ART with DESCH
a place to find class information, student work, events and inspiration
Basic Art: Sketchbook 1, Due Friday Feb. 21st
Directions: Your first assignment is about getting over the fear of a blank book and allowing for freedom and creativity. You will simply be covering pages with backgrounds and borders that will be drawn over top of in future assignments. Each page can now be “used” and hopefully the white page syndrome of the sketchbook will fall by the wayside. Remember you are not creating finished works, but creating interesting surfaces or borders to draw onto later.
Complete 8 pages, here are SOME options you could explore: REMEMBER THESE ARE SIMPLY SUGGESTIONS, YOU CAN COME UP WITH YOUR OWN TECHNIQUES TOO.
You could draw a border around a page that is made up of doodles with pencil or pen-Put your drawing tool on a page -Close your eyes and draw for 30 seconds - Create a two color wash on the page.(wash=watered down paint, or watercolor) - Collage text on the page - Scribble on the page with pencil; blend with a paper towel to create a value - Create a one color wash on the page - Cut squares in the page - Draw a childlike drawing on the page and paint over it - Create a repetitive pattern on the page using a geometric shape - Find a simple object and cover the page with simple contour drawings of it - Using muted colors paint a page - Create a texture on the page with paint by lifting paint with a towel - Create a negative space painting with a wash - Cover the page with writing about your first day and summer - Collage random pieces on the page - Cut strips of colored paper and glue to the surface - Doodle on the page with a pen - Trade books and have another student treat the surface of a page - Tear a page out and re-collage onto another page - Find a leaf outside - Represent the leaf in some way on the page.
Basic Art: Sketchbook 2, Due Friday Feb. 28th
CHOOSE 4 PROMPTS FROM THE LIST BELOW AND DRAW, PAINT OR COLLAGE THE PROMPTS ON 4 PAGES IN YOUR BOOK.
Draw the contents of your desk drawer
Just before your room is cleaned, draw it
Inside of your refrigerator
Inside your garage
Draw your dad’s work table
Before the dishes are washed, draw them
a pile of laundry waiting to get washed
yourself in a mirror
your brother/sister doing an activity, such as playing video games
your friend, or an enemy
yourself your toenails
your hand holding an object that is important to you.
your bird, cat, dog, fish, snake, leopard, lobster doing something strange
what is in the rear-view mirror of your car
Illustrate a famous saying/quotation
Create your own storyboard/ comic strip.
Draw your favorite cartoon character with background.
Create a new cover for the book you are now reading
Design a house that you would like to live in
Write a large number in the middle of the page. Turn it into a person/animal.
Draw a picture. Cut your picture into squares. Glue the squares in a new design.
Basic Art: Sketchbook 3, March 6th
Sketchb 1: Scissor Metamorphosis: Use a pair of scissors as a beginning point, creatively transform the scissors into something else- a monster, a robot, a machine, a vehicle, an animal. Change its scale & it purpose. Try to draw it with full shading .
Sketch 2: Student Choice: Choose your own subject and complete a drawing using skills & techniques learned in class.
Sketch 3: Preposterous Cross-links: Choose 2 things from this list and combine them together into one image/creature/thing:
Turtle Octopus Snake Bird Bee Rat Fish Cat
Pencil Saw Hammer Pliers ScissorsTire Clock Drum
Sketch 4: : Futuristic Mutation: Take an everyday object and use your imagination to redesign it with a futuristic look.
Basic Art: Sketchbook 4, Friday March 13th
Sketch 1: Small world: What if you were the size of an ant, draw the view you would see if you were in a forest looking at ground level looking up. You can have it look cartoon-like, add fantasy creatures or make it realistic
Sketch 2: Shoe Draw one of your shoes from your closet. Or a shoe that you think is very interesting (ballet, boot, etc.)
Sketch 3: 2D & 3D Arrows: Create a full page composition using a combination of 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional arrows. Use overlapping to break up the spaces into interesting positive and negative shapes. Possible Medium: Outline with sharpie and fill the shapes with markers
Sketch 4: Pet Portrait: Draw a picture of your pet or the pet you would LOVE to have. Possible Medium: Colored Pencils
Basic Art: Sketchbook 5, Friday March 20th
Sketch 1: Skateboard Deck Designs: create TWO designs for the bottom of a skateboard. You can use realistic, abstract or non-objective designs. Keep it CLEAN & appropriate. Possible Medium: Sharpies & Markers
Sketch 2: Hand Value Study: Draw your hand in 2 different appropriate positions (both on the same page). Render with full shading. Possible Medium: drawing pencils
Sketch 3: Eye Study: Find 4 different eyes in magazines. Cut them out & glue them to your sketchbook page. Draw the eyes underneath the picture & render with a FULL range of shading. Possible Medium: pencils or colored pencils
Sketch 4: Realistic VS Abstract: Choose one object to draw (an interesting one! NOT simple!) Divide you sketchbook page in half with a pencil line. Label at the top of one side “Realistic” & on the other side label “Abstract.” Under the Realistic side, use a pencil to draw the object as realistically as you possibly can. On the Abstract side, distort your object so that it is still somewhat recognizable-use abstracted colors to color it. Possible Medium: Colored Pencils
Basic Art: Sketchbook 6, Friday March 27th
a dead bird in a beautiful landscape
a flower growing next to a turned over garbage can
a piece of cake and make it look delicious
eggs in the shell, scrambled, then over easy
one popcorn kernel popping, draw an opened bag of popcorn
a raw steak, steak bones
moving water, still water
a clear glass full of ice cubes
an object when looking through a tube or a microscope
an object seen through glass (how does the glass make a difference)
something floating, like a boat or a beach ball
a dark object in a light environment
Fill in the hole, partially cover up the object, draw it emerging from the ground.
Find a quiet place in a crowd, draw the crowd
Find a quiet place, draw the quiet
Find a noisy place, draw noise
On the school bus, draw your friends on the way to school, draw your friends on the way home Is there a difference?
Shine a light through an open structure such as a woven basket, draw the cast shadow
an object that is lit by the light coming through mini blinds
Basic Art: Sketchbook 7, Friday April 3rd
This week I'd like to for you just draw what you like, what you enjoy, what interests you. Use whatever materials are of interest, whatever techniques. DRAW ON FOUR PAGES.
Basic Art: Sketchbook 8, Friday April 10th
NO OFFICIAL ASSIGNMENT DUE THIS WEEK! INSTEAD USE THE TIME FOR A REDEMPTION SKETCHBOOK, YOU CAN MAKE UP ONE MISSED ASSIGNMENT TO SHOW ME BY FRIDAY.
Basic Art: Sketchbook 9, Friday April 24th
Create FOUR Drawings/Paintings/Collages of images from Art History. Choose four artists from the list below, look them up on Google Images and copy one of the images. Please label your pictures.
Leonardo da Vinci - Michelangelo - Johannes Vermeer - Paul Cézanne - Mary Cassat - Goya - Georgia O’Keeffe -
Andy Warhol - Roy Lichtenstein - Jasper Johns - Wayne Thiebaud - Claude Monet - Edgar Degas - Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Basic Art: Sketchbook 10, Friday May 1st
Sketch 1: Crushed Soda Can: Draw a crushed soda can, include details like the logo. Render with full shading. Possible Medium: drawing pencils
Sketch 2: Bird’s Eye Point of View: Draw your choice of subject matter from a bird’s eye point of view. From above looking down at the subject. Add shading to indicate highlights & shadows. Possible Medium: drawing pencil
Sketch 3: Paper Airplane: Fold a paper airplane, place it in front of you & draw from direct observation as accurately as you can. ADD FULL SHADING Possible Meddium: drawing pencil
Sketch 4: Creative Hand Drawing: Trace you hand -yes Trace your hand on your page. Use your imagination to turn you hand into something different. Add details-make it interesting! Possible Medium: colored pencil
Basic Art: Sketchbook 11, Friday May 8th
Sketch 1: Visual Puns : Illustrate 2two-word phrase using drawings of objects related to their meanings. Example: hot dog, hair brush, two face, fish face, bone head Possible Medium: colored pencil
Sketch 2: Botanical Study: Find a flower or plant from nature. Study it carefully before drawing. Draw the whole plant on 2/3rds of the page. Select 3 areas to “magnify” & draw smaller, partial up-close drawings of those 3 areas including all the details. ADD FULL SHADING Possible Medium: watercolor, watercolor pencil, or drawing pencils
Sketch 3: Morphing Transformation: Choose 2 two objects (one animal & one man made) to slowly morph into each other. You should try to have 6 drawings illustrating the transformation of one object into the other. ADD FULL SHADING Possible Medium: drawing pencils
Sketchbook4: Mixed Media Experiments: Have fun experimenting with mixed media techniques. Do the experimenting on other paper, then cut out the different experiments & glue them in your sketchbook. Label each experiment with a brief description of how you created it. Try at least 4 of these different experiments. Use up a minimum of 2 pages in your sketchbook. Possible Medium: various art supplies
Basic Art: Sketchbook 12, Friday May 15th
CREATE FOUR PAGES OF DESIGNS, PATTERNS, REPETITIONS AND/OR ZEN TANGLES OVER TOP OF FOUR PREVIOUS SKETCHBOOK ASSIGNMENTS. Possible Medium: pen, sharpie or various art supplies
Basic Art: Sketchbook 13, Friday May 22nd
FAN ART CHALLENGE - Choose FOUR fan character art prompts from the list and make FOUR sketches/drawings. Color optional.
"Fan Art" as defined by Urban Dictionary: Art of any form, usually electronic or drawn free hand, that uses characters or settings from a popular television show, novel, cartoon, anime, or movie as the subject
1. A character you’ve always wanted to draw
2. A villainous character
3. A nonhuman character
4. A character becoming very, very angry
5. Characters playing a video game
6. A character with an animal
7. Two characters from opposite sides (of a civil war, a ship war, an intergalactic war)
8. A character as a superhero
9. A big tough character posing for a selfie.
10. A character as a pretty princess
11. Characters all done up for Halloween!
12. An animated/comics character in a realistic style
13. A real character in a cartoonish style
14. A character with a deep love of technology/machines
15. Characters dancing
16. Characters working together.
17. A blossoming, cross-fandom romance - in an AU
18. Multi-Fandom Party!
Basic Art: Sketchbook 14, Friday May 29th
WHAT IS YOUR ZODIAC SIGN? LOOK UP THE SYMBOL AND IMAGE THAT GOES WITH YOUR SIGN AND SKETCH IT. DO THE SAME FOR YOUR FRIENDS AND FAMILY. YOU COULD ALSO LOOK UP THE DESCRIPTIONS AND SKETCH THOSE. MAKE FOUR SKETCHES/DRAWING. .
AQUARIUS - JANUARY 20 - FEBRUARY 18
PISCES - FEBRUARY 19 - MARCH 20
ARIES - MARCH 21 - APRIL 19
TAURUS - APRIL 20 - MAY 20
GEMINI - MAY 21 - JUNE 20
CANCER - JUNE 21 - JULY 22
LEO - JULY 23 - AUGUST 22
VIRGO - AUGUST 23 - SEPTEMBER 22
LIBRA - SEPTEMBER 23 - OCTOBER 22
SCORPIO - OCTOBER 23 - NOVEMBER 21
SAGITTARIUS - NOVEMBER 22 - DECEMBER 21
CAPRICORN - DECEMBER 22 - JANUARY 19
Basic Art: Sketchbook 15, Friday June 5th
FREEK DRAW WEEK! This week I'd like you to draw/paint/collage whatever you want. It could be what you like, what you enjoy, what interests you. It could be practicing a technique or just drawing something you think looks cool. Use whatever materials are of interest, whatever techniques. DRAW ON FOUR PAGES, IF you are out of blank pages then work on top of old pages.
Basic Art: Sketchbook 16, Friday June 12th
Drawing&painting: sketchbook assignment 1, due 9/23, drawing&painting: sketchbook assignment 2, due friday 9/30.
Sketch1: Complete a contour line drawing(outline) of any subject
Sketch 2: Complete a second contour line drawing(outline) of any subject
Sketch 3: Create a blind contour(don’t look at the paper), in which do not look at your paper or lift your pencil. Any subject
Sketch 4: Lines can be used to create patterns. Draw four identical boxes and fill each box with repeated lines that show different patterns.
Feel free to add color to any assignment!
Drawing&Painting: Sketchbook Assignment 3, Due Friday 10/7
Choose four of the prompts to inspire your FOUR sketches this week. Try to incorporate any drawing techniques we are currently working on in class.
The seasons Pairs
Paris Home is where...
All that glitters... The senses
Threads It's my nature
Take cover It's not easy being green Color outside the lines Hot and cold
Lemon Yellow Forest Floor
Black and White & red all over sunset
Food A Pet
Drawing&Painting: Sketchbook Assignment 4, Due Monday 10/17
this week i would like you to research some artists. choose four artists from the list and research their work, sketch one of their pieces of art, write down the name and date it was created. .
Da Vinci Rembrandt Michelangelo
Claude Monet Edgar Degas Pierre-Auguste Renoir Mary Cassat or Paul Cezanne orGeorgia O’Keefe
Andy Warhol- Roy Lichtenstein- Jasper Johns - Wayne Thiebaud
Drawing&Painting: Sketchbook Assignment 5, Due Friday 10/21
The Elements of art: Line, Shape, Space, Texture, Form, Color and Value
Fill four pages with drawing, painting and/or collaging. The images must include examples of each of the 7 elements of art. Please label the elements on your pages.
Drawing&Painting: Sketchbook Assignment 6, Due Friday 10/28
Page 1: Make 15-20 gesture drawings on one page, but only take one minute per drawing
Sketch 2: Set up a still life of 3 or more objects and draw them using shading and value. Try to draw them to scale and with the proportions correct.
Sketch 3: This time draw the same still life but from a different angle like from above or below. Also, try a new media or a new approach to the drawing. For example, try using contour lines.
Sketch 4: Practice shading a sphere, cone or Cube.
Drawing&Painting: Sketchbook Assignment 7, Due Friday 11/4
Make four images in your sketchbook either a drawing, painting, writing or collage. each image should have something to do with the following themes. .
Sketch 1 - Theme: THE ENVIRONMENT
Sketch 2 - Theme: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE
Sketch 3 - Theme of MUSIC.
Sketch 4 - Theme: ROAD TRIPS, TRAVEL AND ADVENTURES
Drawing&Painting: Sketchbook Assignment 8, Due Friday 11/11
FOUR DRAWINGS : You can draw, paint, OR collage anything you feel inspired to create! Have fun.
Drawing&Painting: Sketchbook Assignment 9, Due Friday 11/18
Choose four of the prompts to inspire your FOUR sketches this week. Try to incorporate any drawing techniques we are currently working on in class.
A Pattern Oops. Wrong Color?
Lonely…object Messiest vs. cleanest
A Contradiction Ballpoint pen only!
Items in my backpack Music to my ears
Normal Not Normal
Plugged in. Strange Portrait
Animal Patterns Rearview mirror of the car.
Draw yourself as an original superhero.
Make a drawing that looks sticky.
Draw a mysterious doorway or staircase.
Find a trash can. Draw its contents.
Copy a famous artist found online
Sketchbook Assignment 10, Due Friday 12/2
Sketch 1: Collage a color wheel design using scraps of paper found in my scrap bin, old magazines or any source of old paper. It must include REDs, ORANGEs, YELLOWs, GREENs, BLUEs, and PURPLEs
Sketch 2, 3 and 4 : Choose three of the following prompts and make a sketch inspired by the prompt. Please try to incorporate color.
Draw a slice of the best pizza you have ever seen , Draw junk food and the wrapper, Draw your favorite food, Create your own restaurant. Draw the restaurant or the inside or outside, Draw the ingredients or process of your favorite recipe, Draw salt and pepper shakers, Draw fresh fruit or vegetables, or something fresh from the oven, Draw a salad., Draw the oldest thing in your refrigerator., Make a drawing that is totally truthful. Make a drawing that lies all over the place. Make a drawing that is completely and utterly impossible. Story Illustration: Fix a story that you don’t like, or reflect/improve upon one you do. Let someone else choose your subject and tell you what to draw. Draw your greatest fear. Use song lyrics, quotes, or poetry to inspire a drawing. Find the three most useless objects you can and draw them. Draw an interesting form of transportation. Draw something for which you are thankful. Go somewhere new and draw what you see. Draw something that can’t be turned off. Draw something soothing. Draw something you think sounds or smells incredible. Draw something that needs fixing. Draw something you’ve always wanted. Draw something out of place.Draw something that should have been invented by now. Draw something you keep putting off, or something that causes you to procrastinate.Draw everything on a restaurant table.Draw your hand. Draw your friend’s hand. Draw a stranger’s hand. Draw a teacher teaching. Draw a teacher on their computer. Draw a teacher helping a student. Draw a classmate that doesn’t know you are drawing them. Draw a group of students in a class.
Sketchbook Assignment 11, Due Friday 12/9
THIS WEEK DRAW ALL OF THE FOLLOWING PROMPTS IN BETWEEN OR OVER TOP OF PREVIOUS SKETCHBOOK ASSIGNMENTS.
Sketch 1: Draw a regular geometric style pattern of shapes on a past assignment.
Sketch 2: Use letters and numbers to make a design BUT DO NOT try to make it say anything. It should be something inscrutable. Remember, make this over a previous homework or classwork assignment.
Sketch 3: Make a pattern based on something you would see in nature, think close up. Example: tree bark
Again, make this over a previous homework or classwork assignment
Sketch 4: Add on to another weeks drawing in some creative way. For example, draw an animal eating out of one of the previous vases/bowls you drew or.....
Sketchbook Assignment 12, Due Friday 12/16
Sketch 1: Sketch a winter landscape. Consider foreground, middleground and background in your composition.
Sketch 2 : Sketch a tree that is specific to your favorite season.
Sketch 3: Sketch a landscape that takes place in summer. Think about adding clouds, sky, water and/or a horizon line. The location of this sketch can take place anywhere.
Sketch 4: Sketch an unrealistic landscape. Consider an imaginary place, perhaps from a book or film.
Sketchbook Assignment 13, Due Friday 1/6
Sketch 1: Find a face in a magazine. Cut it out, cut it in half and glue the half into your sketchbook. Now draw and shade the missing half of the face.
Sketch 2: Find another interesting picture in a magazine, cut it out and glue it in to your sketchbook. Now draw and add onto the photo in some creative way.
Sketch 3: Find a Word or a group of words in a magazine or old book, cut it out and paste it into your sketchbook. Make a drawing in and around the word and try to incorporate the word into a drawing composition.
Sketch 4: Repeat one of the previous criteria in sketch 1, 2 OR 3.
NO school Friday 1/13 and Monday 1/16 so NO sketchbook during this time
Sketchbook Assignment 15, Due Friday 1/20
Focus on The Principles of Design this week.
Sketch 1: Create a Free Draw that shows symmetrical balance. Consider the principles of compositional movement when sketching your design.
Sketch 2: Create a Free Draw that shows asymmetrical balance. Consider the principles of compositional movement when sketching your design.
Sketch 3: Create a Free Draw that incorporates and focuses on the Principle of Pattern and Rhythm. Consider trying an organic pattern with flowing irregular rhythm.
