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Case Study Research Paper: A Step-By-Step Guide
Case study research is a useful tool for investing specific situations and trends in different disciplines. Many researchers consider this study method useful when testing theoretical models and applying them in real-world settings. An example of case study research is when an anthropologist was to live among a tribe in a remote location. Their observations may not produce quantitative data. However, they can also be useful in a scientific field.
Case study research design is mostly used in educational, social, business, and clinical research. This research method involves an up-close, detailed, and in-depth examination of a specific case. The reputation of this research method has been growing over the years as an effective methodology for investigating and understanding complex real-world issues.
Case study research design and methods have developed substantially through their applications in different disciplines. Progress and change have stemmed from the parallel influences of historical approaches to the preferences, interpretations, and perspectives of individual researchers.
What is Case Study Research?
Perhaps, you’ve been asked to do a case study. Maybe you’re asking, what is a case study research? That’s because this is the first time you have been asked to do one.
Well, case study definition in research means a detailed study of a particular subject. This subject can be a person, a place, a group, an organization, a phenomenon, or an event. The case study is a research method in which qualitative methods are involved in the design. However, quantitative methods can be used in some cases.
When is Case Study Research Used?
Our paper writers claim that this research method is ideal for researchers that want to compare, describe, understand, and evaluate various aspects of a problem. Essentially, it is used when trying to gain contextual, concrete, and in-depth knowledge of a specific subject in a real-world setting. It enables a person to explore key meanings, characteristics, and implications of a case.
Perhaps, to understand the application of this study method better, it’s important to ask, what is a case study in research? Well, a case study is a particular subject or situation to be studied. It can also be defined as the unit to be analyzed. When asked to define case study research, a student can give an example of a specific patient treated by a doctor. In business, a case study example can be the strategy of a particular firm.
Case study research methodology can be used when writing a dissertation or thesis. That’s because they make a project manageable and focused when they do not have resources or time for large-scale research. A student can use a single case study when exploring a subject in detail or conduct several case studies to illuminate and compare different aspects of a research problem.
Examples of Case Study Research Questions
Perhaps, you’re wondering about research questions that can be answered using a case study research method. Well, there are many situations where a person can research case study based on the problem they want to solve. Here are examples of research questions for case studies:
- How are narratives about history used by populist politicians to gain support?
- How can active learning strategies be implemented by teachers in mixed-level classrooms?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of using wind farms in rural areas?
- How do viral marketing strategies change the relationship between consumers and companies?
- How does the gig economy work differ by race, age, and gender?
These case study research questions examples can provide useful information when used properly in case studies. Nevertheless, students should take the time to learn what they are expected to do when doing their research using case studies.
How to Write a Case Study Research Paper
Writing a case study is a process with several steps. But, a case study qualitative research can even be about an examination of the specific goal or challenge of a business or a person and how they accomplished or overcome it. The focus and length of a case study can vary greatly depending on the details that concern the initial problem and the applied solution.
Professionally, case studies focus on telling the story of successful partnerships in businesses. Such a partnership can involve a client and a vendor. A case study can also be a brief snapshot of the health of a client since they start working with a doctor. It can also be a success story of the growth of a client.
Nevertheless, a case study uses metrics that have been agreed up by the involved parties. For instance, success can be highlighted or measured using the number of leads generated by the client, revenue gained, or customers closed. These are important key performance indicators of the services offered by a company in action. Nevertheless, this research is a process with several steps to follow. Here’s how to do case study research step-by-step:
- Determine the objective of the case study. In the corporate world, case studies focus on demonstrating services’ value. However, a case study can focus on the objectives of different clients. Therefore, the first step in the process of writing a case study research paper should be to determine the goal or objective of the study subject. In simple terms, this is what the client will have done by the end of this piece. This can be complying with regulations, lowering the costs of doing business, or becoming more profitable.
- Establish the medium of your case study. This step entails determining the medium to use when creating the case study. Simply put, this is how you want to tell the story. For instance, you can use an infographic or different media channels to promote the final piece. The used medium is the reason why there are different types of case study research. They include video case study, infographic case study, written case study, and podcast case study.
- Find the right candidate for your case study. This entails seeking permission, planning, and getting quotes. You must also learn more about the subject of your research before you start writing. Contact the subject of your case study before you start researching and writing about them.
- Draft a release form and send it to your subject. After the candidate approves your request to research and write about them. Create and send a release form. This tells the subject more about the information you need from them. Make sure that you are asking your case study candidate the right questions.
- Write and format your case study. Analyze the information you get from the candidate and research further. Once you have all the necessary information, write your case study research paper. Include a title, subtitle, information about the subject, challenges and objectives, the implemented solution, and how it helped, as well as, results, supporting quotes and visuals, plans, and a call to action.
- Publish and then promote the case study. If you did a video case study you can publish it on YouTube and promote it on other platforms. If you did an infographic case study, you can publish it on Pinterest and promote it on a blog.
A case study is not exciting content to produce. However, it’s an effective way to generate useful information. When done properly, a case study can produce information that can be used to enhance the performance of a business or organization. Follow our blog and learn how to craft a research paper abstract .
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How To Write a Case Study Research Paper (Introduction-End)|Outline & Structure
- July 6, 2022
How to write a case study research paper when you have no glue what is it? Whether you are history, philosophy, sociology or a science student, a case study is another type of assignment you can faced with. In order to help you, our case study writing service came up with a comprehensive on how to write a case study research paper with a case study research paper example included.
Let’s Drive in !
What is a Case Study?
A case study is a research method that is often used to study a person, a situation, or a group of people. Case studies are often useful in studying a phenomenon that can’t be analyzed by quantitative methods. Case studies are thus qualitative in most cases. They are effective in comparing, evaluating, and the description of different parts of a problem. These studies are often used in social sciences, medicine, and history.
There is a difference between a case study and a research paper that students can take note of. A case study is shorter than a normal research paper. Case studies are often 500 words to 900 words at most whereas a research paper is longer than that. And whereas a research paper brings attention to a particular problem in society or a field, a case study is an in-depth study of a particular case to gain concrete knowledge of that particular subject.
