a clear topic sentence .
Each paragraph is relevant to my research problem or thesis statement.
I have used appropriate transitions to clarify the connections between sections, paragraphs, and sentences.
My conclusion provides a concise answer to the research question or emphasizes how the thesis has been supported.
My conclusion shows how my research has contributed to knowledge or understanding of my topic.
My conclusion does not present any new points or information essential to my argument.
I have provided an in-text citation every time I refer to ideas or information from a source.
I have included a reference list at the end of my paper, consistently formatted according to a specific citation style .
I have thoroughly revised my paper and addressed any feedback from my professor or supervisor.
I have followed all formatting guidelines (page numbers, headers, spacing, etc.).
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Microsoft 365 Life Hacks > Writing > How to write an introduction for a research paper
How to write an introduction for a research paper
Beginnings are hard. Beginning a research paper is no exception. Many students—and pros—struggle with how to write an introduction for a research paper.
This short guide will describe the purpose of a research paper introduction and how to create a good one.
What is an introduction for a research paper?
Introductions to research papers do a lot of work.
It may seem obvious, but introductions are always placed at the beginning of a paper. They guide your reader from a general subject area to the narrow topic that your paper covers. They also explain your paper’s:
- Scope: The topic you’ll be covering
- Context: The background of your topic
- Importance: Why your research matters in the context of an industry or the world
Your introduction will cover a lot of ground. However, it will only be half of a page to a few pages long. The length depends on the size of your paper as a whole. In many cases, the introduction will be shorter than all of the other sections of your paper.
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Why is an introduction vital to a research paper?
The introduction to your research paper isn’t just important. It’s critical.
Your readers don’t know what your research paper is about from the title. That’s where your introduction comes in. A good introduction will:
- Help your reader understand your topic’s background
- Explain why your research paper is worth reading
- Offer a guide for navigating the rest of the piece
- Pique your reader’s interest
Without a clear introduction, your readers will struggle. They may feel confused when they start reading your paper. They might even give up entirely. Your introduction will ground them and prepare them for the in-depth research to come.
What should you include in an introduction for a research paper?
Research paper introductions are always unique. After all, research is original by definition. However, they often contain six essential items. These are:
- An overview of the topic. Start with a general overview of your topic. Narrow the overview until you address your paper’s specific subject. Then, mention questions or concerns you had about the case. Note that you will address them in the publication.
- Prior research. Your introduction is the place to review other conclusions on your topic. Include both older scholars and modern scholars. This background information shows that you are aware of prior research. It also introduces past findings to those who might not have that expertise.
- A rationale for your paper. Explain why your topic needs to be addressed right now. If applicable, connect it to current issues. Additionally, you can show a problem with former theories or reveal a gap in current research. No matter how you do it, a good rationale will interest your readers and demonstrate why they must read the rest of your paper.
- Describe the methodology you used. Recount your processes to make your paper more credible. Lay out your goal and the questions you will address. Reveal how you conducted research and describe how you measured results. Moreover, explain why you made key choices.
- A thesis statement. Your main introduction should end with a thesis statement. This statement summarizes the ideas that will run through your entire research article. It should be straightforward and clear.
- An outline. Introductions often conclude with an outline. Your layout should quickly review what you intend to cover in the following sections. Think of it as a roadmap, guiding your reader to the end of your paper.
These six items are emphasized more or less, depending on your field. For example, a physics research paper might emphasize methodology. An English journal article might highlight the overview.
Three tips for writing your introduction
We don’t just want you to learn how to write an introduction for a research paper. We want you to learn how to make it shine.
There are three things you can do that will make it easier to write a great introduction. You can:
- Write your introduction last. An introduction summarizes all of the things you’ve learned from your research. While it can feel good to get your preface done quickly, you should write the rest of your paper first. Then, you’ll find it easy to create a clear overview.
- Include a strong quotation or story upfront. You want your paper to be full of substance. But that doesn’t mean it should feel boring or flat. Add a relevant quotation or surprising anecdote to the beginning of your introduction. This technique will pique the interest of your reader and leave them wanting more.
- Be concise. Research papers cover complex topics. To help your readers, try to write as clearly as possible. Use concise sentences. Check for confusing grammar or syntax . Read your introduction out loud to catch awkward phrases. Before you finish your paper, be sure to proofread, too. Mistakes can seem unprofessional.
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Citing Sources in the Introduction
It is important to cite sources in the introduction section of your paper as evidence of the claims you are making. There are ways of citing sources in the text so that the reader can find the full reference in the literature cited section at the end of the paper, yet the flow of the reading is not badly interrupted. Below are some example of how this can be done: "Smith (1983) found that N-fixing plants could be infected by several different species of Rhizobium." "Walnut trees are known to be allelopathic (Smith 1949, Bond et al. 1955, Jones and Green 1963)." "Although the presence of Rhizobium normally increases the growth of legumes (Nguyen 1987), the opposite effect has been observed (Washington 1999)." Note that articles by one or two authors are always cited in the text using their last names. However, if there are more than two authors, the last name of the 1st author is given followed by the abbreviation et al. which is Latin for "and others".
What is a "good" introduction?
This is where you describe briefly and clearly why you are writing the paper. The introduction supplies sufficient background information for the reader to understand and evaluate the experiment you did. It also supplies a rationale for the study.
Goals: • Present the problem and the proposed solution • Presents nature and scope of the problem investigated • Reviews the pertinent literature to orient the reader • States the method of the experiment • State the principle results of the experiment
"Introduction Checklist" from: How to Write a Good Scientific Paper. Chris A. Mack. SPIE. 2018.
Indicate the field of the work, why this field is important, and what has already been done (with proper citations).
Indicate a gap, raise a research question, or challenge prior work in this territory.
Outline the purpose and announce the present research, clearly indicating what is novel and why it is significant.
Avoid: repeating the abstract; providing unnecessary background information; exaggerating the importance of the work; claiming novelty without a proper literature search.
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4 Step approach to writing the Introduction section of a research paper
Study Background & Introduction
If you want others to cite your paper, you should make sure they read it first. Let us assume that the title and the abstract of your paper have convinced your peers that they should see your paper. It is then the job of the Introduction section to ensure that they start reading it and keep reading it, to pull them in and to show them around as it were, guiding them to the other parts of the paper (Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion).
What is the function of the Introduction section?
Put simply, the Introduction should answer the question ‘Why:’ why you choose that topic for research; why it is important; why you adopted a particular method or approach; and so on. You can also think of the Introduction as the section that points out the gap in knowledge that the rest of the paper will fill, or the section in which you define and claim your territory within the broad area of research.
The other job the Introduction should do is to give some background information and set the context. You can do this by describing the research problem you considered or the research question you asked (in the main body of the paper, you will offer the solution to the problem or the answer to the question) and by briefly reviewing any other solutions or approaches that have been tried in the past.
Remember that a thesis or a dissertation usually has a separate chapter titled ‘Review of literature,’ but a research paper has no such section; instead, the Introduction includes a review in brief.
Now that you have given the background and set the context, the last part of the Introduction should specify the objectives of the experiment or analysis of the study described in the paper. This concluding part of the Introduction should include specific details or the exact question(s) to be answered later in the paper.
The 4-step approach to writing the Introduction section
As a rule of thumb, this section accounts for about 10% of the total word count of the body of a typical research paper, or about 400 words spread over three paragraphs in a 4000-word paper. 1 With that, let us now understand how to write the Introduction section step-by-step:
1. Provide background information and set the context.
This initial part of the Introduction prepares the readers for more detailed and specific information that is given later. The first couple of sentences are typically broad.
Below are some examples:
- A paper on organic matter in soil can begin thus: ‘Sustainable crop production is a function of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil, which, in turn, are markedly affected by the organic matter in soil.’
- A paper that discusses the possible beneficial role of bacteria in treating cancer can begin as follows: ‘The role of bacteria as anticancer agent was recognized almost hundred years back.’
- A paper on lithium batteries can introduce the study with the following sentence: ‘The rapid growth of lithium ion batteries and their new uses, such as powering electric cars and storing electricity for grid supply, demands more reliable methods to understand and predict battery performance and life.’
At the same time, the introductory statement should not be too broad: note that in the examples above, the Introduction did not begin by talking about agriculture, cancer, or batteries in general, but by mentioning organic matter in soil, the role of bacteria, and lithium ion batteries.
Once the first sentence has introduced the broad field, the next sentence can point to the specific area within that broad field. As you may have noticed, the papers in the examples mentioned above introduced the subfield by mentioning 1) remission of some types cancer following accidental infection by Streptococcus pyogenes , 2) organic matter in soil as a source of nutrients for plants and of energy for microorganisms, and 3) imaging techniques to visualize the 3-dimensional structure of the materials and components of batteries on nanoscale.
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2. Introduce the specific topic of your research and explain why it is important.
As you can see from the above examples, the authors are moving toward presenting the specific topic of their research. So now in the following part, you can bring in some statistics to show the importance of the topic or the seriousness of the problem.
Here are some examples:
- A paper on controlling malaria by preventive measures, can mention the number of people affected, the number of person-hours lost, or the cost of treating the disease.
- A paper on developing crops that require little water can mention the frequency of severe droughts or the decrease in crop production because of droughts.
- A paper on more efficient methods of public transport can mention the extent of air pollution due to exhausts from cars and two-wheelers or the shrinking ratio between the number of automobiles and road length.
Another way to emphasize the importance of the research topic is to highlight the possible benefits from solving the problem or from finding an answer to the question: possible savings, greater production, longer-lasting devices, and so on. This approach emphasizes the positive.
For example, instead of saying that X dollars are lost because of malaria every year, say that X dollars can be saved annually if malaria is prevented, or X millions litres of water can be saved by dispensing with irrigation, or X person-hours can be saved in the form of avoided illnesses because of improved air quality or reduced pollution.
3. Mention past attempts to solve the research problem or to answer the research question.
As mentioned earlier, a formal review of literature is out of place in the Introduction section of a research paper; however, it is appropriate to indicate any earlier relevant research and clarify how your research differs from those attempts. The differences can be simple: you may have repeated the same set of experiments but with a different organism, or elaborated (involving perhaps more sophisticated or advanced analytical instruments) the study with a much larger and diverse sample, or a widely different geographical setting.
Here are two examples:
- ‘Although these studies were valuable, they were undertaken when the draft genome sequence had not been available and therefore provide little information on the evolutionary and regulatory mechanisms.’
- ‘Plant response is altered by insect colonization and behaviour but these aspects have been studied mostly in sole crops, whereas the present paper examines the relationship between crops and their pests in an intercropping system.’
4. Conclude the Introduction by mentioning the specific objectives of your research.
The earlier paragraphs should lead logically to specific objectives of your study. Note that this part of the Introduction gives specific details: for instance, the earlier part of the Introduction may mention the importance of controlling malaria whereas the concluding part will specify what methods of control were used and how they were evaluated. At the same time, avoid too much detail because those belong to the Materials and Methods section of the paper.
If, for example, your research was about finding the right proportions of two metals in an alloy and you tested ten different proportions, you do not have to list all the ten proportions: it is enough to say that the proportions varied from 50:50 to 10:90.
Here are two more examples:
- ‘We aimed to assess the effectiveness of four disinfection strategies on hospital-wide incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile ’
- ‘We aimed (1) to assess the epidemiological changes before and after the upsurge of scarlet fever in China in 2011; (2) to explore the reasons for the upsurge and the epidemiological factors that contributed to it; and (3) to assess how these factors could be managed to prevent future epidemics.’
There are different ways of constructing the objectives. Using questions 2 , hypotheses, and infinitives are the more common constructions (both examples in the previous paragraph use infinitives), each of which is illustrated below with some fictitious text:
- ‘Do some genes in wheat form gene networks? If they do, to what extent as compared to rice?’
- ‘Do the regulatory elements in the promoters of those genes display any conserved motifs?’
- ‘Finally, and more specifically, do those genes in wheat display any tissue- or organ-specific expression pattern?’
‘We decided to test the following four hypotheses related to employees of information-technology companies:
H1: Career stages influence work values.
H2: Career stages influence the level of job satisfaction.
H3: Career stages do not influence organizational commitment.’
‘To examine the response of Oryza sativa to four different doses of nitrogen in terms of 1) biomass production, 2) plant height, and 3) crop duration.’
Compared to two other sections of a typical research paper, namely Methods and Results, Introduction and Discussion are more difficult to write. However, the 4-step approach described in this article should ease the task.
A final tip: although the Introduction is the first section of the main text of your paper, you don’t have to write that section first. You can write it, or at least revise it, after you have written the rest of the paper: this will make the Introduction not only easier to write but also more compelling.
To learn in more detail the guidelines to write a great Introduction section, check out this course: How to write a strong introduction for your research paper
1. Araújo C G. 2014. Detailing the writing of scientific manuscripts: 25-30 paragraphs. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 102 (2): e21–e23
2. Boxman R and Boxman E. 2017. Communicating Science: a practical guide for engineers and physical scientists , pp. 7–9. Singapore: World Scientific. 276 pp.
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What this handout is about.
This handout will explain the functions of introductions, offer strategies for creating effective introductions, and provide some examples of less effective introductions to avoid.
The role of introductions
Introductions and conclusions can be the most difficult parts of papers to write. Usually when you sit down to respond to an assignment, you have at least some sense of what you want to say in the body of your paper. You might have chosen a few examples you want to use or have an idea that will help you answer the main question of your assignment; these sections, therefore, may not be as hard to write. And it’s fine to write them first! But in your final draft, these middle parts of the paper can’t just come out of thin air; they need to be introduced and concluded in a way that makes sense to your reader.
Your introduction and conclusion act as bridges that transport your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis. If your readers pick up your paper about education in the autobiography of Frederick Douglass, for example, they need a transition to help them leave behind the world of Chapel Hill, television, e-mail, and The Daily Tar Heel and to help them temporarily enter the world of nineteenth-century American slavery. By providing an introduction that helps your readers make a transition between their own world and the issues you will be writing about, you give your readers the tools they need to get into your topic and care about what you are saying. Similarly, once you’ve hooked your readers with the introduction and offered evidence to prove your thesis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. (See our handout on conclusions .)
Note that what constitutes a good introduction may vary widely based on the kind of paper you are writing and the academic discipline in which you are writing it. If you are uncertain what kind of introduction is expected, ask your instructor.
Why bother writing a good introduction?
You never get a second chance to make a first impression. The opening paragraph of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions of your argument, your writing style, and the overall quality of your work. A vague, disorganized, error-filled, off-the-wall, or boring introduction will probably create a negative impression. On the other hand, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will start your readers off thinking highly of you, your analytical skills, your writing, and your paper.
Your introduction is an important road map for the rest of your paper. Your introduction conveys a lot of information to your readers. You can let them know what your topic is, why it is important, and how you plan to proceed with your discussion. In many academic disciplines, your introduction should contain a thesis that will assert your main argument. Your introduction should also give the reader a sense of the kinds of information you will use to make that argument and the general organization of the paragraphs and pages that will follow. After reading your introduction, your readers should not have any major surprises in store when they read the main body of your paper.