Sketch 4: Create a Free Draw that uses the Principle of Contrast to show an image with an Emphasis or a focal point.
Sketchbook Assignment 16, Due Friday 1/27
Focus on Portraiture this week.
Sketch1 : An easy way to learn to draw the person is by drawing the figure from a back view. Drawing a figure from the back minimizes details, stresses shape and contour and eliminates the face. Try it, draw a person from behind. To make your composition interesting and exciting, emphasize an element or principle of design.
Sketch 2: Draw a person’s head and face using exaggeration to communicate emotion. Work from a live model if possible. First use a pencil to make a general drawing. Note the shapes and planes of the face and how they fit together. Then continue over the drawing with a darker media. Utilize strong contrast to greatly exaggerate the areas you want to emphasize.
Sketch 3 : Draw someone from real life, attempt a realistic drawing.
Sketch 4 : Sketch a famous actor, actress, musician, artist, politician, writer OR superhero.
Last Day of the Semester is Feb. 2nd so the final week of class will be a “Redemption Sketchbook” week. Those of you that want to make up an assignment from 2nd quarter, this is the week to do it. You can only make up one sketchbook assignment.
FREE K-12 standards-aligned STEM
curriculum for educators everywhere!
Find more at TeachEngineering.org .
- Drawing Designs in Detail
Hands-on Activity Drawing Designs in Detail
Grade Level: 10 (9-12)
Time Required: 45 minutes
Expendable Cost/Group: US $1.00
Group Size: 1
Activity Dependency: Detail Drawings: Communicating with Engineers
Subject Areas: Geometry, Science and Technology
Activities Associated with this Lesson Units serve as guides to a particular content or subject area. Nested under units are lessons (in purple) and hands-on activities (in blue). Note that not all lessons and activities will exist under a unit, and instead may exist as "standalone" curriculum.
Te newsletter, engineering connection, learning objectives, materials list, worksheets and attachments, more curriculum like this, pre-req knowledge, introduction/motivation, vocabulary/definitions, investigating questions, activity scaling, additional multimedia support, user comments & tips.
For engineers to imagine, create and design the products, devices, and systems that have lasting impact on society, they must know how to present and archive their designs in a manner that is understood by all engineers across cultural and geographical boundaries. To facilitate the sharing of design information, engineers have created uniform standards, protocols, and tools. One of these standards is ANSI Y14.5, which describes how to create a detail drawing. A detail drawing is two-dimensional representation of the engineer's design that contains all the information needed to precisely reproduce it.
The objective of this activity is to give students practice drawing 2D sketches of 3D objects using standardized engineering drawing practices.
Educational Standards Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards. All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN) , a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org). In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g. , by state; within source by type; e.g. , science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc .
Common core state standards - math.
View aligned curriculum
Do you agree with this alignment? Thanks for your feedback!
International Technology and Engineering Educators Association - Technology
State standards, michigan - math, oregon - math.
Each student needs:
- LEGO brick, corner brick 2 x 2 / 45° inside, Element ID: 4218890 (see Figure 1); order from https://shop.lego.com/en-US/ , $1 each; allow at least four weeks for delivery
- 8½ x 11-inch unlined paper (such as blank copier or printer paper)
- ruler (metric with mm resolution)
- Hex Cylinder Drawing Handout
For the entire class to share:
- wooden block, with approximate dimensions of 4 x 2 x 1-inch (10 x 5 x 2.5-cm)
- simple-shaped drinking glass, such as one with sloped sides so the top rim diameter is wider than the base diameter (see Figure 1)
- cardboard box; must have a lid, or a top of some sort to conceal the inside of the box, and be large enough to hold a typical drinking glass
- Example Block Detail Drawing
- Example Brick Detail Drawing
- Hex Cylinder 3D Answer
- (optional) computer and (free) eDrawing viewer software from SolidWords (see Additional Multimedia Support and Assessment sections)
Students are introduced to detail drawings and the importance of clearly documenting and communicating their designs. They are introduced to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Y14.5 standard, which controls how engineers communicate and archive design information.
During this lesson, students discover the journey that a Mars rover embarks upon after being designed by engineers and before being prepared for launch. Students investigate the fabrication techniques, tolerance concepts, assembly and field-testing associated with a Mars exploratory rover.
The associated lesson is a pre-requisite for this activity.
A "detail drawing" is a drawing of one or more components or parts. Detail drawings have complete and precise descriptions of a part's dimensions, shape and how it is manufactured.
Detail drawings must be concise, in that they convey only the information needed to create the part, such as the size, type of material, finish, tolerance and any special shop instructions. In other words, all information needed to produce the part should be on the detail drawing. The complete standard (agreed-upon rules) for producing detail drawings is controlled by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and is titled, " ASME Y14.5 and ASME Y14.100 Dimensioning Tolerancing and Engineering Drawing Practices Package ."
Engineers do not typically manufacture their own creative work, but communicate their ideas to highly trained machinists and manufacturers. Engineers also leave a legacy of creative thought through their designs. To preserve this technology, it must be well-documented. A detail drawing is a tool used by engineers to communicate their designs to manufacturers and to preserve their work for future generations.
Before the Activity
- At least four weeks before conducting the activity, procure enough of the specific LEGO bricks by placing a special order through Lego.com.
- Gather materials (wooden block, cardboard box, drinking glass, etc.).
- Print out a copy or overhead transparency of the Example Block Detail Drawing , Example Brick Detail Drawing and Hex Cylinder 3D Answer .
- Make copies of the Hex Cylinder Drawing Handout , one per student.
- (optional) Prepare a computer to show an EPRT drawing file.
With the Students
- Conduct the "Mystery Box" pre-activity assessment activity, as described in the Assessment section.
- Review and demonstrate how to picture the seven standard views using third angle projection (see the associated lesson).
- Review pertinent information that should be included on a detail drawing (see the associated lesson).
- Show students the wooden block and tell them the dimensions of each side. Have students create detail drawings of the block. After they have completed their drawings discuss how many views are necessary to fully describe the block. Help them understand that only two views are needed. One of the necessary views is the front view. The other can be any view except the back view, which is identical to the front view (left side, right side, top, or bottom are acceptable). The reason only two views are necessary is that all dimensions are shown with only two views. See the attached Example Block Detail Drawing for a correct drawing of the block.
- Hand out the LEGO bricks and the rulers (one each per student). Have students create detail drawings of the brick. After they have completed their drawings, discuss how many views are necessary to fully describe the brick. Help them understand that four views are needed. Show the attached Example Brick Detail Drawing as the correct drawing of the brick. Have students identify differences between their drawings and the example drawing. Even though the choice of views may be different, a correct drawing has all the information indicated in the example drawing and nothing more. Too much is redundant and missing information is incomplete for someone who needs to make it.
- Ensure that students have created title blocks with the required information in the lower right-hand corners of their pages. Refer to the associated lesson for this information.
- Test students' understanding of communicating via detailed drawings by handing out the Hex Cylinder Drawing Handout , a five-view detail drawing of an arbitrary shape, and giving them time to sketch the 3D object from the 2D drawing. Tell them that the detail drawing of a "hex cylinder" has all the views necessary to reconstruct its three-dimensional shape. See more information in the Assessment section, including an option for showing students the drawing rotated in a software application. Conclude by comparing student sketches to the correct 3D drawing.
ANSI: Acronym for American National Standards Institute.
CAD: Acronym for computer aided design.
CNC: Acronym for computer numeric control.
drawing view: A two-dimensional line drawing of an object as seen from a particular angle. The seven standard views are: front, back, top, bottom, left side, right side, and isometric.
Mystery Box : Before class, place a simple drinking glass (see Figure 1) upright inside a cardboard box, and close the lid. To start the activity, show students the cardboard box and ask them to guess what mystery item might be concealed inside the box. After they make random guesses for a minute, tell them you will give them all the necessary information to know what is in the box, but nothing more. Then, draw Figure 2 on the chalkboard. Explain to students this is what they would see if they could look through the top lid of the box and stare straight down on the mystery object. With these clues, have the students continue to guess what is inside the box.
Next, draw another figure on the chalkboard (the drinking glass profile), immediately below the first image, so that your drawing now looks like Figure 3. Explain to the students that this is what they would see if they could look through the front of the box. Tell them that the material of the mystery item is glass. Allow a few more guesses and reveal that it is a drinking glass. Show them the drinking glass and show which of its edges correspond to the sketch edges.
Activity Embedded Assessment
Detail Drawing : Once everyone has finished creating detail drawings of the LEGO brick, display the correct detail drawing by showing the Example Brick Detail Drawing and having students identify differences between their drawings and the example drawing. Note that the choice of views may be different, but regardless, a correct drawing has all the information indicated in the example drawing and nothing more. Too much information is redundant, whereas lack of information insufficient to recreate the part.
2D to 3D : Distribute to students the Hex Cylinder Drawing Handout , which is a five-view detail drawing of an arbitrary shape (see Figure 4; don't show students what it looks like yet). Explain that the detail drawing of the "hex cylinder" has all the views necessary to reconstruct its three-dimensional shape. Direct students to look at the given views and sketch the 3D model on a clean sheets of paper (or in lab notebooks). After students have finished, compare drawings and also show them the Hex Cylinder 3D Answer PNG image file , which is a digital rendering of the 3D model. (In addition to showing the PNG image, open the Hex Cylinder 3D Answer EPRT file , which is a 3D model that can be rotated and examined in 3D space in real time. To view the EPRT file, download the free eDrawings viewer from SolidWorks [see Additional Multimedia Support].)
Why have standards been created to control drawings made by engineers? (Answer: Standards were created to facilitate communication regarding technical concepts.)
What are examples of a mechanical design that could be difficult to convey in an engineering detail drawing? (Possible answers: An mechanical component with complex surfaces is difficult to fully describe with a detail drawing. Examples: Toys of human figures (like Barbie dolls), automobiles, fighter aircraft, etc.)
How else might design intent be preserved and conveyed if not as a detail drawing? (Possible answers: Digital models using CAD, or scale models.)
A fabrication technique called "rapid prototyping" is often used by engineers. With rapid prototyping, a design goes directly from CAD software to a machine that automatically (or nearly automatically) creates the part. Examples of such machines are computer numeric controlled (CNC) mills, stereo lithographers, laser cutters, etc. Why is it still important to create a detail drawing of a part created by a rapid prototyper, even if the drawing will not be used to manufacture it? (Answer: Detail drawings also contain tolerances, finishes, and other material specifications that are not understood by a rapid prototype machine.)
- Sketching and drawing are skills that can be developed early in an engineer's career. Any K-12 grade level student can benefit from this activity with the following possible modifications to make it easier: Disregard the associated lesson and focus on giving students practice sketching real-life objects. Pick (or let the students choose) random classroom objects. Have them sketch objects from a particular viewpoint, then create another sketch of the same object from a different viewpoint (perhaps at 90° from the first viewpoint).
- For younger students (grades 3-5), conduct the The Universal Language of Engineering Drawings activity to practice detailed design drawings through an engineering design challenge. Teams prepare sketches with dimensions and instructions for their model car designs, then trade drawings with other groups and attempt to construct the other teams' models—a test of whether or not the original design intentions were successfully communicated.
To view the EPRT file, download SolidWorks' free eDrawings solid model viewer software at: http://www.edrawingsviewer.com/pages/programs/download/
ASME Y14.5 and ASME Y14.100 Dimensioning Tolerancing and Engineering Drawing Practices Package. American National Standards Institute. Accessed May 28, 2011. (The complete standard for producing detail drawings) Available for purchase at: https://webstore.ansi.org/RecordDetail.aspx?sku=ASME+Y14.5+and+ASME+Y14.100+Dimensioning+Tolerancing+and+Engineering+Drawing+Practices+Package&source=package_landing_page
Supporting program, acknowledgements.
The contents of these digital library curricula were developed by the Integrated Teaching and Learning Program under National Science Foundation GK-12 grant no. 0338326. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the National Science Foundation, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.
Last modified: September 3, 2021
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Home > art & design
Drawing for Graphic Design: 6 Exercises to Sharpen Your Skills
When talking about drawing for graphic design projects, we’re very often talking about a digital process. We’re so used to sitting in front of our computers, plugging away at pixels in Photoshop and Illustrator, that we sometimes forget to step away, grab a pen or pencil, and just draw . Here, we provide six simple drawing practice exercises that revolve around drawing for graphic design. These were pulled from Timothy Samara’s book on that subject. Timothy teaches Graphic Design Fundamentals at CreativeLive and his exercises will help you get started, and hopefully, breathe new life into your work.
This study trains the eye to tell form from space and pick out different levels of value.
1. Choose a simple object to draw. This can be just about anything you’ve got lying around: a cup of coffee, a pair of scissors, or a desk chair should do nicely.
2. Instead of trying to draw the object itself, draw the negative space that surrounds the object. Define the shape with contoured fields of color rather than lines.
3. Now the actual shape of the object should be defined, so go in and add details using pencil or a lighter charcoal to create different values. Add each level independently, beginning with shadows. In each iteration, increase the number of levels between black and white.
2. Form Language: Motif and Evolution
This quick study starts with original mark-making, then turns it into a motif through repeated movements.
1. Using any medium—pencil, brush, marker—make repeated, unique movements to create a rhythmic motif.
2. On a larger sheet of paper, repeat the motif over and over again to create a pattern that seems balanced and stable. The motif should retain its individuality, but no instance of it should optically disconnect or be emphasized more than any others. The field of texture it builds should seem continuous and undisturbed.
3. Finally, repeat the motif at different scales, using different media, and different values. Number the reiterations in each stage and date the sets. Periodically revisit the study and use different motifs to build a library for reference.
3. Rough Traces: Mass & Contour
This study helps to understand how to connect gestural language and pictorial depiction to introduce stylization at a basic level.
1. Choose a photo of an object, figure, or scene.
2. On tracing paper, quickly rough in the subject’s masses. Work with the image at a reduced size so that the medium no matter how controllable, captures essential mass shapes as bluntly and directly as possible. Use a combination of media or multiple values or colors for different masses.
3. In the next stage, focus on the image’s contours, outlining its major shapes. Using a continuous line, draw the contours without lifting the tool from the surface, creating a loopy network of connective contours.
4. Icon Studies
This study develops skill with simple pictorial reduction and stylization, through observation and editing skills.
Choose an animal or common object as a subject. The goal here will be to achieve an important distinguishing characteristic of an icon that is nonspecific. An icon of a clock, for instance, should not identify it as a certain kind of clock, but instead capture the neutral, universal aspects of all clocks.
Do a couple of different versions from different angles and compare them to see which is most recognizable and combine different aspects to change the silhouette.
5. Nonpictorial Narrative: Gestural Field
In this study, use your imagination to create emotional gestures through drawing.
1. Using a medium of your choice, make 2 sets of marks that depict contrasting emotions. Avoid using common clichés and symbols like hearts and stars, and focus on visualizing opposite emotions such as anxiety and joy.
2. Develop several variations for each emotion.
3. Compare and contrast your variations, noting which characteristic identifies each and sets them apart. Consider how these marks signal different emotions to you and how that could affect your work on future projects.
6. Stylization: Putting it all together
Using the steps above, create a narrative that reinforces the relationship between form and meaning.
Combine a variety of stylistic, pictorial motifs from the previous exercises to communicate a more meaningful narrative. Arrange a selection of three images and juxtapose certain elements to create different moods and meanings. By playing with the different studies and their interactions, you can create different stories and meanings for each. It’s a fun way to explore different mediums and not get hung up on tiny details.
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72 Assignments: The Foundation Course in Art & Design
Your Assignment is to spend your life figuring out what your assignment is. -Kevin Kelly, TED conference, 2005
In November 2013, PCA press published, 72 Assignments: The Foundation Course in Art and Design Today edited by Chloe Briggs. The book brought together exercises related to a two-part conference called, A History Uncovered; A Future Imagined: The Foundation Course in Art and Design Today, a collaboration between ‘Art School Educated’, Tate Research and Paris College of Art held in London and Paris in June 2013.
72 Assignments is intended as a practical source book for teachers, students and anyone curious to try. We have selected three assignments from the project that you can download and that we invite you to respond to.
1. Heart Drawing Exercise, by Chloe Briggs (Head of Foundation, PCA ) 2. A Booklet of Diptychs: Images Making Each Other Sing, by Cathrine Winsnes (Artist, Designer and Instructor in the Foundation Course and the Communication Design Program at PCA ) 3. Psychological Tool, by Jude Lewis (Sculptor and Professor at Syracuse University’s School of Art and Design)
To be featured on our PCA Instagram account , work created from these assignments can be posted using #72assignments .
If you enjoy these assignments you can purchase 72 Assignments: The Foundation Course in Art & Design by downloading the Purchase Request – 72 Assignments and returning it completed to [email protected] .
Introduction to Architecture (Arch1101)
Open Educational Resources for Architecture
LESSON 02: Introduction to Architectural Drawings
- 1 LESSON 2 Introduction to Architectural Drawings: Measuring, Dimensioning, Drawing
- 2 Measuring
- 3 Sketching
- 4 Dimensioning
LESSON 2 Introduction to Architectural Drawings: Measuring, Dimensioning, Drawing
All built objects have a size that can be measured. When architects receive a commission for a building they are given measurable conditions either as a site or as an existing building. The site must be measured to know its exact dimensions and likewise, an existing building must be measured to ascertain its exact dimensions. There are several means by which an architect can take measurements. Often a tape measure is used; for larger distances a laser is used.
After measurements are taken, the numbers need to be recorded on a sketch of the object. Hence, before taking measurements, the architect must freehand sketch the object as accurately as possible, and large enough to fit all the dimensions.
In the United States, all measurements are in the English system (feet and inches); most other countries use the metric system (based on multiples of 10). Interestingly, the English system is a product of the building industry where builders could “step off” distances on the construction site. Dimensions on architectural drawings are represented as feet and inches. For example, a measured distance of six feet and ten inches is represented as 6’-10”; a distance of 5 inches is represented as 0’-5”. Fractions of an inch are represented with a diagonal line ½” and not with a horizontal line as in arithmetic: 12’-6½”
Discussion : Homework writing assignment – Vitruvius Demonstration : Introduction to drafting Exercise : Using the architectural scale: drawing a simple shape at 1/16, 1/8, ¼, ½ scales. Lab : 1. Sketch the four sides of a chosen object in the classroom. Each sketch should resemble its proportions. 2. As a class, measure the object and mark the dimensions on your sketches. 3. The class will pick an appropriate scale and you will draw the four elevations, plan, and section.
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- Ceramics II
- Ceramics III
- Graphic Design
Introduction to Graphic Design
2 cents/playing card assignment.
- Watch Fundamentals of Design & Layout and Composition videos posted below.
- Design a postage stamp displaying one or more Principles of Design.
- Use line, shape, color rather than create images of people, pets or places.
- Use whatever materials you have. Print out worksheets below, draw out the stamps on a piece of paper, use app to create them digitally or grab a stick and make them in the dirt. Whatever you have available is perfectly ok.
2-D Design Fundamentals
points, lines, and planes, gestalt—shape, balance, rhythm, unity.
Define The Problem Design a logo for your pet or an animal you know.
Learn - 20 statements, facts, observations, feelings, annoyances, etc. about your pet or one you know. , generate ideas complete thumbnail sheet. , design development complete roughs sheet. get feedback from peers. finalize design. , implementation what, where or how would you display this final design, final assignment, - final logo - logo with text - color study - variations examples.