Case study research usually involves storytelling and the structure is very similar to that of a story with the main character whose problem you are trying to solve. You can use the elements of great storytelling in this type of paper; start with an introduction, a rising action and then a transformation stage of your character, a falling action stage, and finally conclude your story.
Types of Case Study Research
You can be tasked to write a case study in any of these fields. It is important to know what type of case study you have been assigned before embarking on the writing process.
Historical case studies; are common types of case studies that focus on various historical events that happened during a certain period and in comparison to today’s events. A good historical case study could be racism in America in the 1900s.
Problem-oriented case studies; this is another common type of case study that tries to solve a theoretical problem. In this type of case study, you are required to put yourself in a situation and examine it thoroughly. A good example of a problem-oriented case study is “homelessness during the covid-19 pandemic period”.
Cumulative/ multiple/ collective case study; are common case studies in business that collects data and offer comparisons between products to tell clients the value of a product in different nations.
Critical case studies; are the type of case study that investigates why a situation exists, it touches on the causes and effects of a case e.g why careers like engineering remain gender-stereotyped.
Illustrative/ instrumental case studies; these types of case studies investigate particular cases which have specific outcomes and the lessons from that. A good example would be “the effect of music therapy on autistic children”.
A case Study Research Paper Draft
Before starting the writing process, you can benefit from creating a rough draft that shall guide your writing. A draft will help you become creative during the writing process of your paper. You can write down various angles, ideas, and directions to use in your writing before deciding on one.
The Format of a Case Study Research Paper
Your case study research paper shall contain 8 or more sections namely;
- The Introduction/the executive summary
This part tells your readers what case you shall be examining. Look at it as an overview of the field of study you decided to research. It shall also contain a thesis statement which is a summary of the results of your observation.
- Literary Review/ Background information
In this part of your paper, you shall note down the relevant facts about the case you are studying.
- Findings/case evaluation section
At this point of your essay, you shall focus on the parts of the case you want to study and the findings you have come up with.
- Proposed Solutions/ Implementations/ Recommendations
In this part of the essay, discuss the solutions you have for your case and why you have chosen to use the particular solutions. Your solutions need to be very practical and applicable. You can even include evidence that your proposed solutions can work.
- The conclusion
This is a summary of the recommendations and case evaluation points. You shall evaluate the proposed solutions, talk about the best solution or strategy you have selected as the main tool to solving the problem and justify why.
- The Implementation
At this section of the essay, you shall tell your readers how you will put the strategy into use.
- References/ Bibliography
This is simply a list of sources you have cited in your case study. The educational institutions require one to cite their work in MLA, APA, or Harvard.
This is where you include the graphs, images, and notes. All the subsidiary materials shall go here.
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A case Study Research Paper Outline
Your case study research paper shall guide your writing and make sure you satisfy the various sections of a case study research paper. Before you start writing, conduct proper research using reliable sources of information such as databases, Google scholar, and research papers. You can find key points from the abstract and summary of these documents. After that, create your thesis statement which shall guide your writing. The outline shall be as follows;
- The Title Page
In this part of the research paper, you shall state;
- Your case study research title,
- Your name, your supervisor or the Instructor’s name; and the
- Course you are studying
- Introduction/Executive Summary
This will be a simple paragraph stating an overview of the case study topic, the thesis, and the key findings.
- Main Body Paragraphs
You will handle this section in 3 or more paragraphs. And they shall;
You shall have the literature review of past research in this section. The background information, the methods and findings you have come up with, and the discussions and solutions from those findings. You will capture that in the body paragraphs.
While concluding your case study, you will be required to;
- Paraphrase the thesis or offer an answer to it.
- Summarize the case study in a few words. And offer a few recommendations for future studies.
- Reference/works Cited section
- List all the academic sources you have used in this section.
Writing : How to Write a Case Study Research Paper
Your case study research paper will contain five main sections which shall each capture unique information about the case study you are investigating. An in-depth look at each section shall and what they will all contain is as follows;
- The Executive Summary/Introduction
You want to hook the audience at this point by explaining compellingly the question you shall be handling in the case study research. You will offer background information on your case study field and relate that to the particular case you have decided to study. Tell your reader why the particular topic is of importance and adds to knowledge on the field of study you are investigating. Also, give a summary of the past literature and case studies on which you are going to base your findings. You will finish this part of the essay by stating how useful that case study will be in many years to come and give a convincing thesis statement .
- The Literature Review/Background Information
This is a list of content you have studied on the chosen topic. The literature shall expand your understanding of the subject matter and describe key theories in your topic of study. This is a significant part of the case study because it shows your readers how far you have gone to discover more about your topic of study. For credible literature, use the library.
- The Findings/Methods
You can explain to your audience why you chose a particular topic and how it is relevant to the field of study. State the research methods you used while bearing in mind that case study data collection procedures are usually qualitative. You can use interviews, online surveys, observation, etc to gather data.
- Discussion/ Solutions
You shall revisit your thesis in this part of the essay and then make a correlation based on what you have discovered from your research. You link the thesis with the findings and discuss whether the findings are relevant. You can explore how close your findings are to past case studies or whether they are contradictory. Think of how useful your findings are to the present understanding of the subject area. Does it add to knowledge?
Summarize your findings and state how relevant the case study findings are. You shall restate your thesis and confirm it with your findings. You can also give a brief of the other case studies you considered and how future research topics can use the findings to further explore the topic of study.
Post-Writing Guide For a Case Study Research Paper
After delivering your content, you have to check the proper formatting according to the instructions of the instructor. Proofread and edit your work to remove the style issues. Read through your work again and make sure it flows and meets standards. Editing cleans your paper and makes it clean for submission.