Ideally, your introduction will make your readers want to read your paper. The introduction should capture your readers’ interest, making them want to read the rest of your paper. Opening with a compelling story, an interesting question, or a vivid example can get your readers to see why your topic matters and serve as an invitation for them to join you for an engaging intellectual conversation (remember, though, that these strategies may not be suitable for all papers and disciplines).
Strategies for writing an effective introduction
Start by thinking about the question (or questions) you are trying to answer. Your entire essay will be a response to this question, and your introduction is the first step toward that end. Your direct answer to the assigned question will be your thesis, and your thesis will likely be included in your introduction, so it is a good idea to use the question as a jumping off point. Imagine that you are assigned the following question:
Drawing on the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass , discuss the relationship between education and slavery in 19th-century America. Consider the following: How did white control of education reinforce slavery? How did Douglass and other enslaved African Americans view education while they endured slavery? And what role did education play in the acquisition of freedom? Most importantly, consider the degree to which education was or was not a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
You will probably refer back to your assignment extensively as you prepare your complete essay, and the prompt itself can also give you some clues about how to approach the introduction. Notice that it starts with a broad statement and then narrows to focus on specific questions from the book. One strategy might be to use a similar model in your own introduction—start off with a big picture sentence or two and then focus in on the details of your argument about Douglass. Of course, a different approach could also be very successful, but looking at the way the professor set up the question can sometimes give you some ideas for how you might answer it. (See our handout on understanding assignments for additional information on the hidden clues in assignments.)
Decide how general or broad your opening should be. Keep in mind that even a “big picture” opening needs to be clearly related to your topic; an opening sentence that said “Human beings, more than any other creatures on earth, are capable of learning” would be too broad for our sample assignment about slavery and education. If you have ever used Google Maps or similar programs, that experience can provide a helpful way of thinking about how broad your opening should be. Imagine that you’re researching Chapel Hill. If what you want to find out is whether Chapel Hill is at roughly the same latitude as Rome, it might make sense to hit that little “minus” sign on the online map until it has zoomed all the way out and you can see the whole globe. If you’re trying to figure out how to get from Chapel Hill to Wrightsville Beach, it might make more sense to zoom in to the level where you can see most of North Carolina (but not the rest of the world, or even the rest of the United States). And if you are looking for the intersection of Ridge Road and Manning Drive so that you can find the Writing Center’s main office, you may need to zoom all the way in. The question you are asking determines how “broad” your view should be. In the sample assignment above, the questions are probably at the “state” or “city” level of generality. When writing, you need to place your ideas in context—but that context doesn’t generally have to be as big as the whole galaxy!
Try writing your introduction last. You may think that you have to write your introduction first, but that isn’t necessarily true, and it isn’t always the most effective way to craft a good introduction. You may find that you don’t know precisely what you are going to argue at the beginning of the writing process. It is perfectly fine to start out thinking that you want to argue a particular point but wind up arguing something slightly or even dramatically different by the time you’ve written most of the paper. The writing process can be an important way to organize your ideas, think through complicated issues, refine your thoughts, and develop a sophisticated argument. However, an introduction written at the beginning of that discovery process will not necessarily reflect what you wind up with at the end. You will need to revise your paper to make sure that the introduction, all of the evidence, and the conclusion reflect the argument you intend. Sometimes it’s easiest to just write up all of your evidence first and then write the introduction last—that way you can be sure that the introduction will match the body of the paper.
Don’t be afraid to write a tentative introduction first and then change it later. Some people find that they need to write some kind of introduction in order to get the writing process started. That’s fine, but if you are one of those people, be sure to return to your initial introduction later and rewrite if necessary.
Open with something that will draw readers in. Consider these options (remembering that they may not be suitable for all kinds of papers):
- an intriguing example —for example, Douglass writes about a mistress who initially teaches him but then ceases her instruction as she learns more about slavery.
- a provocative quotation that is closely related to your argument —for example, Douglass writes that “education and slavery were incompatible with each other.” (Quotes from famous people, inspirational quotes, etc. may not work well for an academic paper; in this example, the quote is from the author himself.)
- a puzzling scenario —for example, Frederick Douglass says of slaves that “[N]othing has been left undone to cripple their intellects, darken their minds, debase their moral nature, obliterate all traces of their relationship to mankind; and yet how wonderfully they have sustained the mighty load of a most frightful bondage, under which they have been groaning for centuries!” Douglass clearly asserts that slave owners went to great lengths to destroy the mental capacities of slaves, yet his own life story proves that these efforts could be unsuccessful.
- a vivid and perhaps unexpected anecdote —for example, “Learning about slavery in the American history course at Frederick Douglass High School, students studied the work slaves did, the impact of slavery on their families, and the rules that governed their lives. We didn’t discuss education, however, until one student, Mary, raised her hand and asked, ‘But when did they go to school?’ That modern high school students could not conceive of an American childhood devoid of formal education speaks volumes about the centrality of education to American youth today and also suggests the significance of the deprivation of education in past generations.”
- a thought-provoking question —for example, given all of the freedoms that were denied enslaved individuals in the American South, why does Frederick Douglass focus his attentions so squarely on education and literacy?
Pay special attention to your first sentence. Start off on the right foot with your readers by making sure that the first sentence actually says something useful and that it does so in an interesting and polished way.
How to evaluate your introduction draft
Ask a friend to read your introduction and then tell you what he or she expects the paper will discuss, what kinds of evidence the paper will use, and what the tone of the paper will be. If your friend is able to predict the rest of your paper accurately, you probably have a good introduction.
Five kinds of less effective introductions
1. The placeholder introduction. When you don’t have much to say on a given topic, it is easy to create this kind of introduction. Essentially, this kind of weaker introduction contains several sentences that are vague and don’t really say much. They exist just to take up the “introduction space” in your paper. If you had something more effective to say, you would probably say it, but in the meantime this paragraph is just a place holder.
Example: Slavery was one of the greatest tragedies in American history. There were many different aspects of slavery. Each created different kinds of problems for enslaved people.
2. The restated question introduction. Restating the question can sometimes be an effective strategy, but it can be easy to stop at JUST restating the question instead of offering a more specific, interesting introduction to your paper. The professor or teaching assistant wrote your question and will be reading many essays in response to it—he or she does not need to read a whole paragraph that simply restates the question.
Example: The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass discusses the relationship between education and slavery in 19th century America, showing how white control of education reinforced slavery and how Douglass and other enslaved African Americans viewed education while they endured. Moreover, the book discusses the role that education played in the acquisition of freedom. Education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
3. The Webster’s Dictionary introduction. This introduction begins by giving the dictionary definition of one or more of the words in the assigned question. Anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and copy down what Webster says. If you want to open with a discussion of an important term, it may be far more interesting for you (and your reader) if you develop your own definition of the term in the specific context of your class and assignment. You may also be able to use a definition from one of the sources you’ve been reading for class. Also recognize that the dictionary is also not a particularly authoritative work—it doesn’t take into account the context of your course and doesn’t offer particularly detailed information. If you feel that you must seek out an authority, try to find one that is very relevant and specific. Perhaps a quotation from a source reading might prove better? Dictionary introductions are also ineffective simply because they are so overused. Instructors may see a great many papers that begin in this way, greatly decreasing the dramatic impact that any one of those papers will have.
Example: Webster’s dictionary defines slavery as “the state of being a slave,” as “the practice of owning slaves,” and as “a condition of hard work and subjection.”
4. The “dawn of man” introduction. This kind of introduction generally makes broad, sweeping statements about the relevance of this topic since the beginning of time, throughout the world, etc. It is usually very general (similar to the placeholder introduction) and fails to connect to the thesis. It may employ cliches—the phrases “the dawn of man” and “throughout human history” are examples, and it’s hard to imagine a time when starting with one of these would work. Instructors often find them extremely annoying.
Example: Since the dawn of man, slavery has been a problem in human history.
5. The book report introduction. This introduction is what you had to do for your elementary school book reports. It gives the name and author of the book you are writing about, tells what the book is about, and offers other basic facts about the book. You might resort to this sort of introduction when you are trying to fill space because it’s a familiar, comfortable format. It is ineffective because it offers details that your reader probably already knows and that are irrelevant to the thesis.
Example: Frederick Douglass wrote his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave , in the 1840s. It was published in 1986 by Penguin Books. In it, he tells the story of his life.
And now for the conclusion…
Writing an effective introduction can be tough. Try playing around with several different options and choose the one that ends up sounding best to you!
Just as your introduction helps readers make the transition to your topic, your conclusion needs to help them return to their daily lives–but with a lasting sense of how what they have just read is useful or meaningful. Check out our handout on conclusions for tips on ending your paper as effectively as you began it!
We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.
Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself . New York: Dover.
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The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Research Paper
Few things strike more fear in academics than the accursed research paper , a term synonymous with long hours and hard work. Luckily there’s a secret to help you get through them. As long as you know how to write a research paper properly, you’ll find they’re not so bad . . . or at least less painful.
In this guide we concisely explain how to write an academic research paper step by step. We’ll cover areas like how to start a research paper, how to write a research paper outline, how to use citations and evidence, and how to write a conclusion for a research paper.
But before we get into the details, let’s take a look at what a research paper is and how it’s different from other writing .
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What is a research paper?
A research paper is a type of academic writing that provides an in-depth analysis, evaluation, or interpretation of a single topic, based on empirical evidence. Research papers are similar to analytical essays, except that research papers emphasize the use of statistical data and preexisting research, along with a strict code for citations.
Research papers are a bedrock of modern science and the most effective way to share information across a wide network. However, most people are familiar with research papers from school; college courses often use them to test a student’s knowledge of a particular area or their research skills in general.
Considering their gravity, research papers favor formal, even bland language that strips the writing of any bias. Researchers state their findings plainly and with corresponding evidence so that other researchers can consequently use the paper in their own research.
Keep in mind that writing a research paper is different from writing a research proposal . Essentially, research proposals are to acquire the funding needed to get the data to write a research paper.
How long should a research paper be?
The length of a research paper depends on the topic or assignment. Typically, research papers run around 4,000–6,000 words, but it’s common to see short papers around 2,000 words or long papers over 10,000 words.
If you’re writing a paper for school, the recommended length should be provided in the assignment. Otherwise, let your topic dictate the length: Complicated topics or extensive research will require more explanation.
How to write a research paper in 9 steps
Below is a step-by-step guide to writing a research paper, catered specifically for students rather than professional researchers. While some steps may not apply to your particular assignment, think of this as more of a general guideline to keep you on track.
1 Understand the assignment
For some of you this goes without saying, but you might be surprised at how many students start a research paper without even reading the assignment guidelines.
So your first step should be to review the assignment and carefully read the writing prompt. Specifically, look for technical requirements such as length , formatting requirements (single- vs. double-spacing, indentations, etc.) and citation style . Also pay attention to the particulars, such as whether or not you need to write an abstract or include a cover page.
Once you understand the assignment, the next steps in how to write a research paper follow the usual writing process , more or less. There are some extra steps involved because research papers have extra rules, but the gist of the writing process is the same.
2 Choose your topic
In open-ended assignments, the student must choose their own topic. While it may seem simple enough, choosing a topic is actually the most important decision you’ll make in writing a research paper, since it determines everything that follows.
Your top priority in how to choose a research paper topic is whether it will provide enough content and substance for an entire research paper. You’ll want to choose a topic with enough data and complexity to enable a rich discussion. However, you also want to avoid general topics and instead stick with topics specific enough that you can cover all the relevant information without cutting too much.
Try not to be robotic about choosing your topic, though; it’s still best to pick something that you’re personally interested in. Ideally, you’ll find a topic that satisfies both requirements, something that provides a suitable amount of content and also keeps you engaged.
3 Gather preliminary research
The sooner you start researching, the better—after all, it’s called a research paper for a reason.
To refine your topic and prepare your thesis statement, find out what research is available for your topic as soon as possible. Early research can help dispel any misconceptions you have about the topic and reveal the best paths and approaches to find more material.
Typically, you can find sources either online or in a library. If you’re searching online, make sure you use credible sources like science journals or academic papers. Some search engines—mentioned below in the Tools and resources section—allow you to browse only accredited sources and academic databases.
Keep in mind the difference between primary and secondary sources as you search. Primary sources are firsthand accounts, like published articles or autobiographies; secondary sources are more removed, like critical reviews or secondhand biographies.
When gathering your research, it’s better to skim sources instead of reading each potential source fully. If a source seems useful, set it aside to give it a full read later. Otherwise, you’ll be stuck poring over sources that you ultimately won’t use, and that time could be better spent finding a worthwhile source.
Sometimes you’re required to submit a literature review , which explains your sources and presents them to an authority for confirmation. Even if no literature review is required, it’s still helpful to compile an early list of potential sources—you’ll be glad you did later.
4 Write a thesis statement
Using what you found in your preliminary research, write a thesis statement that succinctly summarizes what your research paper will be about. This is usually the first sentence in your paper, making it your reader’s introduction to the topic.
A thesis statement is the best answer for how to start a research paper. Aside from preparing your reader, the thesis statement also makes it easier for other researchers to assess whether or not your paper is useful to them for their own research. Likewise, you should read the thesis statements of other research papers to decide how useful they are to you.
A good thesis statement mentions all the important parts of the discussion without disclosing too many of the details. If you’re having trouble putting it into words, try to phrase your topic as a question and then answer it .
For example, if your research paper topic is about separating students with ADHD from other students, you’d first ask yourself, “Does separating students with ADHD improve their learning?” The answer—based on your preliminary research—is a good basis for your thesis statement.
5 Determine supporting evidence
At this stage of how to write an academic research paper, it’s time to knuckle down and do the actual research. Here’s when you go through all the sources you collected earlier and find the specific information you’d like to use in your paper.
Normally, you find your supporting evidence by reading each source and taking notes. Isolate only the information that’s directly relevant to your topic; don’t bog down your paper with tangents or unnecessary context, however interesting they may be. And always write down page numbers , not only for you to find the information later, but also because you’ll need them for your citations.
Aside from highlighting text and writing notes, another common tactic is to use bibliography cards . These are simple index cards with a fact or direct quotation on one side and the bibliographical information (source citation, page numbers, subtopic category) on the other. While bibliography cards are not necessary, some students find them useful for staying organized, especially when it’s time to write an outline.
6 Write a research paper outline
A lot of students want to know how to write a research paper outline. More than informal essays, research papers require a methodical and systematic structure to make sure all issues are addressed, and that makes outlines especially important.
First make a list of all the important categories and subtopics you need to cover—an outline for your outline! Consider all the information you gathered when compiling your supporting evidence and ask yourself what the best way to separate and categorize everything is.
Once you have a list of what you want to talk about, consider the best order to present the information. Which subtopics are related and should go next to each other? Are there any subtopics that don’t make sense if they’re presented out of sequence? If your information is fairly straightforward, feel free to take a chronological approach and present the information in the order it happened.