Anatomy of Type Define & Illustrate Include name, course and date
Typography in action, the language of type, type only poster design .
- Search for a short MLK quote
- Set up an 11X17 document in Illustrator
- Create a poster using nothing but text, you can manipulate the text to illustrate your quote
- Make a background for your poster, keep it subtle
- Use colors that are easy to read and create impact
- Think BIG! Big text, big message!
- You should have 2 fonts maximum
- You should show variance in size/color etc...
Font pairing and hierarchy, package design.
- Brainstorm Ideas For Packaging
- Research Competitors. Find good & bad examples. Save them.
- Find Commonalities.
- Think About materials
- Sketch out ideas
- Develop color scheme, choose fonts.
- Build in Illustrator.
License Plate Design
Rebranding cup of noodles, brand identity , personal logo/design - screen printing.
STMA Staff Member Brand Identity
- When you were little what did you want to be when you grew up? Or What other career would you have if you were not a teacher?
- Do you remember your personality type from staff development, if so would you be willing to share?
- Describe yourself in 3 words.
- What colors are you most interested in?
- What place do you want to visit?
- Would you have a slogan for your company?
- Are there any brands that you really enjoy, why?
- Are there any brands/logos you really dislike and why?
- Do you have any ideas you would want me to try to develop?
- Which of these words is a better fit for your brand? Traditional or modern?
- Which of these words is a better fit for your brand? Friendly or corporate?
- Which of these words is a better fit for your brand? High end or cost-effective?
- Which of these words is a better fit for your brand? Consumer or Trade?
ONE DAY DESIGN CHALLENGE
Learning targets, variations if time allows.
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Design Patent Application Guide
Definition of a Design
Types of Designs and Modified Forms
Difference Between Design and Utility Patents
Improper Subject Matter for Design Patents
Invention Development Organizations
Elements of a Design Patent Application
The Figure Descriptions
A Single Claim
Drawings or Black & White Photographs
Color Drawings or Photographs
Surface Shading and Drafting Symbols
The Oath or Declaration
The Design Patent Application Process
Symbols for Draftsmen
Patent Laws That Apply to Design Patent Applications
Rules That Apply to the Drawings of a Design Patent Application
A Guide To Filing A Design Patent Application U.S. Department of Commerce Patent and Trademark Office Mail Stop Comments--Patents
A design consists of the visual ornamental characteristics embodied in, or applied to, an article of manufacture. Since a design is manifested in appearance, the subject matter of a design patent application may relate to the configuration or shape of an article, to the surface ornamentation applied to an article, or to the combination of configuration and surface ornamentation. A design for surface ornamentation is inseparable from the article to which it is applied and cannot exist alone. It must be a definite pattern of surface ornamentation, applied to an article of manufacture.
In discharging its patent-related duties, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or Office) examines applications and grants patents on inventions when applicants are entitled to them. The patent law provides for the granting of design patents to any person who has invented any new, original and ornamental design for an article of manufacture. A design patent protects only the appearance of the article and not structural or utilitarian features. The principal statutes (United States Code) governing design patents are:
35 U.S.C. 171
35 U.S.C. 172
35 U.S.C. 173
35 U.S.C. 102
35 U.S.C. 103
35 U.S.C. 112
35 U.S.C. 132
The rules (Code of Federal Regulations) pertaining to the drawing disclosure of a design patent application are:
37 CFR § 1.84
37 CFR § 1.152
37 CFR § 1.121
The following additional rules have been referred to in this guide:
37 CFR § 1.3
37 CFR § 1.63
37 CFR § 1.76
37 CFR § 1.153
37 CFR § 1.154
37 CFR § 1.155
A copy of these laws and rules is included at the end of this guide.
The practice and procedures relating to design applications are set forth in chapter 1500 of the Manual of Patent Examining Procedure (MPEP). Inquiries relating to the sale of the MPEP should be directed to the Superintendent of Documents, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Telephone: 202.512.1800.
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An ornamental design may be embodied in an entire article or only a portion of an article, or may be ornamentation applied to an article. If a design is directed to just surface ornamentation, it must be shown applied to an article in the drawings, and the article must be shown in broken lines, as it forms no part of the claimed design.
A design patent application may only have a single claim (37 CFR § 1.153). Designs that are independent and distinct must be filed in separate applications since they cannot be supported by a single claim. Designs are independent if there is no apparent relationship between two or more articles. For example, a pair of eyeglasses and a door handle are independent articles and must be claimed in separate applications. Designs are considered distinct if they have different shapes and appearances even though they are related articles. For example, two vases having different surface ornamentation creating distinct appearances must be claimed in separate applications. However, modified forms, or embodiments of a single design concept may be filed in one application. For example, vases with only minimal configuration differences may be considered a single design concept and both embodiments may be included in a single application.
The Difference Between Design and Utility Patents
In general terms, a "utility patent" protects the way an article is used and works (35 U.S.C. 101), while a "design patent" protects the way an article looks (35 U.S.C. 171). Both design and utility patents may be obtained on an article if invention resides both in its utility and ornamental appearance. While utility and design patents afford legally separate protection, the utility and ornamentality of an article are not easily separable. Articles of manufacture may possess both functional and ornamental characteristics.
A design for an article of manufacture that is dictated primarily by the function of the article lacks ornamentality and is not proper statutory subject matter under 35 U.S.C. 171. Specifically, if at the time the design was created, there was no unique or distinctive shape or appearance to the article not dictated by the function that it performs, the design lacks ornamentality and is not proper subject matter. In addition, 35 U.S.C. 171 requires that a design to be patentable must be "original." Clearly a design that simulates a well-known or naturally occurring object or person is not original as required by the statute. Furthermore, subject matter that could be considered offensive to any race, religion, sex, ethnic group, or nationality is not proper subject matter for a design patent application (35 U.S.C. 171 and 37 CFR § 1.3).
Invention Development Organizations (IDO) are private and public consulting and marketing businesses that exist to help inventors bring their inventions to market, or to otherwise profit from their ideas. While many of these organizations are legitimate, some are not. Be wary of any IDO that is willing to promote your invention or product without making a detailed inquiry into the merits of your idea and giving you a full range of options which may or may not include the pursuit of patent protection. Some IDOs will automatically recommend that you pursue patent protection for your idea with little regard for the value of any patent that may ultimately issue. For example, an IDO may recommend that you add ornamentation to your product in order to render it eligible for a design patent, but not really explain to you the purpose or effect of such a change. Because design patents protect only the appearance of an article of manufacture, it is possible that minimal differences between similar designs can render each patentable. Therefore, even though you may ultimately receive a design patent for your product, the protection afforded by such a patent may be somewhat limited. Finally, you should also be aware of the broad distinction between utility and design patents, and realize that a design patent may not give you the protection desired.
The elements of a design patent application should include the following:
(1) Preamble, stating name of the applicant, title of the design, and a brief description of the nature and intended use of the article in which the design is embodied;
(2) Cross-reference to related applications (unless included in the application data sheet).
(3) Statement regarding federally sponsored research or development.
(4) Description of the figure(s) of the drawing;
(5) Feature description;
(6) A single claim;
(7) Drawings or photographs;
(8) Executed oath or declaration.
In addition, the filing fee, search fee, and examination fee are also required. If applicant is a small entity, (an independent inventor, a small business concern, or a non-profit organization), these fees are reduced by half.
The Preamble, if included, should state the name of the applicant, the title of the design, and a brief description of the nature and intended use of the article in which the design is embodied. All information contained in the preamble will be printed on the patent, should the claimed design be deemed patentable.
The Title of the design must identify the article in which the design is embodied by the name generally known and used by the public. Marketing designations are improper as titles and should not be used. A title descriptive of the actual article aids the examiner in developing a complete field of search of the prior art. It further aids in the proper assignment of new applications to the appropriate class, subclass, and patent examiner, as well as the proper classification of the patent upon allowance of the application. It also helps the public in understanding the nature and use of the article embodying the design after the patent has been published. Thus, applicants are encouraged to provide a specific and descriptive title.
The Figure Descriptions indicate what each view of the drawings represents, i.e., front elevation, top plan, perspective view, etc.
Any description of the design in the specification, other than a brief description of the drawing, is generally not necessary since, as a general rule, the drawing is the design's best description. However, while not required, a special description is not prohibited.
In addition to the figure descriptions, the following types of statements are permissible in the specification:
1. A description of the appearance of portions of the claimed design which are not illustrated in the drawing disclosure (i.e., "the right side elevational view is a mirror image of the left side").
2. Description disclaiming portions of the article not shown, that form no part of the claimed design.
3.Statement indicating that any broken line illustration of environmental structure in the drawing is not part of the design sought to be patented.
4.Description denoting the nature and environmental use of the claimed design, if not included in the preamble.
A design patent application may only include a single claim. The claim defines the design which applicant wishes to patent, in terms of the article in which it is embodied or applied. The claim must be in formal terms to "The ornamental design for (the article which embodies the design or to which it is applied) as shown." The description of the article in the claim should be consistent in terminology with the title of the invention.
When there is a properly included special description of the design in the specification, or a proper showing of modified forms of the design, or other descriptive matter has been included in the specification, the words "and described" should be added to the claim following the term "shown." The claim should then read "The ornamental design for (the article which embodies the design or to which it is applied) as shown and described."
Drawings or Black and White Photographs
The drawing disclosure is the most important element of the application. Every design patent application must include either a drawing or a black and white photograph of the claimed design. As the drawing or photograph constitutes the entire visual disclosure of the claim, it is of utmost importance that the drawing or photograph be clear and complete, that nothing regarding the design sought to be patented is left to conjecture. The design drawing or photograph must comply with the disclosure requirements of 35 U.S.C. 112, first paragraph. To meet the requirements of 35 U.S.C. 112, the drawings or photographs must include a sufficient number of views to constitute a complete disclosure of the appearance of the design claimed.
Drawings are normally required to be in black ink on white paper. Black and white photographs, in lieu of drawings, are permitted subject to the requirements of 37 CFR §1.84(b)(1) and §1.152. Applicant should refer to these rules, included at the end of this guide. These rules set forth in detail the requirements for proper drawings in a design patent application.
Black and white photographs submitted on double weight photographic paper must have the drawing figure number entered on the face of the photograph. Photographs mounted on Bristol board may have the figure number shown in black ink on the Bristol board, proximate the corresponding photograph.
Black and white photographs and ink drawings must not be combined in a formal submission of the visual disclosure of the claimed design in one application. The introduction of both photographs and ink drawings in a design application would result in a high probability of inconsistencies between corresponding elements on the ink drawings as compared with the photographs. Photographs submitted in lieu of ink drawings must not disclose environmental structure but must be limited to the claimed design itself.
Color Drawings or Color Photographs
The Office will accept color drawings or photographs in design patent applications only after the granting of a petition filed under 37 CFR §1.84(a)(2), explaining why the color drawings or photographs are necessary. Any such petition must include the fee set forth in 37 CFR § 1.17(h), three sets of color drawings or photographs, and the specification must contain the following language before the description of the drawings:
"The patent or application file contains a least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawing(s) will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee."
If color photographs are submitted as informal drawings and the applicant does not consider the color to be part of the claimed design, a disclaimer should be added to the specification as follows: "The color shown on the claimed design forms no part thereof." Color will be considered an integral part of the disclosed and claimed design in the absence of a disclaimer filed with the original application. A disclaimer may only be used when filing color photographs as informal drawings, as 37 CFR §1.152 requires that the disclosure in formal photographs be limited to the design for the article claimed.
The drawings or photographs should contain a sufficient number of views to completely disclose the appearance of the claimed design, i.e., front, rear, right and left sides, top and bottom. While not required, it is suggested that perspective views be submitted to clearly show the appearance and shape of three-dimensional designs. If a perspective view is submitted, the surfaces shown would normally not be required to be illustrated in other views if these surfaces are clearly understood and fully disclosed in the perspective.
Views that are merely duplicates of other views of the design or that are merely flat and include no ornamentality may be omitted from the drawing if the specification makes this explicitly clear. For example, if the left and right sides of a design are identical or a mirror image, a view should be provided of one side and a statement made in the drawing description that the other side is identical or a mirror image. If the bottom of the design is flat, a view of the bottom may be omitted if the figure descriptions include a statement that the bottom is flat and unornamented. The term "unornamented" should not be used to describe visible surfaces that include structure that is clearly not flat. In some cases, the claim may be directed to an entire article, but because all sides of the article may not be visible during normal use, it is not necessary to disclose them. A sectional view which more clearly brings out elements of the design is permissible, however a sectional view presented to show functional features, or interior structure not forming part of the claimed design, is neither required nor permitted.
The drawing should be provided with appropriate surface shading which shows clearly the character and contour of all surfaces of any three-dimensional aspects of the design. Surface shading is also necessary to distinguish between any open and solid areas of the design. Solid black surface shading is not permitted except when used to represent the color black as well as color contrast. Lack of appropriate surface shading in the drawing as filed may render the shape and contour of the design nonenabling under 35 U.S.C. 112, first paragraph. Additionally, if the shape of the design is not evident from the disclosure as filed, addition of surface shading after filing may be viewed as new matter. New matter is anything that is added to, or from, the claim, drawings or specification, that was neither shown nor suggested in the original application (see 35 U.S.C. 132 and 37 CFR § 1.121, at the end of this guide).
A broken line disclosure is understood to be for illustrative purposes only and forms no part of the claimed design. Structure that is not part of the claimed design, but is considered necessary to show the environment in which the design is used, may be represented in the drawing by broken lines. This includes any portion of an article in which the design is embodied or applied to that is not considered part of the claimed design. When the claim is directed to just surface ornamentation for an article, the article in which it is embodied must be shown in broken lines.
In general, when broken lines are used, they should not intrude upon or cross the showing of the claimed design and should not be of heavier weight than the lines used in depicting the claimed design. Where a broken line showing of environmental structure must necessarily cross or intrude upon the representation of the claimed design and obscures a clear understanding of the design, such an illustration should be included as a separate figure in addition to the other figures which fully disclose the subject matter of the design.
The oath or declaration required of the applicant must comply with the requirements set forth in 37 CFR §1.63.
So that the applicant will better understand what constitutes a complete disclosure, examples of drawing disclosures and their accompanying specifications are provided on the following pages.
Example 1-Disclosure Of The Entire Article
I, John Doe, have invented a new design for a jewelry cabinet, as set forth in the following specification. The claimed jewelry cabinet is used to store jewelry and could sit on a bureau.
Fig. 1 is a front elevational view of a jewelry cabinet showing my new design;
Fig. 2 is a rear elevational view thereof;
Fig. 3 is a left side elevational view thereof;
Fig. 4 is a right side elevational view thereof;
Fig. 5 is a top plan view thereof; and
Fig. 6 is a bottom plan view thereof.
I claim: the ornamental design for a jewelry cabinet as shown.
Example 2-Disclosure of only the surfaces of an article that are visible during use (no bottom view or description necessary)
I, John Doe, have invented a new design for a jewelry cabinet, as set forth in the following specification. The claimed jewelry cabinet is used for storing jewelry and could sit on a bureau.
Fig. 5 is a top plan view thereof.
Example 3-Disclosure of only the surfaces of an article that are visible during use - The rear view disclosed by description
Fig. 2 is a left side elevational view thereof;
Fig. 3 is a right side elevational view thereof; and
Fig. 4 is a top plan view thereof.
The rear of the jewelry cabinet is flat and unornamented.
I claim: the ornamental design for a jewelry cabinet as shown and described.
Example 4-Disclosure of a surface pattern as claimed design, applied to an article
I, John Doe, have invented a new design for a surface pattern applied to a jewelry cabinet, as set forth in the following specification.
Fig. 1 is a front elevational view of a surface pattern applied to a jewelry cabinet showing my new design;
Fig. 2 is a left side elevational view thereof, the right side being a mirror image.
The jewelry cabinet is shown in broken lines for illustrative purposes only and forms no part of the claimed design.
I claim: the ornamental design for a surface pattern applied to a jewelry cabinet as shown and described.
The preparation of a design patent application and the conducting of the proceedings in the USPTO to obtain the patent is an undertaking requiring the knowledge of patent law and rules and Patent and Trademark Office practice and procedures. A patent attorney or agent specially trained in this field is best able to secure the greatest patent protection to which applicant is entitled. It would be prudent to seek the services of a registered patent attorney or agent. Representation, however, is not required. A knowledgeable applicant may successfully prosecute his or her own application. However, while persons not skilled in this work may obtain a patent in many cases, there is no assurance that the patent obtained would adequately protect the particular design.
Of primary importance in a design patent application is the drawing disclosure, which illustrates the design being claimed. Unlike a utility application, where the "claim" describes the invention in a lengthy written explanation, the claim in a design patent application protects the overall visual appearance of the design, "described" in the drawings. It is essential that the applicant present a set of drawings (or photographs) of the highest quality which conform to the rules and standards which are reproduced in this guide. Changes to these drawings after the application has been filed, may introduce new matter, which is not permitted by law (35 U.S.C. 132). It is in applicant's best interest to ensure that the drawing disclosure is clear and complete prior to filing the application, since an incomplete or poorly prepared drawing may result in a fatally defective disclosure which cannot become a patent. It is recommended that applicant retain the services of a professional draftsperson who specializes in preparing design patent drawings. Examples of acceptable drawings and drawing disclosures are included in this Guide so that applicant will have some idea of what is required and can prepare the drawings accordingly.
Filing An Application
In addition to the drawing disclosure, certain other information is necessary. While no specific format is required, it is strongly suggested that applicant follow the formats presented to ensure that the application is complete.
When a complete design patent application, along with the appropriate filing fee, is received by the Office, it is assigned an Application Number and a Filing Date. A "Filing Receipt" containing this information is sent to the applicant. The application is then assigned to an examiner. Applications are examined in order of their filing date.
The actual "examination" entails checking for compliance with formalities, ensuring completeness of the drawing disclosure and a comparison of the claimed subject matter with the "prior art." "Prior art" consists of issued patents and published materials. If the claimed subject matter is found to be patentable, the application will be "allowed," and instructions will be provided to applicant for completing the process to permit issuance as a patent.
The examiner may reject the claim in the application if the disclosure cannot be understood or is incomplete, or if a reference or combination of references found in the prior art, shows the claimed design to be unpatentable. The examiner will then issue an Office action detailing the rejection and addressing the substantive matters which effect patentability.
This Office action may also contain suggestions by the examiner for amendments to the application. Applicant should keep this Office action for his or her files, and not send it back to the Office.
If, after receiving an Office action, applicant elects to continue prosecution of the application, a timely reply to the action must be submitted. This reply should include a request for reconsideration or further examination of the claim, along with any amendments desired by the applicant, and must be in writing. The reply must distinctly and specifically point out the supposed errors in the Office action and must address every objection and/or rejection in the action. If the examiner has rejected the claim over prior art, a general statement by the applicant that the claim is patentable, without specifically pointing out how the design is patentable over the prior art, does not comply with the rules.
In all cases where the examiner has said that a reply to a requirement is necessary, or where the examiner has indicated patentable subject matter, the reply must comply with the requirements set forth by the examiner, or specifically argue each requirement as to why compliance should not be required.