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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Assignments
- Annotated Bibliography
- Analyzing a Scholarly Journal Article
- Group Presentations
- Dealing with Nervousness
- Using Visual Aids
- Grading Someone Else's Paper
- Types of Structured Group Activities
- Group Project Survival Skills
- Leading a Class Discussion
- Multiple Book Review Essay
- Reviewing Collected Works
- Writing a Case Analysis Paper
- Writing a Case Study
- About Informed Consent
- Writing Field Notes
- Writing a Policy Memo
- Writing a Reflective Paper
- Writing a Research Proposal
A case study research paper examines a person, place, event, condition, phenomenon, or other type of subject of analysis in order to extrapolate key themes and results that help predict future trends, illuminate previously hidden issues that can be applied to practice, and/or provide a means for understanding an important research problem with greater clarity. A case study research paper usually examines a single subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a comparative investigation that shows relationships between two or more subjects. The methods used to study a case can rest within a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method investigative paradigm.
Case Studies. [email protected] Colorado State University; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010 ; “What is a Case Study?” In Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London: SAGE, 2010.
How to Approach Writing a Case Study Research Paper
General information about how to choose a topic to investigate can be found under the " Choosing a Research Problem " tab in the Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper writing guide. Review this page because it may help you identify a subject of analysis that can be investigated using a case study design.
However, identifying a case to investigate involves more than choosing the research problem . A case study encompasses a problem contextualized around the application of in-depth analysis, interpretation, and discussion, often resulting in specific recommendations for action or for improving existing conditions. As Seawright and Gerring note, practical considerations such as time and access to information can influence case selection, but these issues should not be the sole factors used in describing the methodological justification for identifying a particular case to study. Given this, selecting a case includes considering the following:
- The case represents an unusual or atypical example of a research problem that requires more in-depth analysis? Cases often represent a topic that rests on the fringes of prior investigations because the case may provide new ways of understanding the research problem. For example, if the research problem is to identify strategies to improve policies that support girl's access to secondary education in predominantly Muslim nations, you could consider using Azerbaijan as a case study rather than selecting a more obvious nation in the Middle East. Doing so may reveal important new insights into recommending how governments in other predominantly Muslim nations can formulate policies that support improved access to education for girls.
- The case provides important insight or illuminate a previously hidden problem? In-depth analysis of a case can be based on the hypothesis that the case study will reveal trends or issues that have not been exposed in prior research or will reveal new and important implications for practice. For example, anecdotal evidence may suggest drug use among homeless veterans is related to their patterns of travel throughout the day. Assuming prior studies have not looked at individual travel choices as a way to study access to illicit drug use, a case study that observes a homeless veteran could reveal how issues of personal mobility choices facilitate regular access to illicit drugs. Note that it is important to conduct a thorough literature review to ensure that your assumption about the need to reveal new insights or previously hidden problems is valid and evidence-based.
- The case challenges and offers a counter-point to prevailing assumptions? Over time, research on any given topic can fall into a trap of developing assumptions based on outdated studies that are still applied to new or changing conditions or the idea that something should simply be accepted as "common sense," even though the issue has not been thoroughly tested in current practice. A case study analysis may offer an opportunity to gather evidence that challenges prevailing assumptions about a research problem and provide a new set of recommendations applied to practice that have not been tested previously. For example, perhaps there has been a long practice among scholars to apply a particular theory in explaining the relationship between two subjects of analysis. Your case could challenge this assumption by applying an innovative theoretical framework [perhaps borrowed from another discipline] to explore whether this approach offers new ways of understanding the research problem. Taking a contrarian stance is one of the most important ways that new knowledge and understanding develops from existing literature.
- The case provides an opportunity to pursue action leading to the resolution of a problem? Another way to think about choosing a case to study is to consider how the results from investigating a particular case may result in findings that reveal ways in which to resolve an existing or emerging problem. For example, studying the case of an unforeseen incident, such as a fatal accident at a railroad crossing, can reveal hidden issues that could be applied to preventative measures that contribute to reducing the chance of accidents in the future. In this example, a case study investigating the accident could lead to a better understanding of where to strategically locate additional signals at other railroad crossings so as to better warn drivers of an approaching train, particularly when visibility is hindered by heavy rain, fog, or at night.
- The case offers a new direction in future research? A case study can be used as a tool for an exploratory investigation that highlights the need for further research about the problem. A case can be used when there are few studies that help predict an outcome or that establish a clear understanding about how best to proceed in addressing a problem. For example, after conducting a thorough literature review [very important!], you discover that little research exists showing the ways in which women contribute to promoting water conservation in rural communities of east central Africa. A case study of how women contribute to saving water in a rural village of Uganda can lay the foundation for understanding the need for more thorough research that documents how women in their roles as cooks and family caregivers think about water as a valuable resource within their community. This example of a case study could also point to the need for scholars to build new theoretical frameworks around the topic [e.g., applying feminist theories of work and family to the issue of water conservation].
Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. “Building Theories from Case Study Research.” Academy of Management Review 14 (October 1989): 532-550; Emmel, Nick. Sampling and Choosing Cases in Qualitative Research: A Realist Approach . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013; Gerring, John. “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?” American Political Science Review 98 (May 2004): 341-354; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Seawright, Jason and John Gerring. "Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research." Political Research Quarterly 61 (June 2008): 294-308.
Structure and Writing Style
The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. In applied social sciences disciplines [e.g., education, social work, public administration, etc.], case studies may also be used to reveal best practices, highlight key programs, or investigate interesting aspects of professional work.
In general, the structure of a case study research paper is not all that different from a standard college-level research paper. However, there are subtle differences you should be aware of. Here are the key elements to organizing and writing a case study research paper.
As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain the scope and purpose of your study . The introduction to a case study research paper, however, should not only describe the research problem and its significance, but you should also succinctly describe why the case is being used and how it relates to addressing the problem. The two elements should be linked. With this in mind, a good introduction answers these four questions:
- What is being studied? Describe the research problem and describe the subject of analysis [the case] you have chosen to address the problem. Explain how they are linked and what elements of the case will help to expand knowledge and understanding about the problem.
- Why is this topic important to investigate? Describe the significance of the research problem and state why a case study design and the subject of analysis that the paper is designed around is appropriate in addressing the problem.