Because research papers can get complicated, consider breaking your outline into paragraphs. For starters, this helps you stay organized if you have a lot of information to cover. Moreover, it gives you greater control over the flow and direction of the research paper. It’s always better to fix structural problems in the outline phase than later after everything’s already been written.
Don’t forget to include your supporting evidence in the outline as well. Chances are you’ll have a lot you want to include, so putting it in your outline helps prevent some things from falling through the cracks.
7 Write the first draft
Once your outline is finished, it’s time to start actually writing your research paper. This is by far the longest and most involved step, but if you’ve properly prepared your sources and written a thorough outline, everything should run smoothly.
If you don’t know how to write an introduction for a research paper, the beginning can be difficult. That’s why writing your thesis statement beforehand is crucial. Open with your thesis statement and then fill out the rest of your introduction with the secondary information—save the details for the body of your research paper, which comes next.
The body contains the bulk of your research paper. Unlike essays , research papers usually divide the body into sections with separate headers to facilitate browsing and scanning. Use the divisions in your outline as a guide.
Follow along your outline and go paragraph by paragraph. Because this is just the first draft, don’t worry about getting each word perfect . Later you’ll be able to revise and fine-tune your writing, but for now focus simply on saying everything that needs to be said. In other words, it’s OK to make mistakes since you’ll go back later to correct them.
One of the most common problems with writing long works like research papers is connecting paragraphs to each other. The longer your writing is, the harder it is to tie everything together smoothly. Use transition sentences to improve the flow of your paper, especially for the first and last sentences in a paragraph.
Even after the body is written, you still need to know how to write a conclusion for a research paper. Just like an essay conclusion , your research paper conclusion should restate your thesis , reiterate your main evidence , and summarize your findings in a way that’s easy to understand.
Don’t add any new information in your conclusion, but feel free to say your own personal perspective or interpretation if it helps the reader understand the big picture.
8 Cite your sources correctly
Citations are part of what sets research papers apart from more casual nonfiction like personal essays . Citing your sources both validates your data and also links your research paper to the greater scientific community. Because of their importance, citations must follow precise formatting rules . . . problem is, there’s more than one set of rules!
You need to check with the assignment to see which formatting style is required. Typically, academic research papers follow one of two formatting styles for citing sources:
- MLA (Modern Language Association)
- APA (American Psychological Association)
The links above explain the specific formatting guidelines for each style, along with an automatic citation generator to help you get started.
In addition to MLA and APA styles, you occasionally see requirements for CMOS (The Chicago Manual of Style), AMA (American Medical Association) and IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers).
Citations may seem confusing at first with all their rules and specific information. However, once you get the hang of them, you’ll be able to properly cite your sources without even thinking about it. Keep in mind that each formatting style has specific guidelines for citing just about any kind of source, including photos , websites , speeches , and YouTube videos .
9 Edit and proofread
Last but not least, you want to go through your research paper to correct all the mistakes by proofreading . We recommend going over it twice: once for structural issues such as adding/deleting parts or rearranging paragraphs and once for word choice, grammatical, and spelling mistakes. Doing two different editing sessions helps you focus on one area at a time instead of doing them both at once.
To help you catch everything, here’s a quick checklist to keep in mind while you edit:
- Is your thesis statement clear and concise?
- Is your paper well-organized, and does it flow from beginning to end with logical transitions?
- Do your ideas follow a logical sequence in each paragraph?
- Have you used concrete details and facts and avoided generalizations?
- Do your arguments support and prove your thesis?
- Have you avoided repetition?
- Are your sources properly cited?
- Have you checked for accidental plagiarism?
Word choice, grammar, and spelling edit:
- Is your language clear and specific?
- Do your sentences flow smoothly and clearly?
- Have you avoided filler words and phrases ?
- Have you checked for proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation?
Some people find it useful to read their paper out loud to catch problems they might miss when reading in their head. Another solution is to have someone else read your paper and point out areas for improvement and/or technical mistakes.
Revising is a separate skill from writing, and being good at one doesn’t necessarily make you good at the other. If you want to improve your revision skills, read our guide on self-editing , which includes a more complete checklist and advanced tips on improving your revisions.
Technical issues like grammatical mistakes and misspelled words can be handled effortlessly if you use a spellchecker with your word processor, or even better, a digital writing assistant that also suggests improvements for word choice and tone, like Grammarly (we explain more in the Tools and resources section below).
Tools and resources
If you want to know more about how to write a research paper, or if you want some help with each step, take a look at the tools and resources below.
This is Google’s own search engine, which is dedicated exclusively to academic papers. It’s a great way to find new research and sources. Plus, it’s free to use.
Zotero is a freemium, open-source research manager, a cross between an organizational CMS and a search engine for academic research. With it, you can browse the internet for research sources relevant to your topic and share them easily with colleagues. Also, it automatically generates citations.
Writing long research papers is always a strain on your attention span. If you have trouble avoiding distractions during those long stretches, FocusWriter might be able to help. FocusWriter is a minimalist word processor that removes all the distracting icons and sticks only to what you type. You’re also free to choose your own customized backgrounds, with other special features like timed alarms, daily goals, and optional typewriter sound effects.
This useful and free tool from Google lets you create simple charts and graphs based on whatever data you input. Charts and graphs are excellent visual aids for expressing numeric data, a perfect complement if you need to explain complicated evidential research.
Grammarly goes way beyond grammar, helping you hone word choice, checking your text for plagiarism, detecting your tone, and more. For foreign-language learners, it can make your English sound more fluent, and even those who speak English as their primary language benefit from Grammarly’s suggestions.
Research paper FAQs
A research paper is a piece of academic writing that analyzes, evaluates, or interprets a single topic with empirical evidence and statistical data.
When will I need to write a research paper in college?
Many college courses use research papers to test a student’s knowledge of a particular topic or their research skills in general. While research papers depend on the course or professor, you can expect to write at least a few before graduation.
How do I determine a topic for my research paper?
If the topic is not assigned, try to find a topic that’s general enough to provide ample evidence but specific enough that you’re able to cover all the basics. If possible, choose a topic you’re personally interested in—it makes the work easier.
Where can I conduct research for my paper?
Today most research is conducted either online or in libraries. Some topics might benefit from old periodicals like newspapers or magazines, as well as visual media like documentaries. Museums, parks, and historical monuments can also be useful.
How do I cite sources for a research paper?
The correct formatting for citations depends on which style you’re using, so check the assignment guidelines. Most school research reports use either MLA or APA styles, although there are others.
This article was originally written by Karen Hertzberg in 2017. It’s been updated to include new information.
Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
Writing a Research Paper
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The pages in this section provide detailed information about how to write research papers including discussing research papers as a genre, choosing topics, and finding sources.
The Research Paper
There will come a time in most students' careers when they are assigned a research paper. Such an assignment often creates a great deal of unneeded anxiety in the student, which may result in procrastination and a feeling of confusion and inadequacy. This anxiety frequently stems from the fact that many students are unfamiliar and inexperienced with this genre of writing. Never fear—inexperience and unfamiliarity are situations you can change through practice! Writing a research paper is an essential aspect of academics and should not be avoided on account of one's anxiety. In fact, the process of writing a research paper can be one of the more rewarding experiences one may encounter in academics. What is more, many students will continue to do research throughout their careers, which is one of the reasons this topic is so important.
Becoming an experienced researcher and writer in any field or discipline takes a great deal of practice. There are few individuals for whom this process comes naturally. Remember, even the most seasoned academic veterans have had to learn how to write a research paper at some point in their career. Therefore, with diligence, organization, practice, a willingness to learn (and to make mistakes!), and, perhaps most important of all, patience, students will find that they can achieve great things through their research and writing.
The pages in this section cover the following topic areas related to the process of writing a research paper:
- Genre - This section will provide an overview for understanding the difference between an analytical and argumentative research paper.
- Choosing a Topic - This section will guide the student through the process of choosing topics, whether the topic be one that is assigned or one that the student chooses themselves.
- Identifying an Audience - This section will help the student understand the often times confusing topic of audience by offering some basic guidelines for the process.
- Where Do I Begin - This section concludes the handout by offering several links to resources at Purdue, and also provides an overview of the final stages of writing a research paper.
How To Do An Introduction For A Pathology Paper
by Prof. Stephen Gallik | Mar 2, 2023 | Pathology
Pathology is the study of the structure and function of the body’s organs and tissues. It is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disease. A pathology paper is a scientific document that reports on the findings of a pathological investigation. The paper should be concise and well-organized, and it should clearly state the purpose of the investigation and the main findings . The introduction is the most important part of the paper, as it should grab the reader’s attention and give an overview of the content. The introduction should start with a general statement about the topic of the paper, followed by a more specific statement about the purpose of the paper. The introduction should then provide an overview of the main points that will be discussed in the paper. The body of the paper should provide a detailed discussion of the findings of the investigation. The discussion should be based on the evidence presented in the paper, and it should be clear and concise. The conclusion should summarize the main points of the paper and state the implications of the findings. The conclusion should also offer suggestions for further research.
How Do You Write An Introduction And Conclusion For A Research Paper?
To write an introduction and conclusion for a research paper , you will need to first determine what your thesis or main argument is. Once you have done this, you can then begin to craft your introduction. The introduction should give the reader an overview of your paper and introduce your thesis. After the introduction, you will need to write a body, which will develop your argument further. Finally, you will need to write a conclusion, which will summarise your paper and offer a final thoughts on your argument.
Writing an introduction to a research paper can be a difficult task for students. The goal of this guide is to help you create an excellent introduction . An introduction is a document that can take up to a few pages to complete. The length of a piece of paper is determined by how large it is as a whole. If your research lacks a clear introduction, your readers may struggle to follow it. The introduction will help them gain a better understanding of the topic and prepare them for future research. The introduction of a research paper should contain at least six essential elements. The three things you can do to make your introduction easier to write are as follows.
What Is Introduction And Conclusion In Research?
The introduction should serve as a starting point for your essay, provide context for your topic, and highlight your focus. You should also include a link to engage your readers’ curiosity. Your essay will be completed with a strong conclusion that allows you to move your ideas further into the future while providing you with a sense of closure.
The Importance Of Introductions And Conclusions In Essays
The introduction typically introduces the essay’s main ideas, whereas the conclusion summarizes and summarizes the essay’s ideas. Furthermore, introduction and conclusion can provide a broader understanding of the essay while also tying together the essay’s main points. In an introduction, you should outline the main ideas and provide a general overview of the essay. This should also serve as the starting point for the rest of the essay. It is critical to have a good introduction in order to assist the reader in understanding what the essay is about. The conclusion should summarize the main points of the essay in order to assist the reader in understanding the overall concept of the essay. In addition to providing a broader perspective, they should link the essay’s major ideas. A good conclusion will help the reader understand what the essay is about and provide a summary of the main ideas. Aside from providing a broader view of the essay, it will also serve as a link to the key points.
How To Start A Pathophysiology Paper
There is no one answer to this question as it depends on the focus of the paper. However, some tips on how to start a pathophysiology paper include introducing the topic and providing an overview of the pathophysiology of the chosen condition. It is also important to discuss how the condition affects the body and the symptoms that result from it. Additionally, the paper should discuss treatment options and prognosis.
Every nursing student is expected to write a Pathophysiology paper. This branch of medical practice focuses on disease management and injury management as part of patient care. Many nursing students consider nursing pathology paper to be a difficult task. It is best to consider using nursingwritingservices.com for your nursing writing services. NursingWritingServices.com offers online nursing paper writing service to you as a nursing paper writer. It includes an integrated plagiarism checker. Every day, we provide 100% original Nursing PICO projects.
Live chat with your writer guides on your expectations and suggestions as they work on your requests. It’s as simple as selecting from hundreds of writers and selecting your favorite to write the Nursing Pico. A good nursing paper reduces stress for a student and allows them to grow in their academic and general education programs. It is equally important that any Nursing Pathophysiology paper or other such document is written in a way that the intended reader understands. All you have to do is place an order, send all of the necessary files, and get the paper on your desk before the deadline. We begin with the most basic questions. Because we have experts who are specially trained in different fields of study, we can offer assignments in all fields of study.
Nursingwritingservices.com’s writers have extensive experience in nursing writing and have a firm understanding of what is expected from them. It is nothing more convenient than to assign your Picot tasks to an expert. The nursing assignment must be understood and explained in the simplest possible way by all of us.
How Do You Write A Pathophysiology Paper?
An admission paper should include information about your patient’s primary medical condition (the reason they were admitted). Your clinical research will most likely focus on the pathophysiology of the disease process, as well as how it affects your patients.
What Is The Introduction To Pathophysiology?
Pathophysiological research seeks to determine how normal mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions are affected by disease or a condition that may not qualify as a disease.
Is Intro To Pathophysiology Hard?
Pathophysiology is regarded as one of the most difficult courses nursing students will have to take during their education. Here are some suggestions to assist nursing students in making the most of this course. Take the time to read and reread the material. The best way to memorize this course is to go over it again and again.
Article On Pathology
Pathology is the study of the structure and function of the body’s organs and tissues. It is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Pathologists use a variety of techniques to examine tissues and organs. They often use microscopes to examine tissue samples . Pathologists also use laboratory tests to diagnose diseases.
The Journal of Pathology bridges the gap between basic biomedical science and clinical medicine. This journal provides high-impact research on the pathophysiological and pathogenetic mechanisms of human disease, as well as their mechanisms of action. To read this month’s Editor’s Choice article, please visit this link: every month, the Editor selects an article for free. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major contributor to invasive cervical cancer, according to a review of the scientific literature. Examining the pathogenesis and transmission pathways of SARS-caused coronaviruses in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) provides insight into how these viruses circulate.
The Three Faces Of Pathology
Anatomical pathology , which investigates disease in organs and tissues, has a long history. This branch of medicine is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular, endocrine, gastrointestinal, nervous, and urinary diseases. The field of clinical pathology studies the causes, diagnoses, and treatments of disease. Blood diseases, cancer, infectious diseases, and immune system disorders are just a few examples of diseases studied. A disease is classified as molecular pathology if it has characteristics that are specific to a disease. Cancer, genetic diseases, and genetic disorders are all studied in this area.
Fresh Pathology Term Paper Topic
There are many fresh pathology term paper topics to choose from. Some examples include: the study of a specific disease or disorder, the study of a specific organ or body system, the study of a specific cell type, and the study of a specific disease process.
The Difference Between Research Papers And Term Papers
A research paper, on the other hand, is typically a longer, more detailed piece of writing that focuses on a specific topic in greater depth than a term paper. A student will typically write it, which will usually be due at the end of the semester. Students write term papers that are typically shorter and concentrate on a single issue or topic that they have chosen themselves. They are written by a group of students in collaboration, and they are usually due at the end of the semester.
The introduction of a piece of writing is important because it sets the tone and gives the reader an idea of what to expect. A good introduction will make the reader want to keep reading, while a bad introduction will turn the reader off. There are a few things to keep in mind when writing an introduction: 1) Keep it short and to the point. 2) Start with a hook to grab the reader’s attention. 3) Give some background information on the topic. 4) Finally, state the main point or thesis of the piece.