In any communication with the Office, applicant should include the following items:
1. Application number (checked for accuracy).
2. Group art unit number (copied from filing receipt or the most recent Office action).
3. Filing date.
4. Name of the examiner who prepared the most recent Office action.
5. Title of invention.
It is applicant's responsibility to make sure that the reply is received by the Office prior to the expiration of the designated time period set for reply. This time period is set to run from the "Date Mailed," which is indicated on the first page of the Office action. If the reply is not received within the designated time period, the application will be considered abandoned. In the event that applicant is unable to reply within the time period set in the Office action, abandonment may be prevented if a reply is filed within six months from the mail date of the Office action provided a petition for extension of time and the fee set forth in 37 CFR § 1.17(a) are filed. The fee is determined by the amount of time requested, and increases as the length of time increases. These fees are set by Rule and could change at any time. An "Extension of Time" does not have to be obtained prior to the submission of a reply to an Office action; it may be mailed along with the reply. See insert for schedule of current fees. Note: an extension of time cannot be obtained when responding to a "Notice of Allowance and Fee(s) Due."
To ensure that a time period set for reply to an Office action is not missed; a "Certificate of Mailing" should be attached to the reply. This "Certificate" establishes that the reply is being mailed on a given date. It also establishes that the reply is timely, if it was mailed before the period for reply had expired, and if it is mailed with the United States Postal Service. A "Certificate of Mailing" is not the same as "Certified Mail." A suggested format for a Certificate of Mailing is as follows:
"I hereby certify that this correspondence is being deposited with the United States Postal Service as first class mail in an envelope addressed to: Commissioner for Patents, PO Box 1450, Alexandria, Virginia 22313-1450, on (DATE MAILED)"
(Name - Typed or Printed)
If a receipt for any paper filed in the USPTO is desired, applicant should include a stamped, self-addressed postcard, which lists, on the message side applicant's name and address, the application number, and filing date, the types of papers submitted with the reply (i.e., 1 sheet of drawings, 2 pages of amendments, 1 page of an oath/declaration, etc.) This postcard will be stamped with the date of receipt by the mailroom and returned to applicant. This postcard will be applicant's evidence that the reply was received by the Office on that date.
If applicant changes his or her mailing address after filing an application, the Office must be notified in writing of the new address. Failure to do so will result in future communications being mailed to the old address, and there is no guarantee that these communications will be forwarded to applicant's new address. Applicant's failure to receive, and properly reply to these Office communications will result in the application being held abandoned. Notification of "Change of Address" should be made by separate letter, and a separate notification should be filed for each application.
Upon submission of a reply to an Office action, the application will be reconsidered and further examined in view of applicant's remarks and any amendments included with the reply. The examiner will then either withdraw the rejection and allow the application or, if not persuaded by the remarks and/or amendments submitted, repeat the rejection and make it Final. Applicant may file an appeal with the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) after given a final rejection or after the claim has been rejected twice. Applicant may also file a new application prior to the abandonment of the original application, claiming benefit of the earlier filing date. This will allow continued prosecution of the claim.
The two types of shading commonly employed in design patent application drawings are straight-line surface shading and stippling. Individually or in combination, they can effectively represent the character and contour of most surfaces.
Straight-line Surface Shading
Combination of Straight Line Shading and Stippling
Note that both stippling and straight-line surface shading, while permissible on the same object to show surface contrast, should not be used together on the same surface.
Note that elements visible behind transparent surfaces should be shown in light, full lines, not broken lines.
Broken Line Disclosure
Broken lines may be used to show environment and boundaries that form no part of the claimed design.
An exploded view is only supplementary to a fully assembled view. A bracket must be employed to show the association of elements.
Set of Game Components- Fully Assembled View:
The alternate positions of a design, or an element of the design, must be shown in separate views.
Article Shown Broken Away
A separation and a bracket may be used in an enlarged view when the full length of the article is shown in another view. Alternatively, when the article is consistently shown in the views with a break, the claim will be understood to be directed only to the design for the portions of the molding that are shown. A description in the specification must explain that the appearance of any portion of the article between the break lines forms no part of the claimed design.
Cross-sections may be employed to clarify the disclosure and to minimize the number of views.
Multiple embodiments of a single concept may be filed in one design application, so long as their appearance and shape are similar, as shown below.
Graphical symbols for conventional elements may be used on the drawing when appropriate, subject to approval by the Office.
NOTES: In general, in lieu of a symbol, a conventional element, combination or circuit may be shown by an appropriately labeled rectangle, square or circle; abbreviations should not be used unless their meaning is evident and not confusing with the abbreviations used in the suggested symbols.
35 U.S.C. 102 Conditions for patentability; novelty and loss of right to patent
A person shall be entitled to a patent unless -
(a) the invention was known or used by others in this country, or patented or described in a printed publication in this or a foreign country, before the invention thereof by the applicant for patent, or
(b) the invention was patented or described in a printed publication in this or a foreign country or in public use or on sale in this country, more than one year prior to the date of the application for patent in the United States,
(c) he has abandoned the invention,
(d) the invention was first patented or caused to be patented, or was the subject of an inventor's certificate, by the applicant or his legal representatives or assigns in a foreign country prior to the date of the application for patent in this country on an application for patent or inventor's certificate filed more than twelve months before the filing of the application in the United States,
(e) the invention was described in - (1) an application for patent, published under section 122(b), by another filed in the United States before the invention by the applicant for patent or (2) a patent granted on an application for patent by another filed in the United States before the invention by the applicant for patent, except that an international application filed under the treaty defined in section 351(a) shall have the effects for the purposes of this subsection of an application filed in the United States only if the international application designated the United States and was published under Article 21(2) of such treaty in the English language; or
(f) he did not himself invent the subject matter sought to be patented,
(g) (1) during the course of an interference conducted under section 135 or section 291, another inventor involved therein establishes, to the extent permitted in section 104, that before such person's invention thereof the invention was made by such other inventor and not abandoned, suppressed, or concealed, or (2) before such person's invention thereof, the invention was made in this country by another inventor who had not abandoned, suppressed, or concealed it. In determining priority of invention under this subsection, there shall be considered not only the respective dates of conception and reduction to practice of the invention, but also the reasonable diligence of one who was first to conceive and last to reduce to practice, from a time prior to conception by the other.
35 U.S.C. 103 Conditions for patentability; non-obvious subject matter
(a) A patent may not be obtained though the invention is not identically disclosed or described as set forth in section 102 of this title, if the differences between the subject matter sought to be patented and the prior art are such that the subject matter as a whole would have been obvious at the time the invention was made to a person having ordinary skill in the art to which said subject matter pertains. Patentability shall not be negatived by the manner in which the invention was made.
(b) (1) Notwithstanding subsection (a), and upon timely election by the applicant for patent to proceed under this subsection, a biotechnological process using or resulting in a composition of matter that is novel under section 102 and nonobvious under subsection (a) of this section shall be considered nonobvious if-
(A) claims to the process and the composition of matter are contained in either the same application for patent or in separate applications having the same effective filing date;
(B) the composition of matter, and the process at the time it was invented, were owned by the same person or subject to an obligation of assignment to the same person.
(2) A patent issued on a process under paragraph (1)-
(A) shall also contain the claims to the composition of matter used in or made by that process,
(B) shall, if such composition of matter is claimed in another patent, be set to expire on the same date as such other patent, notwithstanding section 154.
(3) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "biotechnological process" means-
(A) a process of genetically altering or otherwise inducing a single- or multi-celled organism to-
(i) express an exogenous nucleotide sequence,
(ii) inhibit, eliminate, augment, or alter expression of an endogenous nucleotide sequence,
(iii) express a specific physiological characteristic not naturally associated with said organism;
(B) cell fusion procedures yielding a cell line that expresses a specific protein, such as a monoclonal antibody;
(C) a method of using a product produced by a process defined by subparagraph (A) or (B), or a combination of subparagraphs (A) and (B).
(c)(1) Subject matter developed by another person, which qualifies as prior art only under one or more of subsections (e), (f), and (g) of section 102 of this title, shall not preclude patentability under this section where the subject matter and the claimed invention were, at the time the invention was made, owned by the same person or subject to an obligation of assignment to the same person.
(2) For purposes of this subsection, subject matter developed by another person and a claimed invention shall be deemed to have been owned by the same person or subject to an obligation of assignment to the same person if-
(A) the claimed invention was made by or on behalf of parties to a joint research agreement that was in effect on or before the date the claimed invention was made;
(B) the claimed invention was made as a result of activities undertaken within the scope of the joint research agreement; and
(C) the application for patent for the claimed invention discloses or is amended to disclose the names of the parties to the joint research agreement.
(3) For purposes of paragraph (2), the term "joint research agreement"means a written contract, grant, or cooperative agreement entered into by two or more persons or entities for the performance of experimental, developmental, or research work in the field of the claimed invention.
35 U.S.C. 112 Specification
The specification shall contain a written description of the invention, and of the manner and process of making and using it, in such full, clear, concise, and exact terms as to enable any person skilled in the art to which it pertains, or with which it is most nearly connected, to make and use the same, and shall set forth the best mode contemplated by the inventor of carrying out his invention.
The specification shall conclude with one or more claims particularly pointing out and distinctly claiming the subject matter, which the applicant regards as his invention.
A claim may be written in independent or, if the nature of the case admits, in dependent or multiple dependent form.
Subject to the following paragraph, a claim in dependent form shall contain a reference to a claim previously set forth and then specify a further limitation of the subject matter claimed. A claim in dependent form shall be construed to incorporate by reference all the limitations of the claim to which it refers.
A claim in multiple dependent form shall contain a reference, in the alternative only, to more than one claim previously set forth and then specify a further limitation of the subject matter claimed. A multiple dependent claim shall not serve as a basis for any other multiple dependent claim. A multiple dependent claim shall be construed to incorporate by reference all the limitations of the particular claim in relation to which it is being considered.
An element in a claim for a combination may be expressed as a means or step for performing a specified function without the recital of structure, material, or acts in support thereof, and such claim shall be construed to cover the corresponding structure, material, or acts described in the specification and equivalents thereof.
35 U.S.C. 132 Notice of rejection; reexamination
(a) Whenever, on examination, any claim for a patent is rejected, or any objection or requirement made, the Director shall notify the applicant thereof, stating the reasons for such rejection, or objection or requirement, together with such information and references as may be useful in judging of the propriety of continuing the prosecution of his application; and if after receiving such notice, the applicant persists in his claim for a patent, with or without amendment, the application shall be reexamined. No amendment shall introduce new matter into the disclosure of the invention.
(b) The Director shall prescribe regulations to provide for the continued examination of applications for patent at the request of the applicant. The Director may establish appropriate fees for such continued examination and shall provide a 50 percent reduction in such fees for small entities that qualify for reduced fees under section 41(h)(1) of this title.
35 U.S.C. 171 Patents for designs
Whoever invents any new, original, and ornamental design for an article of manufacture may obtain a patent therefor, subject to the conditions and requirements of this title.
The provisions of this title relating to patents for inventions shall apply to patents for designs, except as otherwise provided.
35 U.S.C. 172 Right of priority
The right of priority provided for by subsections (a) through (d) of section 119 of this title and the time specified in section 102(d) shall be six months in the case of designs. The right of priority provided for by section 119(e) of this title shall not apply to designs.
35 U.S.C. 173 Term of design patent
Patents for designs shall be granted for the term of fifteen years from the date of grant.
Patent Rules That Apply to Design Patent Applications
37 CFR 1.3 Business to be conducted with decorum and courtesy
Applicants and their attorneys or agents are required to conduct their business with the Patent and Trademark Office with decorum and courtesy. Papers presented in violation of this requirement will be submitted to the Director and will not be entered. Complaints against examiners and other employees must be made in correspondence separate from other papers.
37 CFR 1.63 Oath or declaration
(a) An oath or declaration filed under § 1.51(b)(2), as a part of a nonprovisional application must:
(1) Be executed, i.e., signed, in accordance with either § 1.66 or § 1.68. There is no minimum age for a person to be qualified to sign, but the person must be competent to sign, i.e., understand the document that the person is signing;
(2) Identify each inventor by full name, including the family name, and at least one given name without abbreviation together with any other given name or initial;
(3) Identify the country of citizenship of each inventor;
(4) State that the person making the oath or declaration believes the named inventor or inventors to be the original and first inventor or inventors of the subject matter which is claimed and for which a patent is sought.
(b) In addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, the oath or declaration must also:
(1) Identify the application to which it is directed;
(2) State that the person making the oath or declaration has reviewed and understands the contents of the application, including the claims, as amended by any amendment specifically referred to in the oath or declaration;
(3) State that the person making the oath or declaration acknowledges the duty to disclose to the Office all information known to the person to be material to patentability as defined in § 1.56.
(c) Unless such information is supplied on an application data sheet in accordance with § 1.76, the oath, or declaration must also identify:
(1) The mailing address, and the residence if an inventor lives at a location which is different from where the inventor customarily receives mail, of each inventor;
(2) Any foreign application for patent (or inventor's certificate) for which a claim for priority is made pursuant to § 1.55, and any foreign application having a filing date before that of the application on which priority is claimed, by specifying the application number, country, day, month, and year of its filing.
(d) (1) A newly executed oath or declaration is not required under § 1.51(b)(2) and § 1.53(f) in a continuation or divisional application, provided that:
(i) The prior nonprovisional application contained an oath or declaration as prescribed by paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section;
(ii) The continuation or divisional application was filed by all or by fewer than all of the inventors named in the prior application;
(iii) The specification and drawings filed in the continuation or divisional application contain no matter that would have been new matter in the prior application;
(iv) A copy of the executed oath or declaration filed in the prior application, showing the signature or an indication thereon that it was signed, is submitted for the continuation or divisional application.
(2) The copy of the executed oath or declaration submitted under this paragraph for a continuation or divisional application must be accompanied by a statement requesting the deletion of the name or names of the person or persons who are not inventors in the continuation or divisional application.
(3) Where the executed oath or declaration of which a copy is submitted for a continuation or divisional application was originally filed in a prior application accorded status under § 1.47, the copy of the executed oath or declaration for such prior application must be accompanied by:
(i) A copy of the decision granting a petition to accord § 1.47 status to the prior application, unless all inventors or legal representatives have filed an oath or declaration to join in an application accorded status under § 1.47 of which the continuation or divisional application claims a benefit under 35 U.S.C. 120, 121, or 365(c);
(ii) If one or more inventor(s) or legal representative(s) who refused to join in the prior application or could not be found or reached has subsequently joined in the prior application or another application of which the continuation or divisional application claims a benefit under 35 U.S.C. 120, 121, or 365(c), a copy of the subsequently executed oath(s) or declaration(s) filed by the inventor or legal representative to join in the application.
(4) Where the power of attorney or correspondence address was changed during the prosecution of the prior application, the change in power of attorney (or authorization of agent) or correspondence address must be identified in the continuation or divisional application. Otherwise, the Office may not recognize in the continuation or divisional application the change of power of attorney or correspondence address during the prosecution of the prior application.
(5) A newly executed oath or declaration must be filed in a continuation or divisional application naming an inventor not named in the prior application.
(e) A newly executed oath or declaration must be filed in any continuation-in-part application, which application may name all, more, or fewer than all of the inventors named in the prior application.
37 CFR 1.76 Application data sheet
(a) Application data sheet. An application data sheet is a sheet or sheets, that may be voluntarily submitted in either provisional or nonprovisional applications, which contains bibliographic data, arranged in a format specified by the Office. An application data sheet must be titled "Application Data Sheet" and must contain all of the section headings listed in paragraph (b) of this section, with any appropriate data for each section heading. If an application data sheet is provided, the application data sheet is part of the provisional or nonprovisional application for which it has been submitted.
(b) Bibliographic data. Bibliographic data as used in paragraph (a) of this section includes:
(1) Applicant information. This information includes the name, residence, mailing address, and citizenship of each applicant (§ 1.41(b)). The name of each applicant must include the family name, and at least one given name without abbreviation together with any other given name or initial. If the applicant is not an inventor, this information also includes the applicant' s authority (§§ 1.42, 1.43, and 1.47) to apply for the patent on behalf of the inventor.
(2) Correspondence information. This information includes the correspondence address, which may be indicated by reference to a customer number, to which correspondence is to be directed (see § 1.33(a)).
(3) Application information. This information includes the title of the invention, a suggested classification, by class and subclass, the Technology Center to which the subject matter of the invention is assigned, the total number of drawing sheets, a suggested drawing figure for publication (in a nonprovisional application), any docket number assigned to the application, the type of application (e.g., utility, plant, design, reissue, provisional), whether the application discloses any significant part of the subject matter of an application under a secrecy order pursuant to § 5.2 of this chapter (see § 5.2(c)), and, for plant applications, the Latin name of the genus and species of the plant claimed, as well as the variety denomination. The suggested classification and Technology Center information should be supplied for provisional applications whether or not claims are present. If claims are not present in a provisional application, the suggested classification and Technology Center should be based upon the disclosure.
(4) Representative information. This information includes the registration number of each practitioner having a power of attorney in the application (preferably by reference to a customer number). Providing this information in the application data sheet does not constitute a power of attorney in the application (see § 1.32).
(5) Domestic priority information. This information includes the application number, the filing date, the status (including patent number if available), and relationship of each application for which a benefit is claimed under 35 U.S.C. 119(e), 120, 121, or 365(c). Providing this information in the application data sheet constitutes the specific reference required by 35 U.S.C. 119(e) or 120, and § 1.78(a)(2) or § 1.78(a)(4), and need not otherwise be made part of the specification.
(6) Foreign priority information. This information includes the application number, country, and filing date of each foreign application for which priority is claimed, as well as any foreign application having a filing date before that of the application for which priority is claimed. Providing this information in the application data sheet constitutes the claim for priority as required by 35 U.S.C. 119(b) and § 1.55(a).
(7) Assignee information. This information includes the name (either person or juristic entity) and address of the assignee of the entire right, title, and interest in an application. Providing this information in the application data sheet does not substitute for compliance with any requirement of part 3 of this chapter to have an assignment recorded by the Office.
(c) Supplemental application data sheets. Supplemental application data sheets:
(1) May be subsequently supplied prior to payment of the issue fee either to correct or update information in a previously submitted application data sheet, or an oath or declaration under § 1.63 or § 1.67, except that inventorship changes are governed by § 1.48, correspondence changes are governed by § 1.33(a), and citizenship changes are governed by § 1.63 or § 1.67;
(2) Must be titled "Supplemental Application Data Sheet," include all of the section headings listed in paragraph (b) of this section, include all appropriate data for each section heading, and must identify the information that is being changed, preferably with underlining for insertions, and strike-through or brackets for text removed.
(d) Inconsistencies between application data sheet and other documents. For inconsistencies between information that is supplied by both an application data sheet under this section and other documents.