- What did we know about this topic before I did this study? Provide background that helps lead the reader into the more in-depth literature review to follow. If applicable, summarize prior case study research applied to the research problem and why it fails to adequately address the problem. Describe why your case will be useful. If no prior case studies have been used to address the research problem, explain why you have selected this subject of analysis.
- How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding? Explain why your case study will be suitable in helping to expand knowledge and understanding about the research problem.
Each of these questions should be addressed in no more than a few paragraphs. Exceptions to this can be when you are addressing a complex research problem or subject of analysis that requires more in-depth background information.
II. Literature Review
The literature review for a case study research paper is generally structured the same as it is for any college-level research paper. The difference, however, is that the literature review is focused on providing background information and enabling historical interpretation of the subject of analysis in relation to the research problem the case is intended to address . This includes synthesizing studies that help to:
- Place relevant works in the context of their contribution to understanding the case study being investigated . This would involve summarizing studies that have used a similar subject of analysis to investigate the research problem. If there is literature using the same or a very similar case to study, you need to explain why duplicating past research is important [e.g., conditions have changed; prior studies were conducted long ago, etc.].
- Describe the relationship each work has to the others under consideration that informs the reader why this case is applicable . Your literature review should include a description of any works that support using the case to investigate the research problem and the underlying research questions.
- Identify new ways to interpret prior research using the case study . If applicable, review any research that has examined the research problem using a different research design. Explain how your use of a case study design may reveal new knowledge or a new perspective or that can redirect research in an important new direction.
- Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies . This refers to synthesizing any literature that points to unresolved issues of concern about the research problem and describing how the subject of analysis that forms the case study can help resolve these existing contradictions.
- Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research . Your review should examine any literature that lays a foundation for understanding why your case study design and the subject of analysis around which you have designed your study may reveal a new way of approaching the research problem or offer a perspective that points to the need for additional research.
- Expose any gaps that exist in the literature that the case study could help to fill . Summarize any literature that not only shows how your subject of analysis contributes to understanding the research problem, but how your case contributes to a new way of understanding the problem that prior research has failed to do.
- Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important!] . Collectively, your literature review should always place your case study within the larger domain of prior research about the problem. The overarching purpose of reviewing pertinent literature in a case study paper is to demonstrate that you have thoroughly identified and synthesized prior studies in relation to explaining the relevance of the case in addressing the research problem.
In this section, you explain why you selected a particular case [i.e., subject of analysis] and the strategy you used to identify and ultimately decide that your case was appropriate in addressing the research problem. The way you describe the methods used varies depending on the type of subject of analysis that constitutes your case study.
If your subject of analysis is an incident or event . In the social and behavioral sciences, the event or incident that represents the case to be studied is usually bounded by time and place, with a clear beginning and end and with an identifiable location or position relative to its surroundings. The subject of analysis can be a rare or critical event or it can focus on a typical or regular event. The purpose of studying a rare event is to illuminate new ways of thinking about the broader research problem or to test a hypothesis. Critical incident case studies must describe the method by which you identified the event and explain the process by which you determined the validity of this case to inform broader perspectives about the research problem or to reveal new findings. However, the event does not have to be a rare or uniquely significant to support new thinking about the research problem or to challenge an existing hypothesis. For example, Walo, Bull, and Breen conducted a case study to identify and evaluate the direct and indirect economic benefits and costs of a local sports event in the City of Lismore, New South Wales, Australia. The purpose of their study was to provide new insights from measuring the impact of a typical local sports event that prior studies could not measure well because they focused on large "mega-events." Whether the event is rare or not, the methods section should include an explanation of the following characteristics of the event: a) when did it take place; b) what were the underlying circumstances leading to the event; and, c) what were the consequences of the event in relation to the research problem.
If your subject of analysis is a person. Explain why you selected this particular individual to be studied and describe what experiences they have had that provide an opportunity to advance new understandings about the research problem. Mention any background about this person which might help the reader understand the significance of their experiences that make them worthy of study. This includes describing the relationships this person has had with other people, institutions, and/or events that support using them as the subject for a case study research paper. It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from others and to succinctly explain how the person relates to examining the research problem [e.g., why is one politician in a particular local election used to show an increase in voter turnout from any other candidate running in the election]. Note that these issues apply to a specific group of people used as a case study unit of analysis [e.g., a classroom of students].
If your subject of analysis is a place. In general, a case study that investigates a place suggests a subject of analysis that is unique or special in some way and that this uniqueness can be used to build new understanding or knowledge about the research problem. A case study of a place must not only describe its various attributes relevant to the research problem [e.g., physical, social, historical, cultural, economic, political], but you must state the method by which you determined that this place will illuminate new understandings about the research problem. It is also important to articulate why a particular place as the case for study is being used if similar places also exist [i.e., if you are studying patterns of homeless encampments of veterans in open spaces, explain why you are studying Echo Park in Los Angeles rather than Griffith Park?]. If applicable, describe what type of human activity involving this place makes it a good choice to study [e.g., prior research suggests Echo Park has more homeless veterans].
If your subject of analysis is a phenomenon. A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. In this sense, a phenomenon that forms your subject of analysis can encompass anything that can be observed or presumed to exist but is not fully understood. In the social and behavioral sciences, the case usually focuses on human interaction within a complex physical, social, economic, cultural, or political system. For example, the phenomenon could be the observation that many vehicles used by ISIS fighters are small trucks with English language advertisements on them. The research problem could be that ISIS fighters are difficult to combat because they are highly mobile. The research questions could be how and by what means are these vehicles used by ISIS being supplied to the militants and how might supply lines to these vehicles be cut off? How might knowing the suppliers of these trucks reveal larger networks of collaborators and financial support? A case study of a phenomenon most often encompasses an in-depth analysis of a cause and effect that is grounded in an interactive relationship between people and their environment in some way.
NOTE: The choice of the case or set of cases to study cannot appear random. Evidence that supports the method by which you identified and chose your subject of analysis should clearly support investigation of the research problem and linked to key findings from your literature review. Be sure to cite any studies that helped you determine that the case you chose was appropriate for examining the problem.