You must have a strategy in place to get people to click on your article in order to promote it. It is a form of art to persuade readers to read an article in the first place. In this post, I will show you how to write effective introductions that turn casual web browsers into readers. If you start with something overly predictable or boring, you may lose readers. Assume that the reader already read the article and does not repeat the title. When writing about a reader, it is critical to use the word you at least once. Demonstrate the significance of the article in 1-2 sentences.
If you don’t write an effective blog post introduction , you run the risk of being labeled as a bad writer, as well as being overlooked by potential customers, subscribers, leads, and even potential supporters. You have two options for telling a story in your introduction: good or bad. Remember the tip about introducing yourself slowly and carefully? When you’re telling a story, you can still do so. Writing effective introductions is a challenge, and it takes practice and time. If you begin your post by explaining how frequently old pipes burst during the winter, your readers may be drawn in. The article must begin, and you must be able to read past the introduction to enjoy the material.
How Do You Write A Good Introduction?
In your essay introduction , three things should be mentioned: an opening hook that piques the reader’s interest, followed by an explanation of what you will be writing about. A summary of the reader’s background information. A thesis statement can be used to express your point or argument.
I received my Ph. D. from The Pennsylvania State University. My dissertation research was a study of the effect of experimentally-induced diabetes mellitus on aortic endothelial cell histamine metabolism. After receiving my degree, I took an Instructor position at the University of Louisville School of Medicine, where I team-taught human / mammalian physiology.
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How to Write a Research Introduction
Last Updated: November 21, 2022 References Approved
This article was co-authored by Megan Morgan, PhD . Megan Morgan is a Graduate Program Academic Advisor in the School of Public & International Affairs at the University of Georgia. She earned her PhD in English from the University of Georgia in 2015. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 26 testimonials and 84% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 2,623,532 times.
The introduction to a research paper can be the most challenging part of the paper to write. The length of the introduction will vary depending on the type of research paper you are writing. An introduction should announce your topic, provide context and a rationale for your work, before stating your research questions and hypothesis. Well-written introductions set the tone for the paper, catch the reader's interest, and communicate the hypothesis or thesis statement.
Introducing the Topic of the Paper
- In scientific papers this is sometimes known as an "inverted triangle", where you start with the broadest material at the start, before zooming in on the specifics.  X Research source
- The sentence "Throughout the 20th century, our views of life on other planets have drastically changed" introduces a topic, but does so in broad terms.
- It provides the reader with an indication of the content of the essay and encourages them to read on.
- For example, if you were writing a paper about the behaviour of mice when exposed to a particular substance, you would include the word "mice", and the scientific name of the relevant compound in the first sentences.
- If you were writing a history paper about the impact of the First World War on gender relations in Britain, you should mention those key words in your first few lines.
- This is especially important if you are attempting to develop a new conceptualization that uses language and terminology your readers may be unfamiliar with.
- If you use an anecdote ensure that is short and highly relevant for your research. It has to function in the same way as an alternative opening, namely to announce the topic of your research paper to your reader.
- For example, if you were writing a sociology paper about re-offending rates among young offenders, you could include a brief story of one person whose story reflects and introduces your topic.
- This kind of approach is generally not appropriate for the introduction to a natural or physical sciences research paper where the writing conventions are different.
Establishing the Context for Your Paper
- It is important to be concise in the introduction, so provide an overview on recent developments in the primary research rather than a lengthy discussion.
- You can follow the "inverted triangle" principle to focus in from the broader themes to those to which you are making a direct contribution with your paper.
- A strong literature review presents important background information to your own research and indicates the importance of the field.
- By making clear reference to existing work you can demonstrate explicitly the specific contribution you are making to move the field forward.
- You can identify a gap in the existing scholarship and explain how you are addressing it and moving understanding forward.
- For example, if you are writing a scientific paper you could stress the merits of the experimental approach or models you have used.
- Stress what is novel in your research and the significance of your new approach, but don't give too much detail in the introduction.
- A stated rationale could be something like: "the study evaluates the previously unknown anti-inflammatory effects of a topical compound in order to evaluate its potential clinical uses".
Specifying Your Research Questions and Hypothesis
- The research question or questions generally come towards the end of the introduction, and should be concise and closely focused.
- The research question might recall some of the key words established in the first few sentences and the title of your paper.
- An example of a research question could be "what were the consequences of the North American Free Trade Agreement on the Mexican export economy?"
- This could be honed further to be specific by referring to a particular element of the Free Trade Agreement and the impact on a particular industry in Mexico, such as clothing manufacture.
- A good research question should shape a problem into a testable hypothesis.
- If possible try to avoid using the word "hypothesis" and rather make this implicit in your writing. This can make your writing appear less formulaic.
- In a scientific paper, giving a clear one-sentence overview of your results and their relation to your hypothesis makes the information clear and accessible.  X Trustworthy Source PubMed Central Journal archive from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Go to source
- An example of a hypothesis could be "mice deprived of food for the duration of the study were expected to become more lethargic than those fed normally".
- This is not always necessary and you should pay attention to the writing conventions in your discipline.
- In a natural sciences paper, for example, there is a fairly rigid structure which you will be following.
- A humanities or social science paper will most likely present more opportunities to deviate in how you structure your paper.
Research Introduction Help
- Use your research papers' outline to help you decide what information to include when writing an introduction. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
- Consider drafting your introduction after you have already completed the rest of your research paper. Writing introductions last can help ensure that you don't leave out any major points. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
- Avoid emotional or sensational introductions; these can create distrust in the reader. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 49 Not Helpful 12
- Generally avoid using personal pronouns in your introduction, such as "I," "me," "we," "us," "my," "mine," or "our." ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 30 Not Helpful 7
- Don't overwhelm the reader with an over-abundance of information. Keep the introduction as concise as possible by saving specific details for the body of your paper. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 23 Not Helpful 14
You Might Also Like
- ↑ https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185916
- ↑ https://www.aresearchguide.com/inverted-pyramid-structure-in-writing.html
- ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/introduction
- ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/PlanResearchPaper.html
- ↑ https://dept.writing.wisc.edu/wac/writing-an-introduction-for-a-scientific-paper/
- ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/assignments/planresearchpaper/
- ↑ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3178846/
About This Article
To introduce your research paper, use the first 1-2 sentences to describe your general topic, such as “women in World War I.” Include and define keywords, such as “gender relations,” to show your reader where you’re going. Mention previous research into the topic with a phrase like, “Others have studied…”, then transition into what your contribution will be and why it’s necessary. Finally, state the questions that your paper will address and propose your “answer” to them as your thesis statement. For more information from our English Ph.D. co-author about how to craft a strong hypothesis and thesis, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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Learn How to Write an Introduction for a Research Paper
Updated 14 Jun 2022
Though introduction to any writing is frequently associated with beginning, it's not that simple for an introduction to a research paper. Here you can find a guide on how to write an introduction for a research paper, which presents a topic to the reader. While creating an introduction students frequently get lost in the consistency of their thoughts. But following the structure and simple rules, you will succeed with your writing and get the desired mark.
What is a Research Paper Introduction?
An introduction is the initial part of a research paper and the part that a reader is likely to read first (at least when focusing deeply and reading it in detail). Hence, definitions, notions, and other information required for understanding the paper are presented/listed here.
Every research paper needs context so that readers can understand why you have created it. This is exactly what you can do in your research paper introduction. Of course, this can mean that your introduction is the hardest part of an essay to write first. So, it is essential that you take your time and make sure you get it right.
The introduction of writing is going to set out your rationale, which is what research will be based around. Your readers should be able to tell what they are reading right from the beginning and whether it interests them.
It is essential that you make the beginning of your research paper interesting and engage with your readers from the first line. This will make sure that people continue to read and learn about what you have found out. You should also state a hypothesis and the way you think your work will turn out in conclusion. You must always include an introduction to your paper.
"Introductions need to be organized, succinct, and clear. Clear writing is essential when writing a research paper. Often, students work so hard in crafting an interesting hook that the rest of the introduction devolves into another direction. For students, I always recommend clearly identifying what your thesis is - what are you planning on focusing on for your paper? As a reader, do I know what the premise of the paper is before I continue reading? For research papers, engagement is in the pithiness of writing and the organizational structure. In introductions particularly, the statement of organization is vital. The statement of organization dictates how the rest of the paper will be structured and what the reader should look to when they are reading. For research papers, follow your passions. What interests you? What is a topic that keeps you up at night? What are you passionate about? Finding a topic that resonates with you is key when aiming to write ideas clearly." Sana Shaikh, PhD, Director of School Operations in Springfield Public Schools
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Writing an Introduction to a Research Paper – What to Include
So, what should you include in your introduction? We will give you a list below so that you can prepare a research paper introduction outline and follow it when you are writing.
What are the parts of the introduction in research?
The introduction of a research paper may contain a few other parts/elements such as the chief goal(s) and objectives of the research, a brief but informative outline of the following content, explained, concept definitions, a brief history of the research into the topic, recent related discoveries, etc.
Start with Announcing Your Topic
There are many research topics . The topic is the fundament of any writing you prepare. Regarding, the angle you look at your topic, it will reflect different aspects. It’s better to begin with outlining your topic. There is no secret on how to start a research paper intro: you should just state your topic and add some connected with topic issues that bothers you a lot. This is a perfect strategy to intrigue the reader.
It is recommended to start with general info and then narrowing down to specific aspects. Try not to deepen into a state of things in the beginning, but explain your view on the topic. If you are going to use some difficult expressions in the central part of an essay, make them clear to any reader and point out their connection with your topic.
Review the Literature
Developing a statement in the main body, you will need some literature sources to refer to. While your idea can sound a bit subjectively, if you maintain it with citations extracted from works of famous scientists, authors, or philosophers, you will prove your point. Don’t neglect modern time scholars that are being deeply concerned about the issue or opinion you stated. The introduction should briefly state what the literature will be about.
Stress on Rationale
The rationale is the key element of your beginning. Once you stated the topic, it’s time to prove it’s relevant and gives readers food for thought. The rationale serves as an indicator of both the importance of your essay and your attitude to the issue. The rationale should be laconic and precise to show the reader the significance of your research.
State Your Thesis
The thesis statement marks the conclusive part of the introduction for the research paper or research summary and transition to the actual research. This sentence supports all the things you have written before and collects all your ideas in a logical and concise saying. If your subject is too complicated, you should make the thesis statement comprehensible with it. The thesis is what runs through your paper. That’s why the intro where a thesis is stated sets the tone for the entire work.
Your thesis should:
- Give general info on topic
- Be engaging and precise
- Reflect the significance of raised issue
If all these are ready, the only thing left is to make the outline for research paper structure.
ORDER RESEARCH PAPER
Conclude With the Outline
When all the important work is done, it’s time for the outline of the research paper’s structure. Not every mentor requires the structure overview in the introduction, but sometimes students are asked to stress on few aspects of their future research. This is not about the detailed depiction of every part of your work. The outline is a short paragraph, which consists of 3 or 4 sentences and represents your plan for the entire paper. You can also look for some essay introduction examples to grab some ideas.
View an Example of an Introduction in Research Paper
Sometimes, it is best to explore an example of an introduction in a research paper in order to understand it better. Check out the example that we have created:
Did you know that there are currently over 2.3 million Americans incarcerated for their crimes? While it is widely believed that prison should be the punishment for crime, statistics find that 77 percent of prisoners will re-offend once they are released. This suggests that prison is not working to reduce recidivism. My research paper aims to demonstrate that prison does not work as a way to prevent crime and that alternatives should be considered, such as restorative justice and other community sentencing.
Writing Tips for Students Who Want to Know all About Introduction
Dr. Elizabeth M. Minei
"A strong introduction to a research paper should probably be written last. The introduction needs to include: 1) what the topic is focused on, 2) how the research was conducted(method), 3) what the findings are (generally), 4) and how the paper contributes to the overall field. These items are often unanswerable until the paper is complete. An introduction should also absolutely have a few sentences that specifically detail what they will read in the upcoming pages. Research Papers are NOT like fiction writing where you might want to sustain the mystery—instead,you want to show them the payoff up front. If the reader gets to the end of the introduction and does not know what to expect in the rest of the paper, you may have missed the mark." Dr. Elizabeth M. Minei, PhD, Associate Professor at Baruch College, Founder and C.E.O. of EMinei Consulting
So, how to write an intro for a research paper?
- Define and Explain Concepts
Is writing including concepts that are going to be complicated for the average reader to understand? If the answer is yes, this means that you should take your time to explain them as best as you can in your introduction. This includes any jargon or terms that you think will be important to know before reading your findings and analysis.
- Start with a Quotation
You want to capture your reader’s attention right from the beginning. If you are not sure how to do that effectively, think about including a quotation that captures the heart of the topic. This will be particularly true if your essay is for social subjects, such as English, History, and humanities. It is going to help create a picture in the reader’s head, and they will remember this when they are reading your work. Depending on the subject of your paper, it could also include a striking statistic.
- Communicate your Structure
Readers need to know not only why you are conducting a particular research topic, but also how you intend to do it. It means that your introduction should set out the structure that will be followed in your article. It will allow a reader to easily navigate between different parts and make sure that it all makes sense.
Need Additional Help?
As you see, writing research papers introduction is not that challenging if you follow the guide. But sometimes even the smartest students fail in choosing a competitive topic and building a solid thesis. Even if you consider your topic important, it can seem questionable for your professor. How to write an introduction for a research paper and make it flawless?
We present you with professional help from writers who are full of new ideas to reflect them in your assignment! Browsing “how to write a research paper introduction” and trying to write a paper on your own you may lose those precious hours of your time. Asking us for help, you will get rid of your constant worries. Can you write my research papers ? Yes, we can! Presenting only top-notch content, we help many students achieve the desired outcome and improve their academic performance. Our writers don’t tolerate plagiarism - real professionals create their writings from scratch. We believe that even the most complicated task has the simplest solution and our paper writers can always find it. If you doubt, place your order and get assured we don’t mouth empty words!
How do you write a good intro?
Writing a good intro requires matching well the information in it with the rest of the paper – it must “serve” the needs of the rest of the paper. It should introduce the reader smoothly into the topic and facilitate an easy read (without requiring the excessive aid of external sources).
How do you write an introduction for a research paper?
In case you have difficulties starting with the introduction first, a fairly universal advice is to write it last (apart from the thesis, goals, and objectives). Thus, after writing other sections (that have a clearer/ more rigid structure) you’ll be able to decide both on the type of content that would match better the rest of your paper but also on the word count you can dedicate to this section.
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How to Write an Introductory Paragraph That Captivates Your Audience?
If you are a student wondering how to write an introductory paragraph, then this article will be helpful for you. It covers constructing an exciting and persuasive introduction that will grab your reader’s attention and maintain their interest in your words. We’ll cover the basics of writing and how to write introductory paragraphs for an essay, research paper, and narrative.