(1) The latest submitted information will govern notwithstanding whether supplied by an application data sheet, an amendment to the specification, a designation of a correspondence address, or by a § 1.63 or § 1.67 oath or declaration, except as provided by paragraph (d)(3) of this section;
(2) The information in the application data sheet will govern when the inconsistent information is supplied at the same time by an amendment to the specification, a designation of correspondence address, or a § 1.63 or § 1.67 oath or declaration, except as provided by paragraph (d)(3) of this section;
(3) The oath or declaration under § 1.63 or § 1.67 governs inconsistencies with the application data sheet in the naming of inventors (§ 1.41(a)(1)) and setting forth their citizenship (35 U.S.C. 115);
(4) The Office will capture bibliographic information from the application data sheet (notwithstanding whether an oath or declaration governs the information). Thus, the Office shall generally, for example, not look to an oath or declaration under § 1.63 to see if the bibliographic information contained therein is consistent with the bibliographic information captured from an application data sheet (whether the oath or declaration is submitted prior to or subsequent to the application data sheet). Captured bibliographic information derived from an application data sheet containing errors may be corrected if applicant submits a request therefor and a supplemental application data sheet.
37 CFR 1.84 Standards for drawings
(a) Drawings. There are two acceptable categories for presenting drawings in utility and design patent applications.
(1) Black ink. Black and white drawings are normally required. India ink, or its equivalent that secures solid black lines, must be used for drawings;
(2) Color. On rare occasions, color drawings may be necessary as the only practical medium by which to disclose the subject matter sought to be patented in a utility or design patent application or the subject matter of a statutory invention registration. The color drawings must be of sufficient quality such that all details in the drawings are reproducible in black and white in the printed patent. Color drawings are not permitted in international applications (see PCT Rule 11.13), or in an application, or copy thereof, submitted under the Office electronic filing system. The Office will accept color drawings in utility or design patent applications and statutory invention registrations only after granting a petition filed under this paragraph explaining why the color drawings are necessary. Any such petition must include the following:
(i) The fee set forth in § 1.17(h);
(ii) Three (3) sets of color drawings;
(iii) An amendment to the specification to insert (unless the specification contains or has been previously amended to contain) the following language as the first paragraph of the brief description of the drawings:
The patent or application file contains at least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawing(s) will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee.
(1) Black and white. Photographs, including photocopies of photographs, are not ordinarily permitted in utility and design patent applications. The Office will accept photographs in utility and design patent applications, however, if photographs are the only practicable medium for illustrating the claimed invention. For example, photographs or photomicrographs of: electrophoresis gels, blots (e.g., immunological, western, Southern, and northern), auto- radiographs, cell cultures (stained and unstained), histological tissue cross sections (stained and unstained), animals, plants, in vivo imaging, thin layer chromatography plates, crystalline structures, and, in a design patent application, ornamental effects, are acceptable. If the subject matter of the application admits of illustration by a drawing, the examiner may require a drawing in place of the photograph. The photographs must be of sufficient quality so that all details in the photographs are reproducible in the printed patent.
(2) Color photographs. Color photographs will be accepted in utility and design patent applications if the conditions for accepting color drawings and black and white photographs have been satisfied. See paragraphs (a)(2) and (b)(1) of this section.
(c) Identification of drawings. Identifying indicia, if provided, should include the title of the invention, inventor's name, and application number, or docket number (if any) if an application number has not been assigned to the application. If this information is provided, it must be placed on the front of each sheet and centered within the top margin.
(d) Graphic forms in drawings. Chemical or mathematical formulae, tables, and waveforms may be submitted as drawings and are subject to the same requirements as drawings. Each chemical or mathematical formula must be labeled as a separate figure, using brackets when necessary, to show that information is properly integrated. Each group of waveforms must be presented as a single figure, using a common vertical axis with time extending along the horizontal axis. Each individual waveform discussed in the specification must be identified with a separate letter designation adjacent to the vertical axis.
(e) Type of paper. Drawings submitted to the Office must be made on paper, which is flexible, strong, white, smooth, non-shiny, and durable. All sheets must be reasonably free from cracks, creases, and folds. Only one side of the sheet may be used for the drawing. Each sheet must be reasonably free from erasures and must be free from alterations, overwritings, and interlineations. Photographs must be developed on paper meeting the sheet-size requirements of paragraph (f) of this section and the margin requirements of paragraph (g) of this section. See paragraph (b) of this section for other requirements for photographs.
(f) Size of paper. All drawing sheets in an application must be the same size. One of the shorter sides of the sheet is regarded as its top. The size of the sheets on which drawings are made must be:
(1) 21.0 cm. by 29.7 cm. (DIN size A4), or
(2) 21.6 cm. by 27.9 cm. (8 1/2 by 11 inches).
(g) Margins. The sheets must not contain frames around the sight (i.e., the usable surface), but should have scan target points (i.e., cross hairs) printed on two cater-corner margin corners. Each sheet must include a top margin of at least 2.5 cm. (1 inch), a left side margin of at least 2.5 cm. (1 inch), a right side margin of at least 1.5 cm. (5/8 inch), and a bottom margin of at least 1.0 cm. (3/8 inch), thereby leaving a sight no greater than 17.0 cm. by 26.2 cm. on 21.0 cm. by 29.7 cm. (DIN size A4) drawing sheets, and a sight no greater than 17.6 cm. by 24.4 cm. (6 15/16 by 9 5/8 inches) on 21.6 cm. by 27.9 cm. (8 1/2 by 11 inch) drawing sheets.
(h) Views. The drawing must contain as many views as necessary to show the invention. The views may be plan, elevation, section, or perspective views. Detail views of portions of elements, on a larger scale if necessary, may also be used. All views of the drawing must be grouped together and arranged on the sheet(s) without wasting space, preferably in an upright position, clearly separated from one another, and must not be included in the sheets containing the specifications, claims, or abstract. Views must not be connected by projection lines and must not contain centerlines. Waveforms of electrical signals may be connected by dashed lines to show the relative timing of the waveforms.
(1) Exploded views. Exploded views, with the separated parts embraced by a bracket, to show the relationship or order of assembly of various parts are permissible. When an exploded view is shown in a figure, which is on the same sheet as another figure, the exploded view should be placed in brackets.
(2) Partial views. When necessary, a view of a large machine or device in its entirety may be broken into partial views on a single sheet, or extended over several sheets if there is no loss in facility of understanding the view. Partial views drawn on separate sheets must always be capable of being linked edge to edge so that no partial view contains parts of another partial view. A smaller scale view should be included showing the whole formed by the partial views and indicating the positions of the parts shown. When a portion of a view is enlarged for magnification purposes, the view and the enlarged view must each be labeled as separate views.
(i) Where views on two or more sheets form, in effect, a single complete view, the views on the several sheets must be so arranged that the complete figure can be assembled without concealing any part of any of the views appearing on the various sheets.
(ii) A very long view may be divided into several parts placed one above the other on a single sheet. However, the relationship between the different parts must be clear and unambiguous.
(3) Sectional views. The plane upon which a sectional view is taken should be indicated on the view from which the section is cut by a broken line. The ends of the broken line should be designated by Arabic or Roman numerals corresponding to the view number of the sectional view, and should have arrows to indicate the direction of sight. Hatching must be used to indicate section portions of an object, and must be made by regularly spaced oblique parallel lines spaced sufficiently apart to enable the lines to be distinguished without difficulty. Hatching should not impede the clear reading of the reference characters and lead lines. If it is not possible to place reference characters outside the hatched area, the hatching may be broken off wherever reference characters are inserted. Hatching must be at a substantial angle to the surrounding axes or principal lines, preferably 45°. A cross section must be set out and drawn to show all of the materials as they are shown in the view from which the cross section was taken. The parts in cross section must show proper material(s) by hatching with regularly spaced parallel oblique strokes, the space between strokes being chosen on the basis of the total area to be hatched. The various parts of a cross section of the same item should be hatched in the same manner and should accurately and graphically indicate the nature of the material(s) that is illustrated in cross section. The hatching of juxtaposed different elements must be angled in a different way. In the case of large areas, hatching may be confined to an edging drawn around the entire inside of the outline of the area to be hatched. Different types of hatching should have different conventional meanings as regards the nature of a material seen in cross section.
(4) Alternate position. A moved position may be shown by a broken line superimposed upon a suitable view if this can be done without crowding; otherwise, a separate view must be used for this purpose.
(5) Modified forms. Modified forms of construction must be shown in separate views.
(i) Arrangement of views. One view must not be placed upon another or within the outline of another. All views on the same sheet should stand in the same direction and, if possible, stand so that they can be read with the sheet held in an upright position. If views wider than the width of the sheet are necessary for the clearest illustration of the invention, the sheet may be turned on its side so that the top of the sheet, with the appropriate top margin to be used as the heading space, is on the right-hand side. Words must appear in a horizontal, left-to-right fashion when the page is either upright or turned so that the top becomes the right side, except for graphs utilizing standard scientific convention to denote the axis of abscissas (of X) and the axis of ordinates (of Y).
(j) Front page view. The drawing must contain as many views as necessary to show the invention. One of the views should be suitable for inclusion on the front page of the patent application publication and patent as the illustration of the invention. Views must not be connected by projection lines and must not contain centerlines. Applicant may suggest a single view (by figure number) for inclusion on the front page of the patent application publication and patent.
(k) Scale. The scale to which a drawing is made must be large enough to show the mechanism without crowding when the drawing is reduced in size to two-thirds in reproduction. Indications such as "actual size" or "scale 1/2" on the drawings are not permitted since these lose their meaning with reproduction in a different format.
(l) Character of lines, numbers, and letters. All drawings must be made by a process, which will give them satisfactory reproduction characteristics. Every line, number, and letter must be durable, clean, black (except for color drawings), sufficiently dense and dark, and uniformly thick and well defined. The weight of all lines and letters must be heavy enough to permit adequate reproduction. This requirement applies to all lines however fine, to shading, and to lines representing cut surfaces in sectional views. Lines and strokes of different thickness may be used in the same drawing where different thicknesses have a different meaning.
(m) Shading. The use of shading in views is encouraged if it aids in understanding the invention and if it does not reduce legibility. Shading is used to indicate the surface or shape of spherical, cylindrical, and conical elements of an object. Flat parts may also be lightly shaded. Such shading is preferred in the case of parts shown in perspective, but not for cross sections. See paragraph (h)(3) of this section. Spaced lines for shading are preferred. These lines must be thin, as few in number as practicable, and they must contrast with the rest of the drawings. As a substitute for shading, heavy lines on the shade side of objects can be used except where they superimpose on each other or obscure reference characters. Light should come from the upper left corner at an angle of 45°??Surface delineations should preferably be shown by proper shading. Solid black shading areas are not permitted, except when used to represent bar graphs or color.
(n) Symbols. Graphical drawing symbols may be used for conventional elements when appropriate. The elements for which such symbols and labeled representations are used must be adequately identified in the specification. Known devices should be illustrated by symbols, which have a universally recognized conventional meaning and are generally accepted in the art. Other symbols, which are not universally recognized, may be used, subject to approval by the Office, if they are not likely to be confused with existing conventional symbols, and if they are readily identifiable.
(o) Legends. Suitable descriptive legends may be used subject to approval by the Office, or may be required by the examiner where necessary for understanding of the drawing. They should contain as few words as possible.
(p) Numbers, letters, and reference characters.
(1) Reference characters (numerals are preferred), sheet numbers, and view numbers must be plain and legible, and must not be used in association with brackets or inverted commas, or enclosed within outlines, e.g., encircled. They must be oriented in the same direction as the view so as to avoid having to rotate the sheet. Reference characters should be arranged to follow the profile of the object depicted.
(2) The English alphabet must be used for letters, except where another alphabet is customarily used, such as the Greek alphabet to indicate angles, wavelengths, and mathematical formulas.
(3) Numbers, letters, and reference characters must measure at least .32 cm. (1/8 inch) in height. They should not be placed in the drawing so as to interfere with its comprehension. Therefore, they should not cross or mingle with the lines. They should not be placed upon hatched or shaded surfaces. When necessary, such as indicating a surface or cross section, a reference character may be underlined and a blank space may be left in the hatching or shading where the character occurs so that it appears distinct.
(4) The same part of an invention appearing in more than one view of the drawing must always be designated by the same reference character, and the same reference character must never be used to designate different parts.
(5) Reference characters not mentioned in the description shall not appear in the drawings. Reference characters mentioned in the description must appear in the drawings.
(q) Lead lines. Lead lines are those lines between the reference characters and the details referred to. Such lines may be straight or curved and should be as short as possible. They must originate in the immediate proximity of the reference character and extend to the feature indicated. Lead lines must not cross each other. Lead lines are required for each reference character except for those, which indicate the surface or cross section on which they are placed. Such a reference character must be underlined to make it clear that a lead line has not been left out by mistake. Lead lines must be executed in the same way as lines in the drawing. See paragraph (l) of this section.
(r) Arrows. Arrows may be used at the ends of lines, provided that their meaning is clear, as follows:
(1) On a lead line, a freestanding arrow to indicate the entire section towards which it points;
(2) On a lead line, an arrow touching a line to indicate the surface shown by the line looking along the direction of the arrow;
(3) To show the direction of movement.
(s) Copyright or Mask Work Notice. A copyright or mask work notice may appear in the drawing, but must be placed within the sight of the drawing immediately below the figure representing the copyright or mask work material and be limited to letters having a print size of .32 cm. to .64 cm. (1/8 to 1/4 inches) high. The content of the notice must be limited to only those elements provided for by law. For example, "©1983 John Doe" (17 U.S.C. 401) and "*M* John Doe" (17 U.S.C. 909) would be properly limited and, under current statutes, legally sufficient notices of copyright and mask work, respectively. Inclusion of a copyright or mask work notice will be permitted only if the authorization language set forth in § 1.71(e) is included at the beginning (preferably as the first paragraph) of the specification.
(t) Numbering of sheets of drawings. The sheets of drawings should be numbered in consecutive Arabic numerals, starting with 1, within the sight as defined in paragraph (g) of this section. These numbers, if present, must be placed in the middle of the top of the sheet, but not in the margin. The numbers can be placed on the right-hand side if the drawing extends too close to the middle of the top edge of the usable surface. The drawing sheet numbering must be clear and larger than the numbers used as reference characters to avoid confusion. The number of each sheet should be shown by two Arabic numerals placed on either side of an oblique line, with the first being the sheet number and the second being the total number of sheets of drawings, with no other marking.
(u) Numbering of views.
(1) The different views must be numbered in consecutive Arabic numerals, starting with 1, independent of the numbering of the sheets and, if possible, in the order in which they appear on the drawing sheet(s). Partial views intended to form one complete view, on one or several sheets, must be identified by the same number followed by a capital letter. View numbers must be preceded by the abbreviation "FIG." Where only a single view is used in an application to illustrate the claimed invention, it must not be numbered and the abbreviation "FIG." must not appear.
(2) Numbers and letters identifying the views must be simple and clear and must not be used in association with brackets, circles, or inverted commas. The view numbers must be larger than the numbers used for reference characters.
(v) Security markings. Authorized security markings may be placed on the drawings provided they are outside the sight, preferably centered in the top margin.
(w) Corrections. Any corrections on drawings submitted to the Office must be durable and permanent.
(x) Holes. No holes should be made by applicant in the drawing sheets.
(y) Types of drawings. See § 1.152 for design drawings, § 1.165 for plant drawings, and § 1.174 for reissue drawings.
37 CFR 1.121 Manner of making amendments in application.
(a) Amendments in applications, other than reissue applications. Amendments in applications, other than reissue applications, are made by filing a paper, in compliance with § 1.52, directing that specified amendments be made.
(b) Specification. Amendments to the specification, other than the claims, computer listings (§ 1.96) and sequence listings (§ 1.825), must be made by adding, deleting or replacing a paragraph, by replacing a section, or by a substitute specification, in the manner specified in this section.
(1) Amendment to delete, replace, or add a paragraph. Amendments to the specification, including amendment to a section heading or the title of the invention which are considered for amendment purposes to be an amendment of a paragraph, must be made by submitting:
(i) An instruction, which unambiguously identifies the location, to delete one or more paragraphs of the specification, replace a paragraph with one or more replacement paragraphs, or add one or more paragraphs;
(ii) The full text of any replacement paragraph with markings to show all the changes relative to the previous version of the paragraph. The text of any added subject matter must be shown by underlining the added text. The text of any deleted matter must be shown by strike-through except that double brackets placed before and after the deleted characters may be used to show deletion of five or fewer consecutive characters. The text of any deleted subject matter must be shown by being placed within double brackets if strikethrough cannot be easily perceived;
(iii) The full text of any added paragraphs without any underlining; and
(iv) The text of a paragraph to be deleted must not be presented with strike-through or placed within double brackets. The instruction to delete may identify a paragraph by its paragraph number or include a few words from the beginning, and end, of the paragraph, if needed for paragraph identification purposes.
(2) Amendment by replacement section. If the sections of the specification contain section headings as provided in § 1.77(b), § 1.154(b), or § 1.163(c), amendments to the specification, other than the claims, may be made by submitting:
(i) A reference to the section heading along with an instruction, which unambiguously identifies the location, to delete that section of the specification and to replace such deleted section with a replacement section; and;
(ii) A replacement section with markings to show all changes relative to the previous version of the section. The text of any added subject matter must be shown by underlining the added text. The text of any deleted matter must be shown by strike-through except that double brackets placed before and after the deleted characters may be used to show deletion of five or fewer consecutive characters. The text of any deleted subject matter must be shown by being placed within double brackets if strike-through cannot be easily perceived.
(3) Amendment by substitute specification. The specification, other than the claims, may also be amended by submitting:
(i) An instruction to replace the specification; and
(ii) A substitute specification in compliance with §§ 1.125(b) and (c).
(4) Reinstatement of previously deleted paragraph or section. A previously deleted paragraph or section may be reinstated only by a subsequent amendment adding the previously deleted paragraph or section.
(5) Presentation in subsequent amendment document. Once a paragraph or section is amended in a first amendment document, the paragraph or section shall not be represented in a subsequent amendment document unless it is amended again or a substitute specification is provided.
(c) Claims. Amendments to a claim must be made by rewriting the entire claim with all changes (e.g., additions and deletions) as indicated in this subsection, except when the claim is being canceled. Each amendment document that includes a change to an existing claim, cancellation of an existing claim or addition of a new claim, must include a complete listing of all claims ever presented, including the text of all pending and withdrawn claims, in the application. The claim listing, including the text of the claims, in the amendment document will serve to replace all prior versions of the claims, in the application. In the claim listing, the status of every claim must be indicated after its claim number by using one of the following identifiers in a parenthetical expression: (Original), (Currently amended), (Canceled), (Withdrawn), (Previously presented), (New), and (Not entered).
(1) Claim listing. All of the claims presented in a claim listing shall be presented in ascending numerical order. Consecutive claims having the same status of "canceled" or "not entered" may be aggregated into one statement (e.g., Claims 1-5 (canceled)). The claim listing shall commence on a separate sheet of the amendment document and the sheet(s) that contain the text of any part of the claims shall not contain any other part of the amendment.
(2) When claim text with markings is required. All claims being currently amended in an amendment paper shall be presented in the claim listing, indicate a status of "currently amended," and be submitted with markings to indicate the changes that have been made relative to the immediate prior version of the claims. The text of any added subject matter must be shown by underlining the added text. The text of any deleted matter must be shown by strike-through except that double brackets placed before and after the deleted characters may be used to show deletion of five or fewer consecutive characters. The text of any deleted subject matter must be shown by being placed within double brackets if strike-through cannot be easily perceived. Only claims having the status of "currently amended," or "withdrawn" if also being amended, shall include markings. If a withdrawn claim is currently amended, its status in the claim listing may be identified as "withdrawn- currently amended."