The main elements of your discussion section are generally the same as any research paper, but centered around interpreting and drawing conclusions about the key findings from your analysis of the case study. Note that a general social sciences research paper may contain a separate section to report findings. However, in a paper designed around a case study, it is common to combine a description of the results with the discussion about their implications. The objectives of your discussion section should include the following:
Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings Briefly reiterate the research problem you are investigating and explain why the subject of analysis around which you designed the case study were used. You should then describe the findings revealed from your study of the case using direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Highlight any findings that were unexpected or especially profound.
Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Systematically explain the meaning of your case study findings and why you believe they are important. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important or surprising finding first, then systematically review each finding. Be sure to thoroughly extrapolate what your analysis of the case can tell the reader about situations or conditions beyond the actual case that was studied while, at the same time, being careful not to misconstrue or conflate a finding that undermines the external validity of your conclusions.
Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section should relate your case study results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for choosing your subject of analysis. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your case study design and the subject of analysis differs from prior research about the topic.
Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings Remember that the purpose of social science research is to discover and not to prove. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations revealed by the case study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Be alert to what the in-depth analysis of the case may reveal about the research problem, including offering a contrarian perspective to what scholars have stated in prior research if that is how the findings can be interpreted from your case.
Acknowledge the Study's Limitations You can state the study's limitations in the conclusion section of your paper but describing the limitations of your subject of analysis in the discussion section provides an opportunity to identify the limitations and explain why they are not significant. This part of the discussion section should also note any unanswered questions or issues your case study could not address. More detailed information about how to document any limitations to your research can be found here .
Suggest Areas for Further Research Although your case study may offer important insights about the research problem, there are likely additional questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or findings that unexpectedly revealed themselves as a result of your in-depth analysis of the case. Be sure that the recommendations for further research are linked to the research problem and that you explain why your recommendations are valid in other contexts and based on the original assumptions of your study.
As with any research paper, you should summarize your conclusion in clear, simple language; emphasize how the findings from your case study differs from or supports prior research and why. Do not simply reiterate the discussion section. Provide a synthesis of key findings presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem. If you haven't already done so in the discussion section, be sure to document the limitations of your case study and any need for further research.
The function of your paper's conclusion is to: 1) reiterate the main argument supported by the findings from your case study; 2) state clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem using a case study design in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found from reviewing the literature; and, 3) provide a place to persuasively and succinctly restate the significance of your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with in-depth information about the topic.
Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is appropriate:
- If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize these points for your reader.
- If prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the conclusion of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
- Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration of the case study's findings that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from your case study findings.
Note that, depending on the discipline you are writing in or the preferences of your professor, the concluding paragraph may contain your final reflections on the evidence presented as it applies to practice or on the essay's central research problem. However, the nature of being introspective about the subject of analysis you have investigated will depend on whether you are explicitly asked to express your observations in this way.
Problems to Avoid
Overgeneralization One of the goals of a case study is to lay a foundation for understanding broader trends and issues applied to similar circumstances. However, be careful when drawing conclusions from your case study. They must be evidence-based and grounded in the results of the study; otherwise, it is merely speculation. Looking at a prior example, it would be incorrect to state that a factor in improving girls access to education in Azerbaijan and the policy implications this may have for improving access in other Muslim nations is due to girls access to social media if there is no documentary evidence from your case study to indicate this. There may be anecdotal evidence that retention rates were better for girls who were engaged with social media, but this observation would only point to the need for further research and would not be a definitive finding if this was not a part of your original research agenda.
Failure to Document Limitations No case is going to reveal all that needs to be understood about a research problem. Therefore, just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study , you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis. For example, the case of studying how women conceptualize the need for water conservation in a village in Uganda could have limited application in other cultural contexts or in areas where fresh water from rivers or lakes is plentiful and, therefore, conservation is understood more in terms of managing access rather than preserving access to a scarce resource.
Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings. If you do not, your reader may question the validity of your analysis, particularly if you failed to document an obvious outcome from your case study research. For example, in the case of studying the accident at the railroad crossing to evaluate where and what types of warning signals should be located, you failed to take into consideration speed limit signage as well as warning signals. When designing your case study, be sure you have thoroughly addressed all aspects of the problem and do not leave gaps in your analysis that leave the reader questioning the results.
Case Studies. [email protected] Colorado State University; Gerring, John. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007; Merriam, Sharan B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education . Rev. ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998; Miller, Lisa L. “The Use of Case Studies in Law and Social Science Research.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 14 (2018): TBD; Mills, Albert J., Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Putney, LeAnn Grogan. "Case Study." In Encyclopedia of Research Design , Neil J. Salkind, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010), pp. 116-120; Simons, Helen. Case Study Research in Practice . London: SAGE Publications, 2009; Kratochwill, Thomas R. and Joel R. Levin, editors. Single-Case Research Design and Analysis: New Development for Psychology and Education . Hilldsale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992; Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London : SAGE, 2010; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods . 6th edition. Los Angeles, CA, SAGE Publications, 2014; Walo, Maree, Adrian Bull, and Helen Breen. “Achieving Economic Benefits at Local Events: A Case Study of a Local Sports Event.” Festival Management and Event Tourism 4 (1996): 95-106.
At Least Five Misconceptions about Case Study Research
Social science case studies are often perceived as limited in their ability to create new knowledge because they are not randomly selected and findings cannot be generalized to larger populations. Flyvbjerg examines five misunderstandings about case study research and systematically "corrects" each one. To quote, these are:
Misunderstanding 1 : General, theoretical [context-independent] knowledge is more valuable than concrete, practical [context-dependent] knowledge. Misunderstanding 2 : One cannot generalize on the basis of an individual case; therefore, the case study cannot contribute to scientific development. Misunderstanding 3 : The case study is most useful for generating hypotheses; that is, in the first stage of a total research process, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building. Misunderstanding 4 : The case study contains a bias toward verification, that is, a tendency to confirm the researcher’s preconceived notions. Misunderstanding 5 : It is often difficult to summarize and develop general propositions and theories on the basis of specific case studies [p. 221].