What is an Introductory Paragraph?
An introductory paragraph is the opening paragraph of your essay, research paper, or narrative. Its purpose is to grab the reader’s attention and introduce the topic of your piece. It should be engaging, interesting, and informative enough to keep your reader interested in reading further.
How to Write an Introductory Paragraph?
An opening paragraph acts as a road map for the reader, outlining the goal and extent of the study. It is helpful to think of the introduction as an upside-down triangle with the most significant portion at the top and the sharpest point at the bottom to achieve this efficiently. The introduction should start with a broad summary of the subject at the top of the triangle.
The topic’s focus should get more specific as the introduction goes on. Also, the relevance of the subject and the reasons why it matters should be emphasized in this part. The thesis statement, which summarizes the paper’s primary argument or aim, should come at the end of the introduction. These are general points of how to write an introductory paragraph but now we will move to more specific points.
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How to write an introductory paragraph of an essay?
The first paragraph of an essay should have three key components: a hook, some background information, and a thesis statement.
The first sentence of your introduction paragraph, known as the hook, should draw the reader in. It ought to be an intriguing, unexpected, or provocative statement. You can develop a hook by using a quotation, question, or statistic.
2. Background Information
After your hook, you should provide some background information on your topic. This could be a brief overview of the issue or topic you’re discussing or some historical context. The goal is to provide enough information to orient your reader but not so much that they lose interest.
3. Thesis Statement
Lastly, a thesis statement should wrap up your introduction. These are one or two sentences that briefly state the thesis or argument of your paper.
Here’s an example covering the components of how to write an introductory paragraph for an essay on the benefits of exercise:
“Did you know exercising regularly can extend your life, lessen stress, and enhance your mental health? It’s more crucial now than ever to prioritize physical exercise in our society when we spend most of our time hunched over screens. I’ll review the numerous advantages of exercise in this essay and make the case that everyone’s daily routines should include regular exercise.”
How to Write an Introductory Paragraph for a Research Paper?
If you are confused that how to write an introduction paragraph for a research paper, then keep in mind that it also contains three points.
The hook is not similar to an essay’s, although it should be attention-grabbing and relevant to your research topic. In a research paper’s hook, usually, the emphasis is on providing data and reasoning more impartially and formally.
After your hook, you should provide background information on your research topic. The background information in the research paper should be more detailed and extensive as it is crucial to establish the existing knowledge and research on the subject.
Finally, it would help if you end your introductory paragraph with a thesis statement. It should be clear and concise and give your reader an idea of what to expect in the rest of your piece. The thesis statement in a research paper is more complicated and nuanced since it must represent the original study or analysis that has been done.
Here’s an example covering the main components of how to write an introductory paragraph for a research paper on climate change and the gap between public action and scientific knowledge.
Climate change has a terrible effect on ecosystems, societies, and economies worldwide. But regardless of the overwhelming proof of its seriousness and severity, neither the general public nor governments have acted quickly. This study will highlight the importance of media framing and political polarization as contributing causes to the discrepancy between scientific understanding and public action on climate change.
How to Write an Introduction Paragraph for a Narrative Essay?
A narrative essay’s introduction paragraph differs from essays and research papers. Your opening paragraph should create the atmosphere for your story and attract the reader rather than giving background information and a thesis statement and it will assist you in how to write an introduction paragraph.
A narrative essay’s hook consists of one or two sentences that grab the reader and establish the piece’s mood. To build a hook that draws your reader in, you can use a descriptive phrase, an action-packed line, or a quotation from one of your characters.
2. Setting the Scene
The setting for your story will come after your hook. It could involve describing the setting, introducing your main character, or providing context for your narrative.
If you are still confused about how to write an introduction paragraph for a narrative essay, then our example about a hiking trip will clear your doubts.
“When we started our journey, the air was clear and fresh, and our bags were packed with everything we would need for the day. We were excited to explore the mountain’s rough terrain and find the untold beauty lying in wait. I couldn’t help but feel a sense of anticipation and excitement as we climbed the route. I had no idea this trek would be one of the most difficult and memorable experiences of my life.”
By sticking to the tips in our article on how to write an introductory paragraph, you will develop a hook that pulls the reader in, give background information that establishes the context for your work, and conclude with either a concise thesis statement (for essays and research papers) or a detailed description of the scene and the characters (in the case of narratives).
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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper
- 4. The Introduction
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The introduction leads the reader from a general subject area to a particular topic of inquiry. It establishes the scope, context, and significance of the research being conducted by summarizing current understanding and background information about the topic, stating the purpose of the work in the form of the research problem supported by a hypothesis or a set of questions, explaining briefly the methodological approach used to examine the research problem, highlighting the potential outcomes your study can reveal, and outlining the remaining structure and organization of the paper.
Key Elements of the Research Proposal. Prepared under the direction of the Superintendent and by the 2010 Curriculum Design and Writing Team. Baltimore County Public Schools.
Importance of a Good Introduction
Think of the introduction as a mental road map that must answer for the reader these four questions:
- What was I studying?
- Why was this topic important to investigate?
- What did we know about this topic before I did this study?
- How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding?
According to Reyes, there are three overarching goals of a good introduction: 1) ensure that you summarize prior studies about the topic in a manner that lays a foundation for understanding the research problem; 2) explain how your study specifically addresses gaps in the literature, insufficient consideration of the topic, or other deficiency in the literature; and, 3) note the broader theoretical, empirical, and/or policy contributions and implications of your research.
A well-written introduction is important because, quite simply, you never get a second chance to make a good first impression. The opening paragraphs of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions about the logic of your argument, your writing style, the overall quality of your research, and, ultimately, the validity of your findings and conclusions. A vague, disorganized, or error-filled introduction will create a negative impression, whereas, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will lead your readers to think highly of your analytical skills, your writing style, and your research approach. All introductions should conclude with a brief paragraph that describes the organization of the rest of the paper.
Hirano, Eliana. “Research Article Introductions in English for Specific Purposes: A Comparison between Brazilian, Portuguese, and English.” English for Specific Purposes 28 (October 2009): 240-250; Samraj, B. “Introductions in Research Articles: Variations Across Disciplines.” English for Specific Purposes 21 (2002): 1–17; Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; “Writing Introductions.” In Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide. Peter Redman. 4th edition. (London: Sage, 2011), pp. 63-70; Reyes, Victoria. Demystifying the Journal Article. Inside Higher Education.
Structure and Writing Style
I. Structure and Approach
The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions for the reader:
- What is this?
- Why should I read it?
- What do you want me to think about / consider doing / react to?
Think of the structure of the introduction as an inverted triangle of information that lays a foundation for understanding the research problem. Organize the information so as to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the introduction, then narrow your analysis to more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your research problem and the rationale for studying it [often written as a series of key questions to be addressed or framed as a hypothesis or set of assumptions to be tested] and, whenever possible, a description of the potential outcomes your study can reveal.
These are general phases associated with writing an introduction: 1. Establish an area to research by:
- Highlighting the importance of the topic, and/or
- Making general statements about the topic, and/or
- Presenting an overview on current research on the subject.
2. Identify a research niche by:
- Opposing an existing assumption, and/or
- Revealing a gap in existing research, and/or
- Formulating a research question or problem, and/or
- Continuing a disciplinary tradition.
3. Place your research within the research niche by:
- Stating the intent of your study,
- Outlining the key characteristics of your study,
- Describing important results, and
- Giving a brief overview of the structure of the paper.
NOTE: It is often useful to review the introduction late in the writing process. This is appropriate because outcomes are unknown until you've completed the study. After you complete writing the body of the paper, go back and review introductory descriptions of the structure of the paper, the method of data gathering, the reporting and analysis of results, and the conclusion. Reviewing and, if necessary, rewriting the introduction ensures that it correctly matches the overall structure of your final paper.
II. Delimitations of the Study
Delimitations refer to those characteristics that limit the scope and define the conceptual boundaries of your research . This is determined by the conscious exclusionary and inclusionary decisions you make about how to investigate the research problem. In other words, not only should you tell the reader what it is you are studying and why, but you must also acknowledge why you rejected alternative approaches that could have been used to examine the topic.
Obviously, the first limiting step was the choice of research problem itself. However, implicit are other, related problems that could have been chosen but were rejected. These should be noted in the conclusion of your introduction. For example, a delimitating statement could read, "Although many factors can be understood to impact the likelihood young people will vote, this study will focus on socioeconomic factors related to the need to work full-time while in school." The point is not to document every possible delimiting factor, but to highlight why previously researched issues related to the topic were not addressed.
Examples of delimitating choices would be:
- The key aims and objectives of your study,
- The research questions that you address,
- The variables of interest [i.e., the various factors and features of the phenomenon being studied],
- The method(s) of investigation,
- The time period your study covers, and
- Any relevant alternative theoretical frameworks that could have been adopted.
Review each of these decisions. Not only do you clearly establish what you intend to accomplish in your research, but you should also include a declaration of what the study does not intend to cover. In the latter case, your exclusionary decisions should be based upon criteria understood as, "not interesting"; "not directly relevant"; “too problematic because..."; "not feasible," and the like. Make this reasoning explicit!
NOTE: Delimitations refer to the initial choices made about the broader, overall design of your study and should not be confused with documenting the limitations of your study discovered after the research has been completed.
ANOTHER NOTE : Do not view delimitating statements as admitting to an inherent failing or shortcoming in your research. They are an accepted element of academic writing intended to keep the reader focused on the research problem by explicitly defining the conceptual boundaries and scope of your study. It addresses any critical questions in the reader's mind of, "Why the hell didn't the author examine this?"
III. The Narrative Flow
Issues to keep in mind that will help the narrative flow in your introduction :
- Your introduction should clearly identify the subject area of interest . A simple strategy to follow is to use key words from your title in the first few sentences of the introduction. This will help focus the introduction on the topic at the appropriate level and ensures that you get to the subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general.
- Establish context by providing a brief and balanced review of the pertinent published literature that is available on the subject. The key is to summarize for the reader what is known about the specific research problem before you did your analysis. This part of your introduction should not represent a comprehensive literature review--that comes next. It consists of a general review of the important, foundational research literature [with citations] that establishes a foundation for understanding key elements of the research problem. See the drop-down menu under this tab for " Background Information " regarding types of contexts.
- Clearly state the hypothesis that you investigated . When you are first learning to write in this format it is okay, and actually preferable, to use a past statement like, "The purpose of this study was to...." or "We investigated three possible mechanisms to explain the...."
- Why did you choose this kind of research study or design? Provide a clear statement of the rationale for your approach to the problem studied. This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the introduction.
IV. Engaging the Reader
A research problem in the social sciences can come across as dry and uninteresting to anyone unfamiliar with the topic . Therefore, one of the goals of your introduction is to make readers want to read your paper. Here are several strategies you can use to grab the reader's attention:
- Open with a compelling story . Almost all research problems in the social sciences, no matter how obscure or esoteric , are really about the lives of people. Telling a story that humanizes an issue can help illuminate the significance of the problem and help the reader empathize with those affected by the condition being studied.
- Include a strong quotation or a vivid, perhaps unexpected, anecdote . During your review of the literature, make note of any quotes or anecdotes that grab your attention because they can used in your introduction to highlight the research problem in a captivating way.
- Pose a provocative or thought-provoking question . Your research problem should be framed by a set of questions to be addressed or hypotheses to be tested. However, a provocative question can be presented in the beginning of your introduction that challenges an existing assumption or compels the reader to consider an alternative viewpoint that helps establish the significance of your study.
- Describe a puzzling scenario or incongruity . This involves highlighting an interesting quandary concerning the research problem or describing contradictory findings from prior studies about a topic. Posing what is essentially an unresolved intellectual riddle about the problem can engage the reader's interest in the study.
- Cite a stirring example or case study that illustrates why the research problem is important . Draw upon the findings of others to demonstrate the significance of the problem and to describe how your study builds upon or offers alternatives ways of investigating this prior research.
NOTE: It is important that you choose only one of the suggested strategies for engaging your readers. This avoids giving an impression that your paper is more flash than substance and does not distract from the substance of your study.
Freedman, Leora and Jerry Plotnick. Introductions and Conclusions. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Introduction. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Introductions. The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin, Madison; Introductions, Body Paragraphs, and Conclusions for an Argument Paper. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; “Writing Introductions.” In Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide . Peter Redman. 4th edition. (London: Sage, 2011), pp. 63-70; Resources for Writers: Introduction Strategies. Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Sharpling, Gerald. Writing an Introduction. Centre for Applied Linguistics, University of Warwick; Samraj, B. “Introductions in Research Articles: Variations Across Disciplines.” English for Specific Purposes 21 (2002): 1–17; Swales, John and Christine B. Feak. Academic Writing for Graduate Students: Essential Skills and Tasks . 2nd edition. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2004 ; Writing Your Introduction. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University.
Avoid the "Dictionary" Introduction
Giving the dictionary definition of words related to the research problem may appear appropriate because it is important to define specific terminology that readers may be unfamiliar with. However, anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and a general dictionary is not a particularly authoritative source because it doesn't take into account the context of your topic and doesn't offer particularly detailed information. Also, placed in the context of a particular discipline, a term or concept may have a different meaning than what is found in a general dictionary. If you feel that you must seek out an authoritative definition, use a subject specific dictionary or encyclopedia [e.g., if you are a sociology student, search for dictionaries of sociology]. A good database for obtaining definitive definitions of concepts or terms is Credo Reference .
Saba, Robert. The College Research Paper. Florida International University; Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina.
Another Writing Tip
When Do I Begin?
A common question asked at the start of any paper is, "Where should I begin?" An equally important question to ask yourself is, "When do I begin?" Research problems in the social sciences rarely rest in isolation from history. Therefore, it is important to lay a foundation for understanding the historical context underpinning the research problem. However, this information should be brief and succinct and begin at a point in time that illustrates the study's overall importance. For example, a study that investigates coffee cultivation and export in West Africa as a key stimulus for local economic growth needs to describe the beginning of exporting coffee in the region and establishing why economic growth is important. You do not need to give a long historical explanation about coffee exports in Africa. If a research problem requires a substantial exploration of the historical context, do this in the literature review section. In your introduction, make note of this as part of the "roadmap" [see below] that you use to describe the organization of your paper.
Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; “Writing Introductions.” In Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide . Peter Redman. 4th edition. (London: Sage, 2011), pp. 63-70.
Yet Another Writing Tip
Always End with a Roadmap
The final paragraph or sentences of your introduction should forecast your main arguments and conclusions and provide a brief description of the rest of the paper [the "roadmap"] that let's the reader know where you are going and what to expect. A roadmap is important because it helps the reader place the research problem within the context of their own perspectives about the topic. In addition, concluding your introduction with an explicit roadmap tells the reader that you have a clear understanding of the structural purpose of your paper. In this way, the roadmap acts as a type of promise to yourself and to your readers that you will follow a consistent and coherent approach to addressing the topic of inquiry. Refer to it often to help keep your writing focused and organized.