(3) When claim text in clean version is required. The text of all pending claims not being currently amended shall be presented in the claim listing in clean version, i.e., without any markings in the presentation of text. The presentation of a clean version of any claim having the status of "original," "withdrawn" or "previously presented" will constitute an assertion that it has not been changed relative to the immediate prior version, except to omit markings that may have been present in the immediate prior version of the claims of the status of "withdrawn" or "previously presented." Any claim added by amendment must be indicated with the status of "new" and presented in clean version, i.e., without any underlining.
(4) When claim text shall not be presented; canceling a claim.
(i) No claim text shall be presented for any claim in the claim listing with the status of "canceled" or "not entered."
(ii) Cancellation of a claim shall be effected by an instruction to cancel a particular claim number. Identifying the status of a claim in the claim listing as "canceled" will constitute an instruction to cancel the claim.
(5) Reinstatement of previously canceled claim. A claim which was previously canceled may be reinstated only by adding the claim as a "new" claim with a new claim number.
(d) Drawings: One or more application drawings shall be amended in the following manner: Any changes to an application drawing must be in compliance with § 1.84 and must be submitted on a replacement sheet of drawings which shall be an attachment to the amendment document and, in the top margin, labeled "Replacement Sheet". Any replacement sheet of drawings shall include all of the figures appearing on the immediate prior version of the sheet, even if only one figure is amended. Any new sheet of drawings containing an additional figure must be labeled in the top margin as "New Sheet". All changes to the drawings shall be explained, in detail, in either the drawing amendment or remarks section of the amendment paper.
(1) A marked-up copy of any amended drawing figure, including annotations indicating the changes made, may be included. The marked-up copy must be clearly labeled as "Annotated Sheet" and must be presented in the amendment or remarks section that explains the change to the drawings.
(2) A marked-up copy of any amended drawing figure, including annotations indicating the changes made, must be provided when required by the examiner.
(e) Disclosure consistency. The disclosure must be amended, when required by the Office, to correct inaccuracies of description and definition, and to secure substantial correspondence between the claims, the remainder of the specification, and the drawings.
(f) No new matter. No amendment may introduce new matter into the disclosure of an application.
(g) Exception for examiner's amendments. Changes to the specification, including the claims, of an application made by the Office in an examiner's amendment may be made by specific instructions to insert or delete subject matter set forth in the examiner's amendment by identifying the precise point in the specification or the claim(s) where the insertion or deletion is to be made. Compliance with paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2), or (c) of this section is not required.
(h) Amendment sections. Each section of an amendment document (e.g., amendment to the claims, amendme nt to the specification, replacement drawings, and remarks) must begin on a separate sheet.
(i) Amendments in reissue applications. Any amendment to the description and claims in reissue applications must be made in accordance with § 1.173.
(j) Amendments in reexamination proceedings. Any proposed amendment to the description and claims in patents involved in reexamination proceedings must be made in accordance with § 1.530.
(k) Amendments in provisional applications. Amendments in provisional applications are not usually made. If an amendment is made to a provisional application, however, it must comply with the provisions of this section. Any amendments to a provisional application shall be placed in the provisional application file but may not be entered.
37 CFR 1.152 Design drawings
The design must be represented by a drawing that complies with the requirements of § 1.84 and must contain a sufficient number of views to constitute a complete disclosure of the appearance of the design. Appropriate and adequate surface shading should be used to show the character or contour of the surfaces represented. Solid black surface shading is not permitted except when used to represent the color black as well as color contrast. Broken lines may be used to show visible environmental structure, but may not be used to show hidden planes and surfaces that cannot be seen through opaque materials. Alternate positions of a design component, illustrated by full and broken lines in the same view are not permitted in a design drawing. Photographs and ink drawings are not permitted to be combined as formal drawings in one application. Photographs submitted in lieu of ink drawings in design patent applications must not disclose environmental structure but must be limited to the design claimed for the article.
37 CFR 1.153 Title, description and claim, oath or declaration
(a) The title of the design must designate the particular article. No description, other than a reference to the drawing, is ordinarily required. The claim shall be in formal terms to the ornamental design for the article (specifying name) as shown, or as shown and described. More than one claim is neither required nor permitted.
(b) The oath or declaration required of the applicant must comply with § 1.63.
37 CFR 1.154 Arrangement of application elements in a design application
(a) The elements of the design application, if applicable, should appear in the following order:
(1) Design application transmittal form.
(2) Fee transmittal form.
(3) Application data sheet (see § 1.76).
(5) Drawings or photographs.
(6) Executed oath or declaration (see § 1.153(b)).
(b) The specification should include the following sections in order:
(1) Preamble, stating the name of the applicant, title of the design, and a brief description of the nature and intended use of the article in which the design is embodied.
(4) Description of the figure or figures of the drawing.
(5) Feature description.
(6) A single claim.
(c) The text of the specification sections defined in paragraph (b) of this section, if applicable, should be preceded by a section heading in uppercase letters without underlining or bold type.
37 CFR 1.155 Expedited examination of design applications
(a) The applicant may request that the Office expedite the examination of a design application. To qualify for expedited examination:
(1) The application must include drawings in compliance with § 1.84;
(2) The applicant must have conducted a pre-examination search; and
(3) The applicant must file a request for expedited examination including:
(i) The fee set forth in § 1.17(k);
(ii) A statement that a pre-examination search was conducted. The statement must also indicate the field of search and include an information disclosure statement in compliance with § 1.98.
(b) The Office will not examine an application that is not in condition for examination (e.g., missing basic filing fee) even if the applicant files a request for expedited examination under this section.
I, (Name)________________________________________________ have invented a new design for a (Title)_________________________________________________ as set forth in the following specification:
FIG. 1 is a _______________________ view of a __________________________ showing my new design;
FIG. 2 is a _______________________ view thereof;
FIG. 3 is a _______________________ view thereof;
FIG. 4 is a _______________________ view thereof;
FIG. 5 is a _______________________ view thereof; and
FIG. 6 is a _______________________ view thereof.
I claim: The ornamental design for a _________________________________________________ as shown.
*Applicants are referred to the Disclosure Examples on Pages 9-13, to determine the proper wording and number of Figure Descriptions appropriate to their disclosure. Questions regarding a design patent application and its forms may be directed to the Design Patent Practice Specialist of Technology Center 2900 at (571) 272-2900.
United States Patent and Trademark Office Commissioner for Patents P.O. Box 1450 Alexandria, VA 22313-1450
An Agency of the United States Department of Commerce
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Designing Assignments for Learning
The rapid shift to remote teaching and learning meant that many instructors reimagined their assessment practices. Whether adapting existing assignments or creatively designing new opportunities for their students to learn, instructors focused on helping students make meaning and demonstrate their learning outside of the traditional, face-to-face classroom setting. This resource distills the elements of assignment design that are important to carry forward as we continue to seek better ways of assessing learning and build on our innovative assignment designs.
On this page:
Rethinking traditional tests, quizzes, and exams.
- Examples from the Columbia University Classroom
- Tips for Designing Assignments for Learning
Reflect On Your Assignment Design
Connect with the ctl.
- Resources and References
Traditional assessments tend to reveal whether students can recognize, recall, or replicate what was learned out of context, and tend to focus on students providing correct responses (Wiggins, 1990). In contrast, authentic assignments, which are course assessments, engage students in higher order thinking, as they grapple with real or simulated challenges that help them prepare for their professional lives, and draw on the course knowledge learned and the skills acquired to create justifiable answers, performances or products (Wiggins, 1990). An authentic assessment provides opportunities for students to practice, consult resources, learn from feedback, and refine their performances and products accordingly (Wiggins 1990, 1998, 2014).
Authentic assignments ask students to “do” the subject with an audience in mind and apply their learning in a new situation. Examples of authentic assignments include asking students to:
- Write for a real audience (e.g., a memo, a policy brief, letter to the editor, a grant proposal, reports, building a website) and/or publication;
- Solve problem sets that have real world application;
- Design projects that address a real world problem;
- Engage in a community-partnered research project;
- Create an exhibit, performance, or conference presentation ;
- Compile and reflect on their work through a portfolio/e-portfolio.
Noteworthy elements of authentic designs are that instructors scaffold the assignment, and play an active role in preparing students for the tasks assigned, while students are intentionally asked to reflect on the process and product of their work thus building their metacognitive skills (Herrington and Oliver, 2000; Ashford-Rowe, Herrington and Brown, 2013; Frey, Schmitt, and Allen, 2012).
It’s worth noting here that authentic assessments can initially be time consuming to design, implement, and grade. They are critiqued for being challenging to use across course contexts and for grading reliability issues (Maclellan, 2004). Despite these challenges, authentic assessments are recognized as beneficial to student learning (Svinicki, 2004) as they are learner-centered (Weimer, 2013), promote academic integrity (McLaughlin, L. and Ricevuto, 2021; Sotiriadou et al., 2019; Schroeder, 2021) and motivate students to learn (Ambrose et al., 2010). The Columbia Center for Teaching and Learning is always available to consult with faculty who are considering authentic assessment designs and to discuss challenges and affordances.
Examples from the Columbia University Classroom
Columbia instructors have experimented with alternative ways of assessing student learning from oral exams to technology-enhanced assignments. Below are a few examples of authentic assignments in various teaching contexts across Columbia University.
- E-portfolios: Statia Cook shares her experiences with an ePorfolio assignment in her co-taught Frontiers of Science course (a submission to the Voices of Hybrid and Online Teaching and Learning initiative); CUIMC use of ePortfolios ;
- Case studies: Columbia instructors have engaged their students in authentic ways through case studies drawing on the Case Consortium at Columbia University. Read and watch a faculty spotlight to learn how Professor Mary Ann Price uses the case method to place pre-med students in real-life scenarios;
- Simulations: students at CUIMC engage in simulations to develop their professional skills in The Mary & Michael Jaharis Simulation Center in the Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and the Helene Fuld Health Trust Simulation Center in the Columbia School of Nursing;
- Experiential learning: instructors have drawn on New York City as a learning laboratory such as Barnard’s NYC as Lab webpage which highlights courses that engage students in NYC;
- Design projects that address real world problems: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy on the Engineering design projects completed using lab kits during remote learning. Watch Dr. Yesilevskiy talk about his teaching and read the Columbia News article .
- Writing assignments: Lia Marshall and her teaching associate Aparna Balasundaram reflect on their “non-disposable or renewable assignments” to prepare social work students for their professional lives as they write for a real audience; and Hannah Weaver spoke about a sandbox assignment used in her Core Literature Humanities course at the 2021 Celebration of Teaching and Learning Symposium . Watch Dr. Weaver share her experiences.
Tips for Designing Assignments for Learning
While designing an effective authentic assignment may seem like a daunting task, the following tips can be used as a starting point. See the Resources section for frameworks and tools that may be useful in this effort.
Align the assignment with your course learning objectives
Identify the kind of thinking that is important in your course, the knowledge students will apply, and the skills they will practice using through the assignment. What kind of thinking will students be asked to do for the assignment? What will students learn by completing this assignment? How will the assignment help students achieve the desired course learning outcomes? For more information on course learning objectives, see the CTL’s Course Design Essentials self-paced course and watch the video on Articulating Learning Objectives .
Identify an authentic meaning-making task
For meaning-making to occur, students need to understand the relevance of the assignment to the course and beyond (Ambrose et al., 2010). To Bean (2011) a “meaning-making” or “meaning-constructing” task has two dimensions: 1) it presents students with an authentic disciplinary problem or asks students to formulate their own problems, both of which engage them in active critical thinking, and 2) the problem is placed in “a context that gives students a role or purpose, a targeted audience, and a genre.” (Bean, 2011: 97-98).
An authentic task gives students a realistic challenge to grapple with, a role to take on that allows them to “rehearse for the complex ambiguities” of life, provides resources and supports to draw on, and requires students to justify their work and the process they used to inform their solution (Wiggins, 1990). Note that if students find an assignment interesting or relevant, they will see value in completing it.
Consider the kind of activities in the real world that use the knowledge and skills that are the focus of your course. How is this knowledge and these skills applied to answer real-world questions to solve real-world problems? (Herrington et al., 2010: 22). What do professionals or academics in your discipline do on a regular basis? What does it mean to think like a biologist, statistician, historian, social scientist? How might your assignment ask students to draw on current events, issues, or problems that relate to the course and are of interest to them? How might your assignment tap into student motivation and engage them in the kinds of thinking they can apply to better understand the world around them? (Ambrose et al., 2010).
Determine the evaluation criteria and create a rubric
To ensure equitable and consistent grading of assignments across students, make transparent the criteria you will use to evaluate student work. The criteria should focus on the knowledge and skills that are central to the assignment. Build on the criteria identified, create a rubric that makes explicit the expectations of deliverables and share this rubric with your students so they can use it as they work on the assignment. For more information on rubrics, see the CTL’s resource Incorporating Rubrics into Your Grading and Feedback Practices , and explore the Association of American Colleges & Universities VALUE Rubrics (Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education).
Build in metacognition
Ask students to reflect on what and how they learned from the assignment. Help students uncover personal relevance of the assignment, find intrinsic value in their work, and deepen their motivation by asking them to reflect on their process and their assignment deliverable. Sample prompts might include: what did you learn from this assignment? How might you draw on the knowledge and skills you used on this assignment in the future? See Ambrose et al., 2010 for more strategies that support motivation and the CTL’s resource on Metacognition ).
Provide students with opportunities to practice
Design your assignment to be a learning experience and prepare students for success on the assignment. If students can reasonably expect to be successful on an assignment when they put in the required effort ,with the support and guidance of the instructor, they are more likely to engage in the behaviors necessary for learning (Ambrose et al., 2010). Ensure student success by actively teaching the knowledge and skills of the course (e.g., how to problem solve, how to write for a particular audience), modeling the desired thinking, and creating learning activities that build up to a graded assignment. Provide opportunities for students to practice using the knowledge and skills they will need for the assignment, whether through low-stakes in-class activities or homework activities that include opportunities to receive and incorporate formative feedback. For more information on providing feedback, see the CTL resource Feedback for Learning .
Communicate about the assignment
Share the purpose, task, audience, expectations, and criteria for the assignment. Students may have expectations about assessments and how they will be graded that is informed by their prior experiences completing high-stakes assessments, so be transparent. Tell your students why you are asking them to do this assignment, what skills they will be using, how it aligns with the course learning outcomes, and why it is relevant to their learning and their professional lives (i.e., how practitioners / professionals use the knowledge and skills in your course in real world contexts and for what purposes). Finally, verify that students understand what they need to do to complete the assignment. This can be done by asking students to respond to poll questions about different parts of the assignment, a “scavenger hunt” of the assignment instructions–giving students questions to answer about the assignment and having them work in small groups to answer the questions, or by having students share back what they think is expected of them.
Plan to iterate and to keep the focus on learning
Draw on multiple sources of data to help make decisions about what changes are needed to the assignment, the assignment instructions, and/or rubric to ensure that it contributes to student learning. Explore assignment performance data. As Deandra Little reminds us: “a really good assignment, which is a really good assessment, also teaches you something or tells the instructor something. As much as it tells you what students are learning, it’s also telling you what they aren’t learning.” ( Teaching in Higher Ed podcast episode 337 ). Assignment bottlenecks–where students get stuck or struggle–can be good indicators that students need further support or opportunities to practice prior to completing an assignment. This awareness can inform teaching decisions.
Triangulate the performance data by collecting student feedback, and noting your own reflections about what worked well and what did not. Revise the assignment instructions, rubric, and teaching practices accordingly. Consider how you might better align your assignment with your course objectives and/or provide more opportunities for students to practice using the knowledge and skills that they will rely on for the assignment. Additionally, keep in mind societal, disciplinary, and technological changes as you tweak your assignments for future use.
Now is a great time to reflect on your practices and experiences with assignment design and think critically about your approach. Take a closer look at an existing assignment. Questions to consider include: What is this assignment meant to do? What purpose does it serve? Why do you ask students to do this assignment? How are they prepared to complete the assignment? Does the assignment assess the kind of learning that you really want? What would help students learn from this assignment?
Using the tips in the previous section: How can the assignment be tweaked to be more authentic and meaningful to students?
As you plan forward for post-pandemic teaching and reflect on your practices and reimagine your course design, you may find the following CTL resources helpful: Reflecting On Your Experiences with Remote Teaching , Transition to In-Person Teaching , and Course Design Support .
The Columbia Center for Teaching and Learning (CTL) is here to help!
For assistance with assignment design, rubric design, or any other teaching and learning need, please request a consultation by emailing [email protected] .
Transparency in Learning and Teaching (TILT) framework for assignments. The TILT Examples and Resources page ( https://tilthighered.com/tiltexamplesandresources ) includes example assignments from across disciplines, as well as a transparent assignment template and a checklist for designing transparent assignments . Each emphasizes the importance of articulating to students the purpose of the assignment or activity, the what and how of the task, and specifying the criteria that will be used to assess students.
Association of American Colleges & Universities (AAC&U) offers VALUE ADD (Assignment Design and Diagnostic) tools ( https://www.aacu.org/value-add-tools ) to help with the creation of clear and effective assignments that align with the desired learning outcomes and associated VALUE rubrics (Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education). VALUE ADD encourages instructors to explicitly state assignment information such as the purpose of the assignment, what skills students will be using, how it aligns with course learning outcomes, the assignment type, the audience and context for the assignment, clear evaluation criteria, desired formatting, and expectations for completion whether individual or in a group.
Villarroel et al. (2017) propose a blueprint for building authentic assessments which includes four steps: 1) consider the workplace context, 2) design the authentic assessment; 3) learn and apply standards for judgement; and 4) give feedback.
Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., & DiPietro, M. (2010). Chapter 3: What Factors Motivate Students to Learn? In How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching . Jossey-Bass.
Ashford-Rowe, K., Herrington, J., and Brown, C. (2013). Establishing the critical elements that determine authentic assessment. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. 39(2), 205-222, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2013.819566 .
Bean, J.C. (2011). Engaging Ideas: The Professor’s Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking, and Active Learning in the Classroom . Second Edition. Jossey-Bass.
Frey, B. B, Schmitt, V. L., and Allen, J. P. (2012). Defining Authentic Classroom Assessment. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation. 17(2). DOI: https://doi.org/10.7275/sxbs-0829
Herrington, J., Reeves, T. C., and Oliver, R. (2010). A Guide to Authentic e-Learning . Routledge.
Herrington, J. and Oliver, R. (2000). An instructional design framework for authentic learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 48(3), 23-48.
Litchfield, B. C. and Dempsey, J. V. (2015). Authentic Assessment of Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. 142 (Summer 2015), 65-80.
Maclellan, E. (2004). How convincing is alternative assessment for use in higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. 29(3), June 2004. DOI: 10.1080/0260293042000188267
McLaughlin, L. and Ricevuto, J. (2021). Assessments in a Virtual Environment: You Won’t Need that Lockdown Browser! Faculty Focus. June 2, 2021.
Mueller, J. (2005). The Authentic Assessment Toolbox: Enhancing Student Learning through Online Faculty Development . MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching. 1(1). July 2005. Mueller’s Authentic Assessment Toolbox is available online.