While writing your paper, think introspectively about how you addressed these misconceptions because to do so can help you strengthen the validity and reliability of your research by clarifying issues of case selection, the testing and challenging of existing assumptions, the interpretation of key findings, and the summation of case outcomes. Think of a case study research paper as a complete, in-depth narrative about the specific properties and key characteristics of your subject of analysis applied to the research problem.
Flyvbjerg, Bent. “Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research.” Qualitative Inquiry 12 (April 2006): 219-245.
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All You Wanted to Know About How to Write a Case Study
What do you study in your college? If you are a psychology, sociology, or anthropology student, we bet you might be familiar with what a case study is. This research method is used to study a certain person, group, or situation. In this guide from our dissertation writing service , you will learn how to write a case study professionally, from researching to citing sources properly. Also, we will explore different types of case studies and show you examples — so that you won’t have any other questions left.
What Is a Case Study?
A case study is a subcategory of research design which investigates problems and offers solutions. Case studies can range from academic research studies to corporate promotional tools trying to sell an idea—their scope is quite vast.
What Is the Difference Between a Research Paper and a Case Study?
While research papers turn the reader’s attention to a certain problem, case studies go even further. Case study guidelines require students to pay attention to details, examining issues closely and in-depth using different research methods. For example, case studies may be used to examine court cases if you study Law, or a patient's health history if you study Medicine. Case studies are also used in Marketing, which are thorough, empirically supported analysis of a good or service's performance. Well-designed case studies can be valuable for prospective customers as they can identify and solve the potential customers pain point.
Case studies involve a lot of storytelling – they usually examine particular cases for a person or a group of people. This method of research is very helpful, as it is very practical and can give a lot of hands-on information. Most commonly, the length of the case study is about 500-900 words, which is much less than the length of an average research paper.
The structure of a case study is very similar to storytelling. It has a protagonist or main character, which in your case is actually a problem you are trying to solve. You can use the system of 3 Acts to make it a compelling story. It should have an introduction, rising action, a climax where transformation occurs, falling action, and a solution.
Here is a rough formula for you to use in your case study:
Problem (Act I): > Solution (Act II) > Result (Act III) > Conclusion.
Types of Case Studies
The purpose of a case study is to provide detailed reports on an event, an institution, a place, future customers, or pretty much anything. There are a few common types of case study, but the type depends on the topic. The following are the most common domains where case studies are needed:
- Historical case studies are great to learn from. Historical events have a multitude of source info offering different perspectives. There are always modern parallels where these perspectives can be applied, compared, and thoroughly analyzed.
- Problem-oriented case studies are usually used for solving problems. These are often assigned as theoretical situations where you need to immerse yourself in the situation to examine it. Imagine you’re working for a startup and you’ve just noticed a significant flaw in your product’s design. Before taking it to the senior manager, you want to do a comprehensive study on the issue and provide solutions. On a greater scale, problem-oriented case studies are a vital part of relevant socio-economic discussions.
- Cumulative case studies collect information and offer comparisons. In business, case studies are often used to tell people about the value of a product.
- Critical case studies explore the causes and effects of a certain case.
- Illustrative case studies describe certain events, investigating outcomes and lessons learned.
Case Study Format
The case study format is typically made up of eight parts:
- Executive Summary. Explain what you will examine in the case study. Write an overview of the field you’re researching. Make a thesis statement and sum up the results of your observation in a maximum of 2 sentences.
- Background. Provide background information and the most relevant facts. Isolate the issues.
- Case Evaluation. Isolate the sections of the study you want to focus on. In it, explain why something is working or is not working.
- Proposed Solutions. Offer realistic ways to solve what isn’t working or how to improve its current condition. Explain why these solutions work by offering testable evidence.
- Conclusion. Summarize the main points from the case evaluations and proposed solutions. 6. Recommendations. Talk about the strategy that you should choose. Explain why this choice is the most appropriate.
- Implementation. Explain how to put the specific strategies into action.
- References. Provide all the citations.
How to Write a Case Study
Let's discover how to write a case study.
Setting Up the Research
When writing a case study, remember that research should always come first. Reading many different sources and analyzing other points of view will help you come up with more creative solutions. You can also conduct an actual interview to thoroughly investigate the customer story that you'll need for your case study. Including all of the necessary research, writing a case study may take some time. The research process involves doing the following:
- Define your objective. Explain the reason why you’re presenting your subject. Figure out where you will feature your case study; whether it is written, on video, shown as an infographic, streamed as a podcast, etc.
- Determine who will be the right candidate for your case study. Get permission, quotes, and other features that will make your case study effective. Get in touch with your candidate to see if they approve of being part of your work. Study that candidate’s situation and note down what caused it.
- Identify which various consequences could result from the situation. Follow these guidelines on how to start a case study: surf the net to find some general information you might find useful.
- Make a list of credible sources and examine them. Seek out important facts and highlight problems. Always write down your ideas and make sure to brainstorm.
- Focus on several key issues – why they exist, and how they impact your research subject. Think of several unique solutions. Draw from class discussions, readings, and personal experience. When writing a case study, focus on the best solution and explore it in depth. After having all your research in place, writing a case study will be easy. You may first want to check the rubric and criteria of your assignment for the correct case study structure.
Read Also: 'CREDIBLE SOURCES: WHAT ARE THEY?'
Although your instructor might be looking at slightly different criteria, every case study rubric essentially has the same standards. Your professor will want you to exhibit 8 different outcomes:
- Correctly identify the concepts, theories, and practices in the discipline.
- Identify the relevant theories and principles associated with the particular study.
- Evaluate legal and ethical principles and apply them to your decision-making.
- Recognize the global importance and contribution of your case.
- Construct a coherent summary and explanation of the study.
- Demonstrate analytical and critical-thinking skills.
- Explain the interrelationships between the environment and nature.
- Integrate theory and practice of the discipline within the analysis.
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Case Study Outline
Let's look at the structure of an outline based on the issue of the alcoholic addiction of 30 people.
- Statement of the issue: Alcoholism is a disease rather than a weakness of character.