Cassuto, Leonard. “On the Dissertation: How to Write the Introduction.” The Chronicle of Higher Education , May 28, 2018; Radich, Michael. A Student's Guide to Writing in East Asian Studies . (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Writing n. d.), pp. 35-37.
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How to Write a Strong Introduction to a Research Paper
by Suzanne Davis | Jun 17, 2021 | Writing Essays and Papers , Writing Process
What makes an introduction powerful?
It’s an important question because an introduction is the first impression readers have of your research paper. A strong introduction tells your readers not only what you will prove or show— it makes them want to read it .
You want to write an introduction that engages your reader, conveys the importance of your topic, and how and what you plan to demonstrate. These elements are what moves your audience, so they feel a desire to finish your research paper.
A powerful introduction says to the reader, “You must read me!”
3 Key Components of Strong Introductions
So what are the key parts a good introduction should have? 1) a compelling hook, 2) important background information and 3) a provable and specific thesis statement. If you put those 3 pieces together you’ll have an effective introduction.
#1 Compelling Hook
A hook is the first 1 or 2 sentences of your paper. It is meant to grab your readers’ attention, so they want to see what comes next. If you want to learn about hooks check out my blog post, “7 Sensational Types of Essay Hooks.” https://www.academicwritingsuccess.com/7-sensational-types-of-essay-hooks/ There you’ll find more details about hooks and how to use them in your essays.
Here are 5 that work well in academic writing.
Powerful Statement /Declaration
With his hook, you begin with a sentence that makes a firm claim. For example, “Every day Facebook invades its users’ privacy.” This sentence forces readers to reflect on whether or not they agree with this statement. To do that they need to read your research paper.
In this case, most people have already formed an opinion about Facebook, and here you’ll either challenge or deepen their perspectives.
This hook is popular because people love to learn facts and statistics. Studies can be very persuasive. We regard studies as evidence or proof and place great value on statistics. When readers see statistics, they want to know more about how it will relate to what you write. However, make sure the facts you use come from a credible source.
When you start your paper or essay with a question, people will want to learn the answer to it. They are naturally curious, so an intriguing question makes them want to continue reading. Make sure this question connects to what you will write about. An off-topic question is confusing.
Quotations are very popular. They can be inspiring and thought-provoking. You can use quotations from famous people, experts, characters, or even people mentioned in your paper. For example, if you are writing a case study you could select a quotation from one of the participants in the study. Quotations work well when they connect with the rest of your academic essay or paper. Make sure the relationship between the quotation and your writing is clear.
In this hook, you take 2 different things and state how they are similar or the same. For example, “Facebook is a digital version of prison people want to be in.” This sentence takes 2 different things “Facebook” and “prison” and claims they are alike. The comparison of Facebook being like a digital version of prison is a strong visual. Your readers will want to see how you show a connection between these 2 things.
Both similes and metaphors accomplish the same thing in your hook. The difference is that a simile uses the words “like” and “as” to make the comparison, “Writing a novel is like running a marathon.” A metaphor states one thing is another, “Writing a novel is running a marathon.”
#2 Important Background Information
The next group of sentences in your introduction express the circumstance and/or relevant information about your topic. A lot of times you will see writers describe a problem, an issue or provide historical context.
Include the information people need to know to understand your topic and why it matters. If you are writing about Facebook and privacy, people would want to see what the situation is and why privacy matters. A good question to ask here is, “What is the context?”
Also, start with general information first, and in the following sentences be more specific. Those specific sentences lead to the most important piece of your introduction: your thesis statement.
#3 Provable and Specific Thesis Statement
A thesis statement is a sentence that describes what you will prove or show in your research paper. Think of it as the point of view (POV) or opinion you have about your topic. It also guides how you will organize your essay or paper.
A strong thesis statement is clear and specific and one you can prove. For example, Children should not use digital devices until they are at least 3 years old because it lowers their attention span, limits social interaction, and causes sleep problems.
This thesis statement sets up the organization of your paper. Each of the 3 effects of children using digital devices is part of the body. These sections of the body would go toward proving your thesis statement.
- Body Part A: Digital devices lower a child’s attention span.
- Body Part B: Digital devices limit a child’s social interaction with others.
- Body Part C : Digital devices cause sleep problems.
So how do you create a thesis statement?
- Examine your topic, and briefly research it. I suggest reading any class notes you have and reading some background sources on your topic. What do people say about your topic?
- Ask yourself, “What do I think about this topic?”
- Brainstorm ideas and review them. What are the ideas that you can find research on?
- Write a sentence that connects your topic to what you will show, reveal, or prove about it . (Do not use the first person “I think” or “I feel” in your thesis statement).
- Evaluate your thesis statement. Is it specific? Can you prove it with evidence?
Write A Strong Introduction
There are different ways you can approach writing an introduction. You could write the body of your paper first and then write the introduction. You could write the thesis statement first and then write the hook and background information.
I like to write a thesis statement first, write the body of my paper, and then the conclusion. Afterward, I go back and write the rest of my introduction.
Some people like to begin with a hook and write a strong introduction before anything else. Write the way that suits you best. As long as you include a compelling hook, important background information, and a provable and specific thesis statement, you’ll have an impressive introduction.
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Writing Research Paper Introductions
Research paper introductions are a critical component of any academic paper. They set the tone for the entire paper and give readers an overview of what to expect.
A well-written introduction can capture the reader’s attention, provide a clear roadmap for the paper, and help establish the relevance of the research topic.
Characteristics of Effective Research Paper Introductions
Before diving into the essential components of research paper introductions, it’s essential to understand what makes an effective introduction. An effective research paper introduction should:
- Be concise and to the point.
- Provide background information on the research topic.
- Introduce the research question or thesis statement.
- Establish the significance of the research.
- Preview the main points of the paper.
Examples of research paper introductions
Here are two examples of effective research paper introductions :
Over the past decade, the use of social media has skyrocketed, and it has become an essential tool for communication and social interaction. However, the impact of social media on mental health is a growing concern. In this paper, we will examine the relationship between social media use and mental health outcomes among young adults. Specifically, we will explore the factors that contribute to this relationship, such as social comparison and cyberbullying. By understanding the impact of social media on mental health, we can develop strategies to promote healthy social media use and improve mental health outcomes.
The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, and it is a significant public health concern. While many factors contribute to obesity, the built environment plays a crucial role. In this paper, we will investigate the relationship between the built environment and obesity, focusing on the impact of neighborhood walkability, access to healthy food, and the availability of parks and recreational facilities. By understanding the impact of the built environment on obesity, we can develop interventions to promote healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of obesity on individuals and society.
Components of a Research Paper Introduction
An effective research paper introduction should contain the following components:
- Background Information: Provide some background information on the research topic to help readers understand the context of the study. This can include definitions of key terms or concepts, a brief topic history, or relevant statistics or data. Example: “Childhood obesity is a significant public health concern in the United States, with rates more than tripling over the past three decades.”
- Research Question or Thesis Statement: Clearly state the research question or thesis statement that the paper aims to answer or support. This should be specific and focused. Example: “In this paper, we will investigate the impact of physical activity interventions on reducing childhood obesity rates in low-income neighborhoods.”
- Significance of the Research: Explain why the research is important and how it contributes to the existing body of knowledge in the field. Example: “By identifying effective physical activity interventions in low-income neighborhoods, we can develop strategies to reduce the burden of childhood obesity on vulnerable populations and promote health equity.”
- Preview of Main Points: Provide a brief overview of the main points that the paper will cover. This helps readers understand the structure of the paper and what to expect. Example: “We will first review the existing literature on physical activity interventions for childhood obesity, then describe our study design and methods, present our results, and discuss the implications of our findings for future research and public health interventions.”
Types of Introductions
Research paper introductions can take various forms, depending on the paper’s research topic, discipline, and purpose. Here are three common types of introductions and examples of when to use them:
- Example: “On the morning of September 11, 2001, the world watched in horror as two planes crashed into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center. The events of that day changed the course of history and profoundly impacted the physical and mental health of first responders and survivors. This paper will examine the long-term health consequences of the 9/11 attacks and the efforts to provide medical and psychological support to affected individuals.”
- Example: “As Mahatma Gandhi once said, ‘The true measure of any society can be found in how it treats its most vulnerable members.’ In this paper, we will examine the ethical implications of using animals in biomedical research, focusing on the debate over the use of nonhuman primates in neuroscience research.”
- Example: “In the field of genetics, epigenetics refers to the study of changes in gene expression that do not involve changes to the underlying DNA sequence. In this paper, we will examine epigenetics’s role in cancer development, focusing on the potential of epigenetic therapies as a new approach to cancer treatment.”
Common Mistakes to Avoid When Crafting an Introduction for a Research Paper
While there is no one-size-fits-all approach to writing research paper introductions, there are some common mistakes to avoid:
- Being too broad or general in the introduction.
- Failing to provide a clear research question or thesis statement.
- Overloading the introduction with too much information or jargon.
- Including information that is not directly relevant to the research topic.
- Using a dull or uninteresting tone.
To avoid these mistakes, the introduction must be clear, concise, and engaging. Use language that is accessible to the reader, and focus on providing a clear roadmap for the paper.
Research paper introductions are essential to any academic paper, setting the stage for the rest of the paper and engaging the reader.
By following the crucial components of introductions and using effective writing techniques, you can create an introduction that is clear, concise, and engaging.
Remember to provide background information, state your research question or thesis statement, explain the significance of your research, preview the paper’s main points, and use a tone that is interesting and accessible to the reader.
Lastly, by avoiding common mistakes and following these guidelines, you can write effective research paper introductions that set the stage for a successful paper.
My goal is to help students achieve their full potential by crafting well-written, well-researched, and original papers that will set them apart from their peers.
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Guide on How to Write a Research Paper Introduction
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- 1 Research Paper Introduction – Definition
- 3 Research Paper Introduction: Structure
- 4 The Do’s and Don’ts
- 5 Research Paper Introduction: Example
- 6 In a nutshell
Research Paper Introduction – Definition
The research paper introduction arrests the reader’s attention from a general perspective to one specific area of a study. It outlines a summary of the research being conducted by condensing current understanding and background information about the topic, presenting the importance of the research in the form of a hypothesis, research questions , or research problem. It also outlines the methodological approach touching the likely outcomes that your study can reveal, and describing the remaining structure of the research paper.
Research paper introduction in academic writing is widely used in the presentation of a thesis and academic work. This article highlights the best ways to go about writing a captivating introduction to help you fine-tune your writing skills at the introductory level.
What is the purpose of a research paper introduction?
It establishes the depth, the context, and the importance of the research by summarizing and bringing the reader’s attention to your thesis. The research topic should be clear from the get-go. The introduction needs to draw in the reader whilst summarizing for them what it is that they’re about to read.
How do you start a research paper introduction?
You start the introduction of the research paper by presenting what your research paper is about. You’ll need some great sentence starters and transition words because your introduction needs to be well written in order to envoke the reader’s interest. Don’t forget to create some context and inform the reader about the research you have carried out.
How do you write a research paper introduction?
Draft your introduction on a piece of paper and edit it extensively before you add it to the final copy of your research paper. Be sure to refer to the research paper outline that you created before you started writing. Your sentences should be short and precise. It’s also important that you do not oversell your ideas at this point- remember that you’re still trying to draw the reader in.
What do you include in a research paper introduction?
You should highlight the key aspects of your thesis. It’s important that your thesis statement is placed towards the end of your research paper introduction. You are essentially briefly introducing the reader to concepts that they will come across in your research work.
How do you write a research paper introduction to a scientific research paper?
The information included in a scientific research paper introduction is very similar to what you would include in any other research paper . However, the overall structure of a scientific research paper is a bit different as you’ll need to include sections like ‘materials’ and ‘scientific processes’. Your introduction to a scientific research paper should highlight sufficient background information on the experiment that you did, making it easy for readers to understand and evaluate your research work.
What is the rationale in the research paper introduction?
The rationale for research is the highlight of why your research topic is worthy of the study and experimentation and how it adds value to already existing research works. You will probably need to bury yourself in books, do your research in the library and undertake descriptive research for your specific field. You need to become an expert in your chosen field and you should know exactly what you are contributing to the academic community with your research.
Tip: Read about the different parts of a research paper for a full rundown of which parts go where.
Research Paper Introduction: Structure
The structure of a research paper introduction should contain the main goal and the objective of the research. It should be a concise but enlightening outline of the soon-after context. Here you are required to state your rationale or reasons why you want to major into a particular subject or instead what problems you seek to solve in the subject matter.
Therefore, you need comprehensible argumentation to emphasize the importance of your research topic to your reader. In addition, you want to excite the readers curiosity for the subject. Below you will find the prime points to create a convincing research paper introduction.
The Do’s and Don’ts
One of the things that should be evident throughout your research paper introduction is honesty to your readers. This will go a long way in establishing a piece of research work that can be relied on by other students and researchers in the future. You will also not find it hard explaining the rest of the research paper to the panellists.
• Your research paper introduction should be short, accurate and precise. Don´t tell stories at the introductory level of your research.
• Pick-point the ideas you want to talk about and the methodologies that you have derived from the course work for you to solve the hindrances that you encountered on the ground.
• Refer to diverse research paper introduction works and make sure to look for up-to-date researches for your thesis.
• Provide tangible shreds of evidence and supporting arguments to blueprint your findings, and at least prove the fact that what you are presenting is well researched as well as authentic.
• Find it worth to include relevant terms, may it be scientific or mathematical or even theological.
• Always remember to proofread your work.
• Scrutinize your research paper introduction before presentation for reliability and present it with utmost logic to show how it supports your research and not a mere throwing in of figures.
• Do not try explaining ideas that do not answer your research questions . This is a mere waste of time and will not lead to any new conclusion about your research paper introduction work.
• Do not write a lengthy research paper introduction. What will you write in the rest of the paper if you tell it all here?
• Do not state incomplete reasons for carrying out the research. You want to be as convincing as possible in your research paper introduction.
• Do not exceed the stated word limit. It brings about the fact that you do not know what you are talking about, instead, you present yourself as a bluff.
• Do not plagiarize your research paper introduction, just like any other portion of your research work. Check this before any submissions. Make sure all the hypothetical findings are genuine and unique.
Research Paper Introduction: Example
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In a nutshell
- Research paper introduction introduces the core topic to your thesis.
- The introduction explains where you are coming from concerning your research. Therefore make your research paper introduction precise.
- The research paper introduction should be short, concise, and accurate.
- Your research paper introduction should highlight the rationale of your research, which is the support of the worthiness of your study and research experiments.
- A research paper introduction should be free from plagiarism.
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How to write an introduction to a term paper 2023
How to properly write the introduction to the term paper. Read more in this article. Download a sample and an example of a template for the introduction of the term paper can be found here.
How to write an introduction to a term paper
A sample structure of the introduction to the term paper, relevance of the term paper, the object of the term paper, the subject of the term paper, problematics of the course work, purpose of course work, objectives of the course work, research methods used, introduction to the term paper: a template, examples of course paper introduction.