Schroeder, R. (2021). Vaccinate Against Cheating With Authentic Assessment . Inside Higher Ed. (February 26, 2021).
Sotiriadou, P., Logan, D., Daly, A., and Guest, R. (2019). The role of authentic assessment to preserve academic integrity and promote skills development and employability. Studies in Higher Education. 45(111), 2132-2148. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2019.1582015
Stachowiak, B. (Host). (November 25, 2020). Authentic Assignments with Deandra Little. (Episode 337). In Teaching in Higher Ed . https://teachinginhighered.com/podcast/authentic-assignments/
Svinicki, M. D. (2004). Authentic Assessment: Testing in Reality. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. 100 (Winter 2004): 23-29.
Villarroel, V., Bloxham, S, Bruna, D., Bruna, C., and Herrera-Seda, C. (2017). Authentic assessment: creating a blueprint for course design. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. 43(5), 840-854. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2017.1412396
Weimer, M. (2013). Learner-Centered Teaching: Five Key Changes to Practice . Second Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Wiggins, G. (2014). Authenticity in assessment, (re-)defined and explained. Retrieved from https://grantwiggins.wordpress.com/2014/01/26/authenticity-in-assessment-re-defined-and-explained/
Wiggins, G. (1998). Teaching to the (Authentic) Test. Educational Leadership . April 1989. 41-47.
Wiggins, Grant (1990). The Case for Authentic Assessment . Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation , 2(2).
The CTL researches and experiments.
The Columbia Center for Teaching and Learning provides an array of resources and tools for instructional activities.
- Columbia University
- all classes
- art teacher resource
- art vocabulary
- final 2 sem.
- final 1 sem.
- shopping list
Focus on drawing skills:
creative drawings, shading techniques review and practice, pen and graphite drawings, texture shading, colored pencils and oil pastels techniques, design stylizing techniques, non-traditional art media, mix-media, introduction to watercolor pencils, watercolor techniques, etc.
Focus on drawing, painting and printing media:
unusual painting media, creative designs - practice eye-hand coordination, pen and ink drawings, pattern values and creative application, introduction to silk screen printing, optical illusions and OpArt - review perspective, collages and acrylic paintings, composition and colors in Art.
Design a van
pen & ink
Pen & ink basics
Celtic knots basics
Celtic design challenge
rings & circles pattern design
other drawing media
Symbolist collage painting
Oil pastels self-portrait
Oil pastels on transparency
Silk screen printing
Prerequisites : successful completion of a full year of Art 1
Course available to : Freshmen, Sophomores, Juniors, and Seniors.
Students will continue to build art vocabulary and apply it on an every day basis. Students will apply their knowledge of elements and principles of art, art history and aesthetics by creating art projects using a variety of techniques in painting, drawing, print making, sculpture, and other forms of fine art. The course is a studio type class. The focus of the course is experimenting with different art media. Students will try a variety of art techniques and materials to find what they like the most. Assignments must be completed according to times/dates as noted when assignment is given. If a student is absent, student must make up missed work. Making up assignments is the student’s responsibility. Students are required to participate in art activities at all times Full credit will be given to all FINISHED assignments turned in on time. Projects will be graded on the basis of appropriate incorporation of artistic elements, creativity/originality, proper use of art tools, and timely turning in of an assignment. Students must follow the teacher’s instructions to fulfill the project requirements. Art 2 is an advanced art course and expectations of your art work will be high. NOTE: Unless an assignment specifically requires copying, it will be interpreted in the same manner as plagiarism and is not acceptable.
1. All assignments must be completed on or before the due date. 2. Unfinished artwork is graded as such. 3. If you are absent, it is your responsibility to make up all work. You can sign out art supplies if needed. 4. If your project requires extra time to be completed, you have to make arrangements with me prior the due date. This is your responsibility. 5. Each project has a rubric with specific requirements and guidelines. Follow them. 6. Unless an assignment specifically requires copying, it will be interpreted in the same manner as plagiarism. 7. You are also graded for your in-class studio work.
1. Food, drinks, candy, gum are not allowed in the Art rooms. A bottle of WATER is permitted in room 206 (only). 2. Cell phones are not allowed at any time. Phones should be turned off and put away. 3. Be in the room before the bell rings. Dropping your stuff and leaving does not qualify you as being on time. 4. Sit at your assigned seat unless I give you OK to move. That means you do not walk around the room during the class. 5. Talk quietly with students at your table. Do not talk during the instructional time. 6. Draw, paint, etc. on your artwork only! 7. Use materials from your tote-tray only... don't go into other people's trays. 8. You can bring your work home anytime. You are responsible for having it back next day. 9. If you must swear, please do it elsewhere... Thanks. 10. You are responsible for cleaning your work area and the tools that you used. 11. If you are in the Graphics lab, use the printers for the current ART assignments only!!! 12. Encourage your fellow classmates in a positive way... treat them fairly and nicely. This room should be a fun and comfortable place for everyone.
- elements of art
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Everything You Need to Design the Perfect Intro to Art Course
Home / Everything You Need to Design the Perfect Intro to Art Course
Have you ever looked at the work of AP studio art students and thought, “WOW! How did they produce that ? ” The answer, surprising as it may be, is it all starts with the first class students take.
If you want outstanding advanced courses, your introductory course has to be outstanding as well.
Simply put, Introduction to Art is the most important class your art students will ever take.
Designing a solid Intro to Art course isn’t for the faint of heart. Students need to be both exposed to a wide variety of thoughts and materials and provided time to develop a basic skill set.
Here are 5 vital things to include in your course:
- An overview of the elements and principles and how to use them.
- Time to explore media and materials.
- The opportunity to work in a visual journal to develop, grow, and work out ideas.
- A safe environment to explore risk-taking.
- Time to give and receive meaningful feedback.
It is daunting, but it is definitely possible!
Today, I’m sharing a plethora of suggested lessons, plans, and methods to help you develop an outstanding Introduction to Art course.
To begin, students must have an authentic understanding that the art elements are important because they are the building blocks of composition. All seven art elements matter and need to be explained and explored.
Students must also understand how they can organize their elements through the principles of design. Once they have a good understanding of the elements, they can begin to consciously think about movement, rhythm, balance, variety, contrast, unity, repetition, and emphasis. These lessons develop both their understanding and their skills and will take their work to the next level.
7 Lessons that Explore the Elements and Principles
Lesson 1: name design.
In this first project, students showcase who they are through symbols, colors, shapes, and design, all incorporated around their name. Students manipulate mixed media creatively to present a sense of their personality and showcase who they are.
Introduce the lesson by having students brainstorm a list of their interests, create thumbnail sketches, and begin thinking about various media they may want to use.
You might ask questions such as:
- What do they enjoy doing?
- What are their religious or political views?
- What are their hobbies?
- In what activities are they involved?
This project is an opportunity to truly reflect on who they are, and an opportunity for you to gauge where the class is regarding technical and creative ability.
Lesson 2: Contour Line Studies
Part 1: hand studies in glue and chalk.
Students begin to learn the importance of line–specifically contour line–in this two-part line lesson. You can start by discussing the definition and importance of contour lines, looking closely at the line that defines an object. Students learn and practice blind contour, partial blind contour, and contour line techniques.
Have your students begin by creating ten sketches of their hands in their sketchbooks, and then selecting one to recreate on a larger scale. They draw their hand in the contour on black paper with graphite. Students then add glue over their pencil lines, reiterating the contour lines through line quality. On day two, students look at the unique shapes created and fill the spaces with chalk pastel, leaving the glue line as the contour.
Want even more info about planning curriculum? Be sure to check out the AOE course Designing Your Art Curriculum . You’ll design your own comprehensive toolkit with all the necessary pieces to implement a curriculum that best fits your teaching, your students and their needs!
Part 2: Partner Portraits
Students can continue working on contour studies in their sketchbooks, including portraits. For this part of the project, students will draw sketches of the people sitting across from them, looking at the lines and shapes that make up the face.
Students draw a contour “partner portrait” on white drawing paper, incorporating negative space lines as well. Students go over their pencil lines with Sharpie pens (thick and thin), paying attention to the line quality needed to show variety.
Students color in their shapes using 50% crayon and 50% marker, making sure to keep the colors separated by the newly formed shapes.
Lesson 3: Creative Color Wheels
Everyone teaches the color wheel because– let’s face it–color is a vital element in nearly every artwork. However, I think it’s important to teach the color wheel creatively. In this project, students learn the color theory with a twist!
In my room, I introduce the lesson by discussing the importance of color in an artwork.
These are the color theory concepts I present to my students, although occasionally others come up through questions or discussions:
- Primary Colors
- Secondary Colors
- Tertiary Colors
- Neutral Colors
- Warm Colors
- Cool Colors
- Analogous Colors
- Complementary Colors
- Monochromatic Colors
Any materials students want to use to create their color wheel are fair game for this project. I have had students sew, make edible color wheels, models, make slushy drink color wheels, use mixed media, melted crayons, etc.… the possibilities are endless! Final artworks are presented to the class, with students explaining what was created and how they mixed their colors.
Lesson 4: Monochromatic or Color Scheme Painting
After working with color in their creative color wheels, students can move on to using that knowledge in a painting of their own design. They can create a monochromatic work (using their knowledge of value), or another color scheme (using their knowledge of color from the last project!). This gives them the freedom to be creative and the ability to apply what they have learned so far.
Lesson 5: Pattern Designs
This project is a great introduction to the importance of design in 2D art. In this project, students use line, shape, line quality, and repetition to create interesting patterns and surprising designs.
Students can create their own pattern, and their final work, by following these steps:
- First, have students create six thumbnail sketches and rotate the designs by 50% and 25% turns, seeing what happens with the lines, shapes, and designs that appear.
- Select the design that works the best and use it for the final piece.
- Repeat the design multiple times until it fills the page in all directions.
- Experiment with color schemes and choose the one that fits the design the best.
- Add color using Art Stix or colored pencils, choosing either varying values or opaque color.
Lesson 6: Triptych
In this project, students incorporate their direct observational skills, value skills, and color theory skills into an observational drawing triptych.
You can begin this lesson with a discussion about the importance of direct observation in art. Each student will choose a still life object to draw three times. As they work, they’ll learn how to measure and pay attention to positive and negative space to find the right proportions using line and shape. Each work is similar, but students are still able to make a variety of artistic choices to make their work unique. Students create three drawings and finish them in three different ways.
Lesson 7: Grid Drawing
This lesson begins with a discussion of the importance of value in an artwork. After creating a seven-tone value scale, students learn to grid and draw an image using those values. I have found it is best to have students work slowly and preferably upside down, so they are not stressed by having to draw a specific object. I remind them they are merely drawing lines, shapes, and adding values, and if they get those right, their object will appear. This is a simple technique that sets everyone up for success.
Final Assessment: Summative Assessment Book Making Lesson
This bookmaking lesson is a culmination of the lessons learned throughout the semester. It’s a wonderful form of authentic assessment. Students have three weeks to work on these books, and the results are nothing short of phenomenal. See the full description of how to create these books.
Visual Journals, Studio Days, and Critiques
Lessons are not the only part of creating a successful Intro to Art course. Students also need to learn how to work on their own, how to explore their ideas and creativity, and most importantly, how to present and talk about their work! That is why, throughout the semester, we work in visual journals, take time out for studio days, and consistently run classroom critiques.
Visual journals are prompt-based weekly sketchbook assignments that are graded each week. In my room, I also meet individually with students about their journals. This allows one-on-one time to see how the student is growing. Conversations about their direct observation drawing skills as well as their media manipulation and understanding of composition are all crucial for their artistic development.
Each assignment is based on an open-ended prompt. In addition, students must include three things: a direct observation drawing, collage or text, and a composition that successfully fills the space on the page.
Below is a list of prompts I like to use for weekly assignments:
- Who Am I?: Visually show me who you are! Remember to be creative!
- Observational Drawing: Look at something and draw it!
- Chair Drawing: Using contour line, high contrast, and positive/negative space draw a chair.
- Draw something of which you are proud.
- Draw a variety of kitchen items.
- Draw something using only contour lines creatively.
- Draw something in perspective.
- Invent an object.
- What’s in your closet?
- Draw something for which you are thankful.
- Draw a creative portrait.
- Free choice! Draw anything you want.
Students must have time to explore and manipulate various media, and the Intro to Art course is the perfect place for them to play ! Over the years, I have seen students learn so much from open studio days. They learn how to paint with markers and blend oil pastels . They learn how to explore the joys of watercolor and the frustrations of charcoal . Just giving them time to learn about and work with various media has a positive effect on their work. Students need time to explore because this is where learning happens!
Getting students comfortable enough to discuss their art and the art of their peers can be a challenge. There are many ways to do successful critiques , including one-on-one conferencing , daily reflections , and public presentations .
One strategy for Intro to Art students’ first critique is called “ 2 Glows and a Grow .” I like to have students set up their art on table easels while they are in process and take a quick walk around the room. Once they have observed everyone’s art, they have the opportunity to write two “Glows” (things that are working well) and a “Grow” (something that may need some work) on a sticky note. These sticky notes are then left on the art. I recommend each student write at least three. These notes provide everyone an opportunity to reflect and discuss the art being created in the room, and it reiterates important art vocabulary!
Over the years, I have seen Intro to Art students take all of this newfound knowledge and run with it. With prompt-based lessons and the freedom to explore, their art becomes a strong base in their portfolios from which to grow.
A strong Intro to Art course is truly the key to the success of courses that come after it. Each advanced course allows a bit more freedom allowing students to create some amazing work when they get to their AP Studio courses . So, consider what and how you teach your Intro to Art courses. You might be excited about the outcome!
If you would like to hear Debi discuss all of the ideas in this article in more depth, make sure you check out the Art Ed Radio podcast tomorrow! She will join host Tim Bogatz to talk about why Intro to Art is your most important course!
Do you think your Intro to Art course is the most important course you teach?
How do you teach your Intro to Art curriculum?
Magazine articles and podcasts are opinions of professional education contributors and do not necessarily represent the position of the Art of Education University (AOEU) or its academic offerings. Contributors use terms in the way they are most often talked about in the scope of their educational experiences.
Debi West is one of AOEU’s adjunct instructors and a former AOEU Writer and NBCT art educator. She loves sharing with others and enthusiastically stands behind her motto, “Together we ART better!”
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23 Common Introductory Assignments You'll Find in Architecture School
If you imagined you'd spend the first day of architecture school designing your dream home or imagining a skyscraper, you would be way off base. Depending on what school you attend, the flavor of your initial project will vary, but all will be designed to help develop your design-thinking and -making abilities.
The following are 23 common design prompts architecture school professors have given young minds entering the field of architecture, all of which have been recounted to me by current day architects. Some are brief while others, more lengthy prompts, but all are impactful for their ability to make one think and explore!
1. Paper and Sticks and more
Everyone is given a single sheet of a heavy stock paper, approximately 18 inches by 24 inches, and some balsa wood sticks with instructions to create curves using only those two items. After creating the paper form, everyone is asked to draw the curves as well as the negative space formed by the creations. This is the warm up exercise to get ready for the next critical step. “Go outside and find yourselves a nice twig (not too big) lying about on campus.” Once in possession of the twig, rotate it and draw the space formed as the twig rotates (not the twig itself but the actual volume of space formed). The next step is to make it three dimensional while limiting your model to two sources using no glue.
2. The Conversion
The prompt was to take a simple object and make it complex. Reportedly, one young student turned in a crumpled up piece of paper for the assignment!
3. Regenerate Your Thoughts
Design a "regeneration unit," another term for a bathroom. The exercise is intended to get students to rethink a common place.
4. Translating Anatomy
Draw five independent translations of your hand.
5. The Onion
We were called over to a large work table where the professor placed a sweet onion. The professor said something to the effect of, “I’ll be back in 20 minutes and we will discuss the onion and how it can teach you about architecture.” We stood around looking at it until someone cut it in half, giving us more to think about as we now explored the interior layers as well as the exterior. The professor was very excited when he returned to see we had cut the onion in half.
6. The Circle
Students are instructed to get into small groups of 5-6 and draw a series of concentric, freehand circles on a large piece of paper (6’ square). The first student begins by drawing a circle in graphite, about the size of a fist. The next student is meant to correct the imperfections of the first circle by drawing one around it, also in graphite (1” bar of soft graphite). This continues until the circle is about 4-5 ft. in diameter.
The exercise is meant to prompt discussion on the idea of circle. The project is simple in that everyone knows a circle, but most haven’t spent much time thinking about them. In just a few days, questions about the role of media, tools, drawing, ideas, geometry, history, and context arose and were returned to throughout the year.
7. The Walk & Sketch
With a 9 x 12 sketchbook and an HB pencil, we were instructed to walk for an hour through the campus and neighboring town. The catch was we needed to do our sketches while walking, never letting the pencil leave the paper. As we returned, we pinned up our sketches and had a lengthy discussion about each sketch and the patterns discovered in them.
8. The Tower
Instructions were to take 10 strips of paper, approximately 1” x 18” each, and a box of paper clips and construct a tower. No other items could be used.
9. The Cube Manipulation
This prompt is for a complex, multiple-day project involving the manipulation of two 4”x4” cubes to create one object. The assignment involves a two dimension (cruciform) pattern which is to be folded. The model was required to be watertight (no openings) and made of only white cardstock.
10. The Differential
We were asked to create a model of an object whose “differential was the resultant of a tetrahedron.”
11. Interpreting Art
The professor walked in with a box full of reproduced prints by great masters. Students selected a piece of art and made a square representation of it. You could use any medium you desired but it needed to be six by six. Upon completion, we were instructed to then develop a three dimensional representation of the 2-D square representation, in the form of a cube.
12. One Into Many
The assignment was to create a single unit and convert it into many that would then become a new unit.
13. The Key Drop
Upon entering the studio, the professor requested we empty our pockets onto the desk. One common item each person had was a set of keys. We were instructed to pick up our keys, raise them above our head, and release them. Each set of keys dropped creating their own unique patterns. We then had to explore the patterns created looking at the spaces between the cuts, shoulders and bows through sketching.
14. The Eraser Project
Using a pink eraser and sandpaper, create something architectural.
15. Copper Art
We were handed a tangled hunk of heavy gage copper wiring and asked to create something beautiful. No other materials would be permitted and you would have four hours to complete the task. You were limited to bending, cutting and twisting only.
16. Scoring & Cutting
We were given a sheet of paper and instructed to create depth by scoring, cutting or folding.
17. The Transformed Sketch
We were asked to make 10 sketches a day of everyday objects for about a week. Then, we were instructed to choose one sketch, abstract it, and create a 3D model of the abstraction. One student made an abstract 20oz coke bottle out of cardboard.
18. Conceptual Photography
We were assigned to read Louis Kahn’s “Between Silence and Light,” and then go out and try to photographically represent concepts within the book such as Order, Joy, Touch, Site, and Wonder.
19. The Non Box
We were given three days to respond to the question "when is a box not a box."
20. Music Meets Computers
The professor walks into the studio, presenting a box of computer cards and a bundle of piano wire and tells us to make something architectural.
21. Not Exactly Technical
Find an object and create a technical drawing of said object. One student chose an x-acto knife and another drew their hand.