- Presentation of the problem: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there.
- Explanation of the terms: In the past, alcoholism was commonly referred to as alcohol dependence or alcohol addiction. Alcoholism is now the more severe stage of this addiction in the disorder spectrum.
- Hypotheses: Drinking in excess can lead to the use of other drugs.
- Importance of your story: How the information you present can help people with their addictions.
- Background of the story: Include an explanation of why you chose this topic.
- Presentation of analysis and data: Describe the criteria for choosing 30 candidates, the structure of the interview, and the outcomes.
- Strong argument 1: ex. X% of candidates dealing with anxiety and depression...
- Strong argument 2: ex. X amount of people started drinking by their mid-teens.
- Strong argument 3: ex. X% of respondents’ parents had issues with alcohol.
- Concluding statement: I have researched if alcoholism is a disease and found out that…
- Recommendations: Ways and actions for preventing alcohol use.
Writing a Case Study Draft
After you’ve done your case study research and written the outline, it’s time to focus on the draft. In a draft, you have to develop and write your case study by using: the data which you collected throughout the research, interviews, and the analysis processes that were undertaken. Follow these rules for the draft:
- Your draft should contain at least 4 sections: an introduction; a body where you should include background information, an explanation of why you decided to do this case study, and a presentation of your main findings; a conclusion where you present data; and references.
- In the introduction, you should set the pace very clearly. You can even raise a question or quote someone you interviewed in the research phase. It must provide adequate background information on the topic. The background may include analyses of previous studies on your topic. Include the aim of your case here as well. Think of it as a thesis statement. The aim must describe the purpose of your work—presenting the issues that you want to tackle. Include background information, such as photos or videos you used when doing the research.
- Describe your unique research process, whether it was through interviews, observations, academic journals, etc. The next point includes providing the results of your research. Tell the audience what you found out. Why is this important, and what could be learned from it? Discuss the real implications of the problem and its significance in the world.
- Include quotes and data (such as findings, percentages, and awards). This will add a personal touch and better credibility to the case you present. Explain what results you find during your interviews in regards to the problem and how it developed. Also, write about solutions which have already been proposed by other people who have already written about this case.
- At the end of your case study, you should offer possible solutions, but don’t worry about solving them yourself.
Use Data to Illustrate Key Points in Your Case Study
Even though your case study is a story, it should be based on evidence. Use as much data as possible to illustrate your point. Without the right data, your case study may appear weak and the readers may not be able to relate to your issue as much as they should. Let's see the examples from essay writing service :
With data: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there. Without data: A lot of people suffer from alcoholism in the United States.
Try to include as many credible sources as possible. You may have terms or sources that could be hard for other cultures to understand. If this is the case, you should include them in the appendix or Notes for the Instructor or Professor.
Finalizing the Draft: Checklist
After you finish drafting your case study, polish it up by answering these ‘ask yourself’ questions and think about how to end your case study:
- Check that you follow the correct case study format, also in regards to text formatting.
- Check that your work is consistent with its referencing and citation style.
- Micro-editing — check for grammar and spelling issues.
- Macro-editing — does ‘the big picture’ come across to the reader? Is there enough raw data, such as real-life examples or personal experiences? Have you made your data collection process completely transparent? Does your analysis provide a clear conclusion, allowing for further research and practice?
Problems to avoid:
- Overgeneralization – Do not go into further research that deviates from the main problem.
- Failure to Document Limitations – Just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study, you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis.
- Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications – Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings.
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How to Create a Title Page and Cite a Case Study
Let's see how to create an awesome title page.
Your title page depends on the prescribed citation format. The title page should include:
- A title that attracts some attention and describes your study
- The title should have the words “case study” in it
- The title should range between 5-9 words in length
- Your name and contact information
- Your finished paper should be only 500 to 1,500 words in length. With this type of assignment, write effectively and avoid fluff.
Here is a template for the APA and MLA format title page:
There are some cases when you need to cite someone else's study in your own one – therefore, you need to master how to cite a case study. A case study is like a research paper when it comes to citations. You can cite it like you cite a book, depending on what style you need.
Citation Example in MLA Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing, 2008. Print.
Citation Example in APA Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. A. (2008). HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
Citation Example in Chicago Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies.
Case Study Examples
To give you an idea of a professional case study example, we gathered and linked some below.
Eastman Kodak Case Study
Case Study Example: Audi Trains Mexican Autoworkers in Germany
To conclude, a case study is one of the best methods of getting an overview of what happened to a person, a group, or a situation in practice. It allows you to have an in-depth glance at the real-life problems that businesses, healthcare industry, criminal justice, etc. may face. This insight helps us look at such situations in a different light. This is because we see scenarios that we otherwise would not, without necessarily being there. If you need custom essays , try our research paper writing services .
Get Help Form Qualified Writers
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- What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods
What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods
Published on May 8, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on January 30, 2023.
A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.
A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating and understanding different aspects of a research problem .
Table of contents
When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyze the case.
A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.
Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.
You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.
Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:
- Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
- Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories
- Propose practical courses of action to resolve a problem
- Open up new directions for future research
Unlike quantitative or experimental research , a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.
However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience or phenomenon.
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While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:
- Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
- Expand on a theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
- Challenge a theory by exploring an outlier case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions
To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.
There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews , observations , and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data.
The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.
In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.
How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis , with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results and discussion .
Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyze its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).
In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.
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Home » Case Study – Methods, Examples and Guide
Case Study – Methods, Examples and Guide
Table of Contents
Case study is a research method that involves an in-depth, detailed examination of a single unit, such as an individual, family, group, organization, community, or event. Case studies are usually conducted by sociologists, psychologists, historians, anthropologists, or researchers from other social science disciplines.
Case studies are used to provide a rich and detailed account of a particular social phenomenon. They are often used to generate new hypotheses or to test existing theories. In some cases, case studies are also used to evaluate programs or interventions.
Types of Case Study
There are three types of case study research:
Exploratory Case Studies
Descriptive case studies, explanatory case studies.