- Introduction to auditing
- Introduction to Banking
- Introduction to Marketing
- Introduction to accounting
- Introduction to the World Economy
Download sample introductions for term papers
Frequently asked questions.
Earlier in our blog an article about term paper design according to State Standard 2023 , which describes the general requirements for all its sections. Let's dwell on how to write the introduction to the term paper . Because this is an important part, which always draws attention to the supervisor and the certification committee.
The introduction to the course project is usually small (up to 5 pages). For example, Moscow State University in its recommendations for term papers refers to GOST R 7.0.11-2011 , according to which the size of the introduction should be up to 5% of the total work. but includes an explanation of why this topic was chosen, how it is important for science and society as a whole, how the study will be conducted. In the statement of the key points of research and is the essence of the introduction to the term paper .
So, if the institution does not impose special requirements, the structure of the introduction of course work looks like this :
- introductory part (2-5 paragraphs), which may contain a historical summary, listing the scientists who have previously studied this topic, the information base on which the author relied, the problem that prompted this research;
- the relevance of the study in 1-2 paragraphs. It explains why this topic is important, why it is necessary to raise it;
- research goal;
- the hypothesis, which will be tested in the process, then will be either confirmed or disproved;
- tasks - reflect the main stages of the work. The first task in any work is usually a literature analysis of the topic;
- methods - answer the question of what tools, techniques, resources will be used to solve the problems;
- the base of the study - the place of the study (university or an outside organization);
- sample - study participants, subjects;
- work structure.
Below is the introduction to the term paper: a case study in clinical psychology on "Deformations of the semantic sphere of military personnel :
Coursework introduction sample - download
In addition, you can use a neural network for term papers to get the work done in a couple of days .
The relevance of a scientific work means its relevance, its usefulness for science. It is necessary to prove that the topic requires attention and should be studied. It is especially appreciated when a student expresses a personal opinion in this section. Try to formulate why you were affected by this topic, what has already been done before you to study it, what problems there are now and how they can be overcome.
The object is a fact, a phenomenon, a process, a subject put forward for study. The object of the study answers the question, "What (whom) are we studying?
The subject of the study can be a problem related to the object or some property of the object, its feature, characteristic, something that affects and changes the object. The object has many different subjects, but only one subject is taken for study in the course work. It is around it that the study unfolds. The subject of the study can be contained in the theme of the work or fully coincide with it.
The research problem, like the subject, is closely related to the topic. The problem can refer to some controversial idea or situation. The problem is described in the introduction. At the end of the study, you should find ways to solve it. You need to study the literature about the problem and find out how they have tried to solve it before, what options have been suggested, what you can suggest.
The goal is closely related to the object, subject, problem, and hypothesis. We already have a subject and a problem related to it. The goal is responsible for what we are going to do with it, what we want to achieve, why we raised this topic in the first place. The goal usually sounds almost like the topic of a term paper. Important: There can only be one goal per term paper.
But the objectives, in contrast to the goal, should be several. Both theoretical and practical. Tasks represent stages on the way to achieving the goal.
If there are theoretical and practical tasks, the methods must match. Theoretical methods - the use of already available information in the literature, the construction of logical relationships and inferences based on it. And practical - testing the hypothesis in practice, on real examples.
The introduction should be formatted according to the same requirements that apply to the main body. If your institution does not provide otherwise, the introduction must be as follows:
- up to 5 pages in size;
- font 14 Times New Roman;
- indents 1.25;
- margins: left 3 cm, right 1 cm, top and bottom 2 cm;
- 1.5 cm line spacing;
- width alignment.
When creating the introduction you need to be guided by the requirements of the supervisor, university standards and general rules for writing research papers. Above discussed the content of the introduction coursework . Let's structure the information in a ready template on the example of pedagogical discipline, which can be filled with your information.
Coursework introduction example
When using the introduction template, don't forget about originality. To increase the level of uniqueness, it is best to use a neural network for writing term papers . And also read the article, which has as many as 16 ways to bypass the anti-plagiarism and increase originality .
- How many pages should be the introduction to the term paper? The correct introduction of the term paper should be 1-5 pages, unless otherwise required by the supervisor.
- Is it necessary to write tasks in the introduction of the term paper? Yes, in the introduction to the term paper you need to add a list of tasks.
- Is it necessary to indicate the introduction to the term paper in the table of contents? Yes, the introduction to the term paper should be included in the table of contents.
Now you know how to write the introduction in term paper 2023, what the introduction should have a structure. You have a sample term paper introduction that you can download and use. And to write a term paper in a couple of days, use Retext.AI neural network .
How to Write a Research Introduction: from Pure Title to Hook Sentence
It is not a secret that most people judge a book by the cover, so if you want your research paper to be read from A to Z, it is important to write a powerful introduction in research paper.
The first paragraph of your work must be catchy, inspiring and interesting, motivating the audience to go on reading. In this article you will learn everything about writing a research paper introduction and achieving outstanding writing results!
Following tips from AssignmentPay's expert team will help you to understand how a research paper introduction should look like and how to help readers enjoy your paper. In case you don’t have enough time or energy to write a research paper introduction, you can always pay for research paper - just contact and get outstanding assistance within a chosen period of time!
What is introduction in research paper?
A good introduction should lead the reader from a generalized topic to a particular aspect. It helps to establish the main idea, context, research importance and summarizes background data on the topic, providing the main goal of the work. In addition it contains hypothesis, a set of discussed questions and used methodology.
Your introduction should also highlight potential results or explain research structure and organization.
If you want to learn how to write a research paper introduction , you should answer three general questions:
- What is it?
- Why should you read it?
- What do you want your reader to think about it/ react to?
What should be in the introduction of a research paper?
Research paper introduction can be one of the most difficult parts to complete. The size of this section depends on the work type you are asked to complete.
Your introduction should define the topic, consist of a context and rationale, as well as of a hypothesis and research questions. A thoughtful introduction sets a tone for the whole paper, grabs attention of the reader and provides thesis statement and hypothesis.
3 Overarching Goals of a Good Introduction
- To make sure you provide a clear and understandable summary of previous works on the subject to give a better understanding of the problem;
- To explain why your own research fills in the gaps in literature and adds insufficient details to the topic;
- To note all sorts of contributions (including policy, theoretical and empirical ones) of the research.
How to write an Introduction?
The best way to get started if you lack information or ideas on writing an introduction is to learn about it online. Following tips of professional writers and tutors you will be able to create an outstanding work, which won’t leave anyone indifferent.
Below you will find the most relevant tips for writing a great research paper introduction.
Select the Topic
This step may be obvious but it plays a crucial part in writing a great research paper. If you select an irrelevant, boring or too general topic, you risk losing motivation and dropping the assignment somewhere in the middle.
Make a list of the matters you are interested in, conduct a research to see whether chosen variants have much credible data online. Cross out options, which can’t be backed with reliable sources or don’t stir up your interest.
As any book or movie, introduction aims to set the background and give your assignment a certain context, allowing the reader to see how your work complements previous researches on the similar topic.
That is why first paragraphs of the introduction should explain historical background, describing the first work in the field and other researches that influenced the modern situation.
However, huge amounts of information can make it difficult to fit into several paragraphs, so be careful and provide only the most important information.
Rationale for your work
Rationale is an explanation why you are using a certain film, book or method in your work. The basic elements of a rationale are:
- Target audience and citation of literature;
- Summary of the paper and its educational importance;
- Goals of using the research and how it can be applied on practice;
- Potential problems and how they can be solved;
- Alternative sources, which the student can explore.
A hook sentence is your chance to catch interest of the reader and make him want to learn more after reading the introduction in research paper. Your hook may include:
- A literary quote;
- Statistics or facts;
- A rhetorical question;
- Simile or metaphor;
- Anecdote or joke;
- Quote of a famous person.
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Writing a Thesis Statement
If you want to understand how to write an introduction, you should remember about including a thesis statement to your work. Actually, without it your introduction will be meaningless and your teacher will surely ask you to rewrite the whole section.
You need to write a thesis statement, when you are working on the outline. In such a way, you will be able to understand what arguments and sources to use. These few sentences may predetermine the whole course of your future work.
A good thesis statement includes such qualities, as:
- Background information on the topic;
- Precision and engagement;
- Importance of the discussed issue.
‘Downloading books online without any fee is bad and you need to avoid it’. It is a very weak example of a thesis statement, which is not able to stir interest of the audience and prevents from continuing reading.
‘Every time you download a book online without paying for it, huge work and efforts of authors remain unrecognized and make them lose thousands of dollars. It may eventually harm economy and overall wellbeing of the society’.
This example is much better, because it dives deeper into the problem and explains why the issue is relevant not only to a regular person but to the nation as a whole.
Tips for writing Good introduction
Importance of a good introduction is impossible to overestimate, because you will never have another chance to make a positive first impression.
First paragraphs of your research paper give the audience information on quality of chosen arguments, your personal style, as well as on validity of conclusions. If your introduction is weak and lacks structure, it may make the reader want to put your research paper aside.
On contrary, a concise and properly structured introduction will surely make the readers notice your writing and analytical skills, and make them want to go on reading.
Below you will find a few most important tips on writing a powerful introduction, engaging the reader and arising interest of the audience.
- Remain brief. Too long introduction will bore the reader and you will most likely lose the audience. Always stick to the outline and make your introduction short and straight to the point;
- Always define your problem. Your introduction should end up with a hypothesis, question or a thesis statement. By the end of your introduction the reader must know what you are trying to achieve by writing the paper. Remember, your discussion and conclusion sections will refer to the introduction, supporting your thesis statement;
- Organization. When working on body paragraphs you may notice that they go in different directions. There is nothing wrong until you adjust your introduction to the new course. A good advice is to work on your introduction only when all other sections are ready. It doesn’t work for all the students, so choose the rhythm and sequence depending on your own preferences.
Once your introduction is ready, you can proceed with conclusions and bibliography.
Research Paper Introduction Examples
Some students don’t know how to get started or are scared to fail, so they don’t want to try. One of the most simple and free solutions is getting familiar with examples online.
You can download samples of research paper introductions, choose the one you like and write your own paragraphs with ease!
Not every student can boast writing skills, so there is absolutely nothing wrong in searching for tips online. If you lack time or don’t want to risk your grades, Assignmentpay.com experts are always there to help. Place an order, providing us with specific guidelines and receive a flawless research paper introduction before the indicated deadline.
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How to Write a Research Paper Introduction Paragraph
04 Feb 2022
❓What Is an Introduction Paragraph for Research Paper?
✒️How to Write a Research Paper Introduction?
- State Your Research Theme
- Be Original
- Explain Key Terms
- Size Is Important
- Refer to the Keywords
- Follow the Rules of Logic
🚨Common Mistakes and How not to Slip Up
📑Research Paper Introduction Examples
Just like the alphabet begins with the letter “A,” any essay begins with an introduction. When you’re ready to write a research paper, you should start with an opening section. These are not common sentences but ones that form the entire thesis you will explore in the body paragraphs of a research project. You should guide the reader through the topic and present the importance of your university research and its results.
What Is an Introduction Paragraph for Research Paper?
Writing a research paper is a mandatory task in almost any educational specialty. You will definitely have to face this kind of task at some point. We know how difficult it can be to collect your thoughts and start doing work by arranging an introduction. That is why we are ready to come to your aid and tell you in detail the rules, as well as share some useful tips on writing the opening passage.
The research paper introductions are pieces of information placed at the beginning of the paper. The size of this section depends on the general requirements for the work and usually is about 350-450 words. Moreover, everything you write in the introduction should attract the reader’s curiosity. This part of your work is designed to help the reader identify whether he or she wants to read the paper.
You can get acquainted with the example of an abstract for a research paper . That is why it is incredibly important to approach the writing of this section responsibly and make sure that you manage to clearly and interestingly position your research topic. A well-written research paper introduction will make you more likely to get a high score.
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How to Write a Research Paper Introduction?
After writing your research paper, you will have a broad picture of your entire research and analysis. Being an expert in the research niche of your scientific paper, you will be able to come to valid conclusions and also highlight the main points of your work. This will help you to create an outline, identify the key notions, and include them in the introduction. To increase interest in reading your project, you should also define a hook that can catch the reader.
However, the problem with writing the first section is the difficulty in determining the importance of information. While investigating, you will probably feel that all the data you provide is essential. But to write a good introduction, you need to be concise. Your general erudition of background information, combined with specific knowledge of the general subject area, will help you write a great introduction. There are a few simple guides that can help to make your research paper introduction shine:
1. State Your Research Theme
The first sentences should be common about the general topic, and then you should add some details about your topic. This is called the inverted triangle, when you start a research paper with a broad theme and then narrow it down. Be concise in your presentation of the research problem to avoid any kind of ambiguity. Your study should be presented as a direct continuation of the introduction. It is crucial to keep the narrative logical.
2. Be Original
If you write a dissertation paper in humanities, you can start the introduction with a quotation or even an anecdote. If your academic area is science or medicine, you can write extremely interesting data or even shocking statistics. Such an approach will help you develop an attractive research paper introduction. However, be careful with fact checking and sources. All the statistics you provide must correspond to reality. According to the methodology, shocking research should be done either by you personally or by reputable institutions.
3. Explain Key Terms
You should provide a list of the notions you used and the definitions that you based on to avoid reader confusion. In science, there is a phenomenon when one term can have different interpretations due to the background. Whenever you find yourself in trouble, ask us to write my research paper , and we’ll come to help. Moreover, the glossary will show your knowledge level in the scientific context and help expand the audience that your article may be useful too.
4. Size Is Important
It would help if you chose your ideal length for the introduction. It should be short enough to be readable and gain the reader's attention and long enough to explain all the main features of your essay. And, of course, remember that the size of the introduction should be directly proportional to the size of your study. You need to briefly describe the main sections that your subject includes to guide your reader.
5. Refer to the Keywords
The keywords should be used in the introduction to give a general overview of the research questions. These could be separate words or word combinations which describe your topic. This trick aims to write a research paper that is easier to find. In addition, they help the reader quickly understand the direction of your research, showing the problem and the subject of investigation.
6. Follow the Rules of Logic
You should be consistent in the writing process. As we mentioned in one of the other sections, your work must be holistic. Each new thought should be a continuation of the previous one. A well-elaborated outline may help in solving this research problem. The first passage should logically introduce the reader to the subject and also give a preview of what will be described next. Logical links between sentences will make your text coherent.
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Common Mistakes and How not to Slip Up
As you can already understand, writing a decent introduction is quite a difficult task. You should always keep in mind the purpose of your university research to stay on the topic. We are going to see the most common research problem to be aware of when writing.
- An extended introduction
When you conduct scientific research, each word you write carries a large amount of necessary information. However, working out a quality introduction, you find out that the size is very limited, and you need to spend time filtering out unnecessary information.
- Lack of a hook
Good introductions are not limited to just a list of data you have received. It is this paragraph that presents the first impression. Try to make it informative and catchy. If you face some problems elaborating witty hooks for a paper, consult a writing service that can provide you with professional advice.