We were all given an add/drop form which was used at the university to drop or add classes from your schedule for the semester. The professor instructed us to build a model both with the form and in response to it. We could not use any glue or tape. Joinery is key here in creating something worthy of discussion. If we were unable to complete the task we were asked to fill out the form and leave!
23. Brick Support
The assignment was to create a sloped platform with a flat top surface using the following three elements: chipboard, toothpicks and glue. The platform is required to support a brick.
Aric Gitomer Architect, LLC is a small, boutique architectural practice giving one on one attention to each individual client. Aric Gitomer, AIA principal has been creating solutions for over 30 years. He specializes in home renovation, new construction, additions and alterations.
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About the Author
Aric Gitomer Architect, LLC is a small, boutique residential architectural practice giving one on one attention to each homeowner. Aric Gitomer, AIA principal architect has been creating residential architectural solutions for over 30 years. He specializes in home renovation, residential design ...
I teach a class in the school of Entrepreneurship at Florida State University titled Beyond Innovation, Reimagining Everything.
I'm a registered Architect - some of my work and thinking is on my LinkedIn page.
I am currently the Director of the Campus Reimagined Initiative - CampusReimagined.fsu.edu
I really like your list of 23 introductory assignments and would like to have your permission to use this list (with a notation of you as the provider) in my learning related work. In my class, I'm really trying not to Instruct but to trigger the students to "think different" or, as I see it, to "See Different". I had these type of thought provoking exercises while in Architecture school at University of Florida and that teaching style is what I'm trying to follow.
In addition to using your list in class and for remote learning (my current format) I have a team working on collecting, and ultimately providing access, to what we are calling a collection of Tales for the budding innovators (I can share a few if you interested) and I would like to include parts of your list in my efforts.
let me know if I have your permission.
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Since the beginning of time, drawings have been a way to share ideas with others. Being able to describe your idea verbally is important, but drawings are what allow you to show other people what's in your imagination. Words can only translate an idea to someone else's mind—and that allows for a new interpretation of what that idea may look like. You don't want your ideas to get lost in translation!
Now, like many, you may think that you can't draw. But you don't have to be an artist to be able to draw. Although it might seem intimidating, drawing is all about starting with the basics, and like anything else in life—practice, practice, practice! The purpose of design/engineering drawing is to communicate your ideas to other people in the simplest form possible. Your drawings don't need to be elaborate or fancy. They just need to get your ideas across to others through simple shapes and symbols. Start your drawing training by practicing the simplest of shapes. In your design notebook, draw lines, curves, circles, rectangles, squares, triangles, etc. Don't just draw one of each shape—draw dozens! You will be amazed at how much faster you get at drawing these simple shapes and symbols.
Drawing example. Drawing of Stator winding machine by Richard M. Hess. Click image for full-screen version.
As silly as it may seem to practice drawing basic shapes—you are on your way to being able to draw everything that you see in your everyday life! You may not have noticed this before because you weren't looking, but all objects are made up of these basic shapes. Consider a house. To draw a house, you need a rectangle with a triangle above it. Draw windows and doors with more rectangles. Lines and curves allow you to add curtains, shutters, bricks, siding, etc. Basic shapes combine to make much more elaborate drawings.
Take your design notebook, and go look at the objects that surround you. Try to pull out the basic shapes within each object. Draw these basic shapes and then combine them with one another as you see them in real life. You will find that you are capable of drawing more complex objects.
Once you have spent time practicing simple doodles of everyday objects, you can begin trying more detailed drawings. When you add more detail, qualities like proportion become important for accurate drawings. To draw in proportion, consider how large certain aspects of your drawing are in comparison to others. A proportional drawing of house wouldn't have a door larger than the house itself!
For design/engineering drawings, it is always best to start drawing your ideas as thumbnails , small, doodle-like sketches of your ideas. During the ideation and brainstorm phase, you will have tons of ideas that you will want to sketch, so perfection is not important. You are sketching your ideas quickly and all in the same place (your design notebook) so that you can later go back and reference your ideas.
Once you have decided on a final design concept, go back and find the related sketches from your collection of thumbnails. Draw your final concept on a larger sheet of paper that you can use to present your idea to others. Combine the thumbnails that make up your final design. Be sure to add more detail to your final drawings, such as dials and knobs, all of the separate parts, color, texture, etc.
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Designing Grading Rubrics
Rubrics can help instructors communicate their expectations to students and assess student work fairly and efficiently. Rubrics can also provide students with informative feedback on their strengths and weaknesses, and prompt students to reflect on their own work. This page describes how to create and use a grading rubric.
How to Create a Grading Rubric 1
1. define the purpose of the assignment/assessment for which you are creating a rubric..
Consider the following:
- What exactly is the assigned task? Does it break down into a variety of different tasks? Are these tasks equally important? What are the learning objectives for this assignment/task? What do you want students to demonstrate in their completed assignments/performances?
- What might an exemplary student product/performance look like? How might you describe an acceptable student product/performance? How might you describe work that falls below expectations?
- What kind of feedback do you want to give students on their work/performance? Do you want/need to give them a grade? Do you want to give them a single overall grade? Do you want to give them detailed feedback on a variety of criteria? Do you want to give them specific feedback that will help them improve their future work?
2. Decide what kind of rubric you will use: a holistic rubric or an analytic rubric? Holistic and analytic rubrics use a combination of descriptive rating scales (e.g., weak, satisfactory, strong) and assessment criteria to guide the assessment process.
A holistic rubric uses rating scales that include the criteria. For example, Weak : thesis is unclear due to writing style, organization of ideas, and/or grammatical errors. Satisfactory : overall thesis is clear, writing style and organization mostly support the thesis. Strong : Introduction includes a thesis statement, writing style and organization offer ample evidence to support the overall thesis.
- Emphasis on what the learner can demonstrate (rather than what she cannot)
- Saves time by minimizing the number of decisions made
- Can be used consistently across raters, provided there has been training
- Does not provide specific feedback for improvement
- Can be difficult to choose a score when student work is at varying levels across the criteria
- Criteria cannot be weighted
An analytic rubric uses a rating scale to evaluate each criterion separately, forming a grid or table in which the rating scale is presented in the top row and each criterium is listed down the leftmost column.
- Provides feedback on areas of strength or weakness
- Each criterion can be weighted to reflect its relative importance
- More time consuming to create and use than a holistic rubric
- May not be used consistently across raters, unless extremely well defined
3. Define the criteria.
Ask yourself: what knowledge and skills are required for the assignment/assessment? Make a list of these, group and label them, and eliminate any that are not critical. The list should contain no more than 6-7 criteria, but need not include that many.
Helpful strategies for defining grading criteria:
- Review the learning objectives for the course; use the assignment prompt, existing grading checklists, peer response sheets, comments on previous work, past examples of student work, etc.
- Try describing A/B/C work
- Work with co-teachers/TAs
- Talk with colleagues
- Brainstorm and discuss with students
Consider the effectiveness of the criteria:
- Can they be observed and measured?
- Are they important and essential?
- Are they distinct from other criteria?
Revise the criteria as needed. Consider how you will weight them relative to each other.
4. Design the rating scale.
Most rating scales include 3-5 levels.
- Given what students are able to demonstrate in this assignment/assessment, what are the possible levels of achievement?
- Will you use numbers or descriptive labels for these levels?
- If you choose descriptive labels, what labels are most appropriate? Will you assign a number to those labels?
- In what order will you list these levels – from lowest to highest or vice versa?
5. Write descriptions for each level of the rating scale.
Create statements of expected performance at each level of the rubric. For an analytic rubric do this for each particular criterion of the rubric. These descriptions help students understand your expectations and their performance in regard to those expectations. Well-written descriptions:
- describe observable and measurable behavior.
- use parallel language across the scale.
- indicate the degree to which the standards are met.
6. Create your rubric.
Develop the criteria, rating scale and descriptions for each level of the rating scale into a rubric. Space permitting, include the assignment at the top of the rubric. For reading and grading ease, limit the rubric to a single page, if possible. Consider the effectiveness of your rubric and revise accordingly.
- Get collegial feedback.
- Ask your TA for feedback.
- Ask your students for feedback.
- Try it out on a sample of student work.
After you use the rubric, analyze the results and consider its effectiveness, then revise accordingly.
How to Use a Grading Rubric
In addition to using the rubric to grade an assignment/assessment, you may wish to:
- distribute the rubric with the assignment.
- ask students to use the rubric to evaluate their own work.
- ask students to use the rubric for peer review.
1 This webpage draws heavily from Assessment: What is a Rubric? from DePaul University’s Office for Teaching, Learning and Assessment; and Dannelle D. Stevens & Antonia J. Levi, An Introduction to Rubrics (Sterling, VA: Stylus, 2005), which is available as an online Brown Library resource and in the Center’s library.
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- Designing Effective Writing Assignments
One of the best ways for students to determine what they know, think, and believe about a given subject is to write about it. To support students in their writing, it is important to provide them with a meaningful writing task, one that has an authentic purpose, clear guidelines, and engages students in their learning. In this section, you can read about key principles of assignment design, review examples of effective writing assignments, and use a checklist to guide your own designs. You can also consult with a Writing Across the Curriculum Program team member . We’re happy to think with you about your writing assignment, whether it is in the inkling stage or undergoing a few minor tweaks.
What makes an assignment effective?
A good deal of educational research points to the benefits of writing assignments that exhibit the following features:
Meaningful tasks. A task is given meaning by its relevance to and alignment with the learning aims in the course. What counts as meaningful in one course context might not be meaningful in another. As Eodice, Geller, and Lerner (2016) have shown, meaningful writing assignments do occur across all disciplines and they are typically ones that “offer students opportunities to engage with instructors, peers, and texts and are relevant to past experiences and passions as well as to future aspirations and identities.”
Maximized learning time. As Linda Suskie argues, effectiveness is determined by the “learning payoff,” not by size of the assignment. Will students learn four times as much on an assignment that takes 20 hours outside of class than one that takes 5? Longer research-based assignments and elaborate class activities (mock conferences, debates, poster sessions, etc.) can greatly maximize learning, but there must be an appropriate level of writing and learning time built into the task. Term papers are much more effective when students have time to draft and revise stages of the assignment, rather than turning in one final product at the end.
Logical sequencing. A writing task that includes discrete stages (research, drafting, review, revising, etc.) is more likely to be an effective learning experience than one that only specifies the final product. Furthermore, these stages are more effective when they are scaffolded so simpler tasks precede more complex tasks. For example, a well-sequenced 10-12 page essay assignment might involve discrete segments where students generate a central inquiry question, draft and workshop a thesis statement, produce a first draft of the essay, give and receive feedback on drafts, and submit a revision. Read more about sequencing assignments .
Clear criteria will help students connect an assignment’s relevance to larger scale course outcomes. The literature on assignment design strongly encourages instructors to make the grading criteria explicit to students before the assignment is collected and assessed. A grading scheme or rubric that is handed out along with the assignment can provide students with a clear understanding of the weighted expectations and, thus help them decide what to focus on in the assignment. It becomes a teaching tool, not just an assessment tool.
Forward-thinking activities more than backward-thinking activities. Forward-thinking activities and assignments ask students to apply their learning rather than simply repeat it. The orientation of many writing prompts is often backward, asking students to show they learned X, Y, and Z. As L. Dee Fink (2013) points out, forward-thinking assignments and activities look ahead to what students will be able to do in the future having learned about X, Y, and Z. Such assignments often utilize real-world and scenario-based problems, requiring students to apply their learning to a new situation. For Grant Wiggins (1998) , questions, problems, tests, and assignments that are forward-thinking often:
- Require judgment and innovation. Students have to use knowledge and skills to solve unstructured problems, not just plug in a routine.
- Ask students to do the subject. Beyond recitation and replication, these tasks require students to carry out explorations, inquiry, and work within specific disciplines.
- Replicate workplace and civic contexts. These tasks provide specific constraints, purposes, and audiences that students will face in work and societal contexts.
- Involve a repertoire of skills and abilities rather than the isolation of individual skills.
Feel free to use this assignment checklist , which draws on the principles and research described on this page.
- African American & African Studies
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- Art History
- Carlson School of Management
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- Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering
- College of Biological Sciences
- Communication Studies
- Computer Science & Engineering
- Construction Management
- Curriculum and Instruction
- Dental Hygiene
- Apparel Design
- Graphic Design
- Product Design
- Retail Merchandising
- Earth Sciences
- Electrical and Computer Engineering
- Environmental Sciences, Policy and Management
- Family Social Science
- Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology
- Food Science and Nutrition
- Geography, Environment and Society
- German, Nordic, Slavic & Dutch
- Health Services Management
- Horticultural Science
- Hubbard School of Journalism and Mass Communication
- Industrial and Systems Engineering
- Information Technology Infrastructure
- Mechanical Engineering
- Medical Laboratory Sciences
- Mortuary Science
- Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development
- Political Science
- School of Architecture
- School of Kinesiology
- School of Public Health
- Spanish and Portuguese Studies
- Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences
- Theatre Arts & Dance
- Youth Studies
- New Enrollments for Departments and Programs
- Legacy Program for Continuing Units
- Writing in Your Course Context
- Syllabus Matters
- Writing Assignment Checklist
- Scaffolding and Sequencing Writing Assignments
- Informal, Exploratory Writing Activities
- 5-Minute Revision Workshops
- Reflective Memos
- Conducting In-Class Writing Activities: Notes on Procedures
- Now what? Responding to Informal Writing
- Teaching Writing with Quantitative Data
- Commenting on Student Writing
- Supporting Multilingual Learners
- Teaching with Effective Models of Writing
- Peer Response Protocols and Procedures
- Using Reflective Writing to Deepen Student Learning
- Conferencing with Student Writers
- Designing Inclusive Writing Assigments
- Addressing a Range of Writing Abilities in Your Courses
- Effective Grading Strategies
- Designing and Using Rubrics
- Running a Grade-Norming Session
- Working with Teaching Assistants
- Managing the Paper Load
- Teaching Writing with Sources
- Preventing Plagiarism
- Grammar Matters
- What do we mean by "writing"?
- How can I teach writing effectively in an online course?
- What are the attributes of a "writing-intensive" course at the University of Minnesota?
- Short Course: Teaching with Writing Online
- Five-Day Faculty Seminar
- Past Summer Hunker Participants
- Resources for Scholarly Writers
- Consultation Request
- Faculty Writing Groups
- Further Writing Resources
Select 3 areas to "magnify" & draw smaller, partial up-close drawings of those 3 areas including all the details. ADD FULL SHADING Possible Medium: watercolor, watercolor pencil, or drawing pencils Sketch 3: Morphing Transformation: Choose 2 two objects (one animal & one man made) to slowly morph into each other.
Drawing Designs in Detail Hands-on Activity Drawing Designs in Detail Quick Look Partial design process Grade Level: 10 (9 - 12) Time Required: 45 minutes Group Size: 1 Subject Areas: Summary Students practice creating rudimentary detail drawings.
1. Choose a simple object to draw. This can be just about anything you've got lying around: a cup of coffee, a pair of scissors, or a desk chair should do nicely. 2. Instead of trying to draw the object itself, draw the negative space that surrounds the object. Define the shape with contoured fields of color rather than lines. 3.
Assignments for beginners. At the university level, the common 1st-year assignments for Graphic Design students are: Redrawing famous logos on the computer as detailed and accurate as possible.; Using black and white to design logos, posters, book covers, invitations, and other media or you creating these using the most innovative colors possible.
72 Assignments is intended as a practical source book for teachers, students and anyone curious to try. We have selected three assignments from the project that you can download and that we invite you to respond to. 1. Heart Drawing Exercise, by Chloe Briggs (Head of Foundation, PCA) 2.
Discussion: Homework writing assignment - Vitruvius Demonstration: Introduction to drafting Exercise: Using the architectural scale: drawing a simple shape at 1/16, 1/8, ¼, ½ scales. Lab: 1. Sketch the four sides of a chosen object in the classroom. Each sketch should resemble its proportions. 2.
Design a postage stamp displaying one or more Principles of Design. Use line, shape, color rather than create images of people, pets or places. Make a minimum of 12 thumbnails, 4 roughs and 1 final. Use whatever materials you have. Print out worksheets below, draw out the stamps on a piece of paper, use app to create them digitally or grab a ...
Nov 16, 2022 - Explore Glenda Bittner's board "drawing assignment ideas", followed by 321 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about art lessons, teaching art, drawings.
It further aids in the proper assignment of new applications to the appropriate class, subclass, and patent examiner, as well as the proper classification of the patent upon allowance of the application. ... The design drawing or photograph must comply with the disclosure requirements of 35 U.S.C. 112, first paragraph. To meet the requirements ...
Q1) Briefly describe the following drawing tools. (4mks) i) Drawing set squares. ii) Tee-square Q2) State two factors that should be observed when using Drawing compasses. (4mks) i) ii) Q3) State FOUR points that should be observed concerning care of drawing instruments. (4mks) i) ii) iii)
An authentic assessment provides opportunities for students to practice, consult resources, learn from feedback, and refine their performances and products accordingly (Wiggins 1990, 1998, 2014). Authentic assignments ask students to "do" the subject with an audience in mind and apply their learning in a new situation.
All assignments must be completed on or before the due date. 2. Unfinished artwork is graded as such. 3. If you are absent, it is your responsibility to make up all work. You can sign out art supplies if needed. 4. If your project requires extra time to be completed, you have to make arrangements with me prior the due date.
Make three drawings (your choice of subject) using materials with which you are not familiar. Draw a piece of patterned fabric with folds. Draw a bridge and all of its details. Creativity/Originality Draw yourself as an original superhero. Make a drawing that looks sticky. Draw a mysterious doorway or staircase. Draw an empty room.
Jun 27, 2022 - Explore Manju Aneja's board "Assignment sheets design" on Pinterest. See more ideas about page borders design, border design, colorful borders design. ... Drawings With Meaning. Front Page Design. Framed Flower Art. 7th Grade Art. Paper Art Design. Book Cover Page Design. Book Cover Diy. Frame Border Design.
First, have students create six thumbnail sketches and rotate the designs by 50% and 25% turns, seeing what happens with the lines, shapes, and designs that appear. Select the design that works the best and use it for the final piece. Repeat the design multiple times until it fills the page in all directions.
The assignment was to create a sloped platform with a flat top surface using the following three elements: chipboard, toothpicks and glue. The platform is required to support a brick. Aric Gitomer Architect, LLC is a small, boutique architectural practice giving one on one attention to each individual client.
For design/engineering drawings, it is always best to start drawing your ideas as thumbnails, small, doodle-like sketches of your ideas. During the ideation and brainstorm phase, you will have tons of ideas that you will want to sketch, so perfection is not important. You are sketching your ideas quickly and all in the same place (your design ...
Create your rubric. Develop the criteria, rating scale and descriptions for each level of the rating scale into a rubric. Space permitting, include the assignment at the top of the rubric. For reading and grading ease, limit the rubric to a single page, if possible. Consider the effectiveness of your rubric and revise accordingly.
(Re)Designing a Writing Assignment: 8 Suggestions Align the assignment with core learning objectives for your course. Ideally, the assignment will provide students with an opportunity to enact concepts they've been exposed to in reading, discussion, and/or lecture. Be explicit about the rhetorical situation for the assignment.