Exploratory case studies are conducted when little is known about a phenomenon. They are used to generate hypotheses and gather preliminary data.
Descriptive case studies describe a phenomenon in detail. They are used to develop an understanding of a complex issue.
Explanatory case studies explain why or how something happens. They are used to test theories and identify cause-and-effect relationships.
Case Study Data Collection Methods
There are a variety of case study data collection methods, including:
- Document analysis
Interviews are perhaps the most common type of data collection in case studies. They allow researchers to collect detailed information about individuals’ experiences and perspectives.
Observations can also be useful in case studies, particularly if the researcher is interested in studying how people interact with their environment.
Document analysis is another common data collection method in case studies; it involves examining documents such as policy records, media reports, and demographic data.
How to conduct Case Study Research
Conducting case study research is a complex process that requires both scientific and methodological rigor. Follow the steps below:
- Define the research question or questions to be addressed.
- Determine if there is enough information available about the case or cases you want to study
- Consider your budget and time Constraints.
- Select the appropriate methodology and design.
- Decide if there is an existing theoretical framework that can be applied to your case or cases.
- Collect data, which can be done through interviews, focus groups, surveys, or observation.
- Analyze the data and draw conclusions.
- Communicate the findings.
Advantages of Case Study Research
There are several advantages of using case study research.
- It allows for a close examination of the context within which the phenomenon under investigation occurs.
- It provides rich data that can be analyzed in depth.
- It allows for the development of theory from data.
- It can be used to test hypotheses.
- Case studies can help to refine existing models.
- It can be used for descriptive purposes.
- It promotes reflexivity on the part of the researcher.
Also see Focus Groups in Qualitative Research
Disadvantages of Case Study Research
There are also a number of drawbacks to using this approach.
- It can be difficult to generalize from the case study to other situations. Because the focus is on a single case.
- it can be more difficult to determine the impact of the factors being studied.
- Case study research can be time-consuming and expensive.
About the author
I am Muhammad Hassan, a Researcher, Academic Writer, Web Developer, and Android App Developer. I have worked in various industries and have gained a wealth of knowledge and experience. In my spare time, I enjoy writing blog posts and articles on a variety of Academic topics. I also like to stay up-to-date with the latest trends in the IT industry to share my knowledge with others through my writing.
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How to Write a Case Study Paper: 15 Easy Steps
Learning how to write a case study paper is invaluable in both business and academic settings. This writing guide will help.
A case study is a particular type of paper that involves researching a problem, often using an experiment or survey, and providing potential solutions from that research. It is an in-depth look at one particular research problem, looking at it from different angles and aspects.
Case studies are appropriate in several settings. These include:
- Business analytics
- Educational settings
- Clinical settings
- Social research
In a case study, you will use quantitative data and qualitative research methods to conclude a particular problem. You will describe, compare, evaluate and understand the problem, then present your findings to the reader. Above all, you will study and research a real-world subject or problem.
Step 1: choose your case, step 2: know the format, step 3: set up your research, step 4: write the introduction, step 5: state the background, step 6: perform case study analysis, step 7: present your arguments, step 8: conclude the case study, step 9: include headings, step 10: cite your references, step 11: draft a title page and abstract, step 12: check for serious problems, step 13: look at case study examples, step 14: include graphs, appendices, and additional information, step 15: edit your case study, faqs about how to write a case study paper.
- A problem to research
- Research material
- Survey participants
- Pencil or Pen
Before writing a case study, you must choose a case to study. You will want to choose a problem with several features. First, you want something to which you can contribute new or unexpected insights. If a topic or case has been researched extensively, it may not be a good candidate. There may not be anything new you can bring to the discussion. You can also select a case that you can challenge the long-standing view.
For example, if society has accepted that something is normal and healthy, but you have new research that indicates it may not be, then you can use that for your case study. Finally, a good case study candidate is a topic that could potentially open new lines of research in the future. By contributing new information, you can be part of that research. Above all, choose a topic that has a problem that can be resolved through your research.
A typical case study paper is made up of eight parts. These are:
- Executive summary or introduction
- Case evaluation
- Proposed solutions
Each of these must be included for the case study to be complete.
You must first do research when writing a case study paper. You will need to read sources and analyze data on the case you are writing about. This can take a lot of time. Therefore, be sure to follow the correct research process, which involves:
- Know your objective: This is the reason why you are studying this particular case.
- Choose candidates: If your case involves people or interviewing people, choose your candidates and get their permission.
- Gather credible sources: Get a list of credible sources, whether they are printed resources or people you can interview. You will want to tap into these as you start the writing process.
- Choose some key issues: You may find that your case has more than one potential problem. Focus on a few key issues that you can study in your case study paper.
- Research those issues: This will take the majority of your time. Case study papers require a lot of background information to write well. Therefore, it would be best if you devoted much time to research.
As you research, take meticulous notes. These will be invaluable when the time comes to write.
Now that you have done some preliminary research, you are ready to write your introduction. This has a specific case study format to follow:
- State the issue: Social media has a directly negative effect on young teenagers.
- Present the problem: Using social media more than three times a day predicts poor mental health and well-being in teenagers between 13 and 16, increasing the risk of depression and anxiety.
- Explain your terms: Social media involves social websites, including Facebook, TikTok, YouTube, Twitter, Snapchat, and many others.
- State your hypothesis or thesis statement: Decreasing social media use can help teens reduce their mental health concerns.
- Reiterate the importance: In this case study, we will look at social media use data and how reducing it improves teen mental health.
The introduction sets the pace for the case study report. It can include a quote from an interview or a particularly startling statistic. You will also indicate the aim of your case study in this section of the paper. Sometimes an introduction is called an executive summary. This does not change the information it contains. It just changes the name.
Now you are ready to start the body of the paper. The first body paragraph will include background information. Why did you choose to do a case study on this topic? What is its impact on the reader? For example, for a study of social media and teens, the background information section could discuss both the benefits and drawbacks of social media use. Then, tap into real-life examples and statistics showing how social media can positively and negatively impact.
For example, discuss increasing rates of depression in teens and