- Inconsistent Data
The problem of inconsistency in the presentation of information appears when you first write the introduction and then the main body of the study. To avoid the error of lack of previous research, follow our advice. Study the background of the hypothesis you have chosen and then describe the results of your research.
Research Paper Introduction Examples
The theory is good, but the practice is quite different. Read our examples to get good ideas from other researchers about how to write an excellent introduction.
Contemporary literary marketing has become digital because of the demands of the online era. Popular best-selling authors such as J. K. Rowling or Dan Brown profit from the internet and use it as a source for advertising to show the audience their creations. On the other hand, many writers find digital literature harmful and destructive for their livelihood because many users can get their books without paying for them. However, more studies reveal that the business side of the book industry is not far from the negative. This research paper will define whether the culture of digital book consumption has to be changed due to the creations of writers becoming worthless due to online piracy and because people have stopped valuing non-digitized books.
The second sample of introduction paragraph is on the topic: “Behavioral Study of the Phenomenon of Obedience”.
Modern theories tend to associate misbehavior and intentional actions that harm others with personal characteristics. The psychologists and doctors in a survey predicted that only a small portion of people (about 1-3%) would intentionally harm someone after being told to do so. A good example of this phenomenon is a recent war trial with Adolph Eichmann, who claimed he was only following orders to carry out Nazi war crimes. Therefore, is it possible that people can harm others by only “following orders?” Are people capable of betraying their moral convictions if ordered to do so? During the experiment, we will see whether someone can continue administering painful electric shocks that harm another person simply because he or she is told to do so. It is expected that very few will continue and that most of the participants will not obey the order.
Writing an engaging introduction is not less important than conducting research papers or providing a high-quality context in your issue. In fact, a great intro is even more important for your success! An opening paragraph that attracts attention and keeps the reader engaged is the key to success with this academic work.
The intro is the first thing that a reader sees. It is exactly what helps him or her gets the first impression of your work, which carries their opinion about the merits of your paper while they finish reading it. That’s why it’s so important to get it done right.
How do you create flawless intros for your research papers? These tips and examples in this article should help you deal with this assignment effortlessly while avoiding common mistakes. However, it also requires practice. We encourage students to practice writing as much as they can to master these skills and never face difficulties with writing academic papers again!
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Starting Your Research Paper: Writing an Introductory Paragraph
- Choosing Your Topic
- Define Keywords
- Planning Your Paper
- Writing an Introductory Paragraph
The Dreaded Introductory Paragraph
Writing the introductory paragraph can be a frustrating and slow process -- but it doesn't have to be. If you planned your paper out, then most of the introductory paragraph is already written. Now you just need a beginning and an end.
Here's an introductory paragraph for a paper I wrote. I started the paper with a factoid, then presented each main point of my paper and then ended with my thesis statement.
- << Previous: Planning Your Paper
- Last Updated: Aug 6, 2021 11:42 AM
- URL: https://libguides.astate.edu/papers
Writing a Research Paper
This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper.
Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so please use this outline as a flexible guide.
Discovering, Narrowing, and Focusing a Researchable Topic
- Try to find a topic that truly interests you
- Try writing your way to a topic
- Talk with your course instructor and classmates about your topic
- Pose your topic as a question to be answered or a problem to be solved
Finding, Selecting, and Reading Sources
You will need to look at the following types of sources:
- library catalog, periodical indexes, bibliographies, suggestions from your instructor
- primary vs. secondary sources
- journals, books, other documents
Grouping, Sequencing, and Documenting Information
The following systems will help keep you organized:
- a system for noting sources on bibliography cards
- a system for organizing material according to its relative importance
- a system for taking notes
Writing an Outline and a Prospectus for Yourself
Consider the following questions:
- What is the topic?
- Why is it significant?
- What background material is relevant?
- What is my thesis or purpose statement?
- What organizational plan will best support my purpose?
Writing the Introduction
In the introduction you will need to do the following things:
- present relevant background or contextual material
- define terms or concepts when necessary
- explain the focus of the paper and your specific purpose
- reveal your plan of organization
Writing the Body
- Use your outline and prospectus as flexible guides
- Build your essay around points you want to make (i.e., don’t let your sources organize your paper)
- Integrate your sources into your discussion
- Summarize, analyze, explain, and evaluate published work rather than merely reporting it
- Move up and down the “ladder of abstraction” from generalization to varying levels of detail back to generalization
Writing the Conclusion
- If the argument or point of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize the argument for your reader.
- If prior to your conclusion you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the end of your paper to add your points up, to explain their significance.
- Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction.
- Perhaps suggest what about this topic needs further research.
Revising the Final Draft
- Check overall organization : logical flow of introduction, coherence and depth of discussion in body, effectiveness of conclusion.
- Paragraph level concerns : topic sentences, sequence of ideas within paragraphs, use of details to support generalizations, summary sentences where necessary, use of transitions within and between paragraphs.
- Sentence level concerns: sentence structure, word choices, punctuation, spelling.
- Documentation: consistent use of one system, citation of all material not considered common knowledge, appropriate use of endnotes or footnotes, accuracy of list of works cited.
Academic and Professional Writing
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How to Write an Effective Research Paper Introduction
The introduction of a research paper has several purposes. It presents your topic, describes the problem your research seeks to solve, and outlines the structure of your paper. It can also inform your audience about how your study differs from the research that has already been done. Generally, the introduction helps you to show your audience why your research topic is worth exploring. It gives you the chance to convince your reader why they should stick around and see what you have to say.
The first 1-2 sentences of your introduction should give an elevator pitch of your work. Be clear, relevant, and to the point. Don't sweat the engagement of your first sentences. You might have heard the advice that, when writing, you should use the first few sentences to wow your readers, transporting them into a lyrical world of imagination. While this is certainly good counsel in creative writing or consumer literature to hook your reader, research papers are another story; you won't need quotes from wise heroes of the past to grab your readers' attention. In most cases, your audience comprises people already interested in the field who are intrigued by your title and want to delve into what you have found through your study, and you don't want to include trite snippets right at the outset. Of course, you don't want to bore your readers either, so strive for clarity and direct information about your study so the readers who navigate to your paper know what they can expect.
To introduce your research paper effectively, include the following elements in your introduction. You will expand on these topics in greater detail in the paper, but in the introduction to your paper, you'll provide a summary of each one.
- Overview: Provide a focused statement on the subject matter of your research. What questions are you seeking to answer? How will your study make the world a better place? Here you can also briefly describe any problems you encountered while conducting your study (and be sure to state that you will address these problems within the paper!).
- Prior research: It's important that your audience knows you've already explored the field and looked around at what has already been written. Briefly discuss what past studies have concluded on the subject and what that means for your current study. Maybe in your search, you found that your research is the first to address your specific topic, which is why your study is so valuable. Let your readers know that you've done your homework.
- Rationale: Make your case regarding why your study is important today. What will your findings bring to the field? Your research could address current issues and events, or it might illuminate gaps in previous research that need to be filled in order to move ahead in the academic field and strengthen future studies.
- Methodology: In your methodology paragraph, briefly name the processes you applied during your study. Why are these tools the best ones for your specific research? What answers do you get from using these methods? Details on your methodology can bring credibility to your study and help with future application of your findings to similar fields.
- Outline of the paper: At the conclusion on your introduction, offer a review of what your study will discuss specifically in the sections that follow.
Once you've gathered all of the necessary elements for your introduction, try these tips to make your introduction pop:
- Try finalizing your introduction after you've finished writing the body of the paper. While it's beneficial to map out what you want your introduction to say before you begin your paper, wait until you've elaborated on your research in detail, and then create your introduction. With the entire work fresh in your mind, you have a clear grasp on what it's about, your purpose in writing it, and what the study results mean for the world.
- Show, don't tell. When giving a brief summary of your work, give compelling details about why this study is a good one to conduct. Remember, you still want to be brief, but you can accomplish clarity and brevity while also enticing your readers to share your vision. For example, instead of stating, "Dual language educational programs are important for children," consider saying, "Dual language programs help students develop increased cognitive function, future linguistic advantages, and a broadened worldview."
- Keep it simple. Don't bury the good points of your work in excessive detail within the introduction. Your entire paper is where you will delve into the finer points of the research, so take stock of which ideas are the most important and stick to those nuggets to motivate your audience to read on.
- Speak to a broader audience. Your research will certainly attract specialists in the field who know every term you could possibly throw at them, but your audience also includes laymen and people who haven't spent as much time in the field as you have, knee-deep in your study. Remember to make your introduction accessible to those who aren't familiar with the industry jargon. The body of the paper is a great place to flex your muscles and the nitty-gritty details of your research results, but the introduction should be consumable by a much more general group. If you have to use specialized language, make sure to define those obscure terms that only a select few people would know.
Your introduction gives your readers greater access to your work. You are the expert, of course, but your goal is to display your findings to a broader audience, and your introduction is the key to accomplishing that objective. Follow these tips and examples to help you create a strong introductory section for your research paper.
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The five steps in this article will help you put together an effective introduction for either type of research paper. Table of contents Step 1: Introduce your topic Step 2: Describe the background Step 3: Establish your research problem Step 4: Specify your objective (s) Step 5: Map out your paper Research paper introduction examples
Write the introduction The research paper introduction should address three questions: What, why, and how? After finishing the introduction, the reader should know what the paper is about, why it is worth reading, and how you'll build your arguments. What?
Introductions to research papers do a lot of work. It may seem obvious, but introductions are always placed at the beginning of a paper. They guide your reader from a general subject area to the narrow topic that your paper covers. They also explain your paper's: Scope: The topic you'll be covering Context: The background of your topic
Chris A. Mack. SPIE. 2018. Introduction. Indicate the field of the work, why this field is important, and what has already been done (with proper citations). Indicate a gap, raise a research question, or challenge prior work in this territory. Outline the purpose and announce the present research, clearly indicating what is novel and why it is ...
An introduction is the first paragraph in an essay or research paper. It prepares the reader for what follows. What's the purpose of an introduction? The goal of the introduction is to both provide the necessary context for the topic so the reader can follow along and also create an emotional connection so the reader wants to keep reading.
The 4-step approach to writing the Introduction section As a rule of thumb, this section accounts for about 10% of the total word count of the body of a typical research paper, or about 400 words spread over three paragraphs in a 4000-word paper.1 With that, let us now understand how to write the Introduction section step-by-step: 1.
You will need to revise your paper to make sure that the introduction, all of the evidence, and the conclusion reflect the argument you intend. Sometimes it's easiest to just write up all of your evidence first and then write the introduction last—that way you can be sure that the introduction will match the body of the paper.
The introduction to a research paper is where you set up your topic and approach for the reader. It has several key goals: Present your topic and get the reader interested Provide background...
The major part is to put everything in a proper format. For example, create a suitable and captivating research paper introduction to arouse your professor interest. Second, it's the efforts to make everything correct and according to requirements. You don't write make a composition with your thoughts and conclusions in chaotic way.
What is a research paper? A research paper is a type of academic writing that provides an in-depth analysis, evaluation, or interpretation of a single topic, based on empirical evidence. Research papers are similar to analytical essays, except that research papers emphasize the use of statistical data and preexisting research, along with a strict code for citations.
Writing a research paper is an essential aspect of academics and should not be avoided on account of one's anxiety. In fact, the process of writing a research paper can be one of the more rewarding experiences one may encounter in academics. What is more, many students will continue to do research throughout their careers, which is one of the ...
Writing an introduction to a research paper can be a difficult task for students. The goal of this guide is to help you create an excellent introduction. An introduction is a document that can take up to a few pages to complete. The length of a piece of paper is determined by how large it is as a whole. If your research lacks a clear ...
An introduction should announce your topic, provide context and a rationale for your work, before stating your research questions and hypothesis. Well-written introductions set the tone for the paper, catch the reader's interest, and communicate the hypothesis or thesis statement. Part 1 Introducing the Topic of the Paper 1
The introduction needs to include: 1) what the topic is focused on, 2) how the research was conducted (method), 3) what the findings are (generally), 4) and how the paper contributes to the overall field. These items are often unanswerable until the paper is complete.
It is helpful to think of the introduction as an upside-down triangle with the most significant portion at the top and the sharpest point at the bottom to achieve this efficiently. The introduction should start with a broad summary of the subject at the top of the triangle. The topic's focus should get more specific as the introduction goes on.
These are general phases associated with writing an introduction: 1. Establish an area to research by: Highlighting the importance of the topic, and/or Making general statements about the topic, and/or Presenting an overview on current research on the subject. 2. Identify a research niche by: Opposing an existing assumption, and/or
1) a compelling hook, 2) important background information and 3) a provable and specific thesis statement. If you put those 3 pieces together you'll have an effective introduction. #1 Compelling Hook A hook is the first 1 or 2 sentences of your paper. It is meant to grab your readers' attention, so they want to see what comes next.
This short is about 7 Tips for Writing an Effective Introduction | Research Paper. thesis helper #researchpaper #problem #problems #viral #issue #source #nic...
Research paper introductions are a critical component of any academic paper. They set the tone for the entire paper and give readers an overview of what to expect. A well-written introduction can capture the reader's attention, provide a clear roadmap for the paper, and help establish the relevance of the research topic. Characteristics of Effective
A literature review is a comprehensive summary of previous research on a topic that surveys scholarly articles, books, and other sources. It involves summarizing, synthesizing, and/or critiquing ...
Research paper introduction introduces the core topic to your thesis. The introduction explains where you are coming from concerning your research. Therefore make your research paper introduction precise. The research paper introduction should be short, concise, and accurate.
How to write an introduction to a term paper. The introduction should be formatted according to the same requirements that apply to the main body. If your institution does not provide otherwise, the introduction must be as follows: up to 5 pages in size; font 14 Times New Roman;
What is introduction in research paper? A good introduction should lead the reader from a generalized topic to a particular aspect. It helps to establish the main idea, context, research importance and summarizes background data on the topic, providing the main goal of the work.
The research paper introductions are pieces of information placed at the beginning of the paper. The size of this section depends on the general requirements for the work and usually is about 350-450 words. Moreover, everything you write in the introduction should attract the reader's curiosity.
Try starting your paper with that. How about starting with an anecdotal story or humor? Middle Sentences : The middle sentences cover the different points in your paper. If you've already planned which order to write the points in the paper, you already know which order to place them in your introductory paragraph. (Hint: it's the same order).
Writing a Research Paper. This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper. Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so please use this outline as a flexible guide.
Generally, the introduction helps you to show your audience why your research topic is worth exploring. It gives you the chance to convince your reader why they should stick around and see what you have to say. The first 1-2 sentences of your introduction should give an elevator pitch of your work. Be clear, relevant, and to the point.
Paper Example How To Write A Introduction For Research Paper Example This book helps "students to master the standard organizational patterns of the paragraph and the basic concepts of essay writing. The text's time-proven approach integrates the study of rhetorical patterns and the writing process with extensive practice in sentence structure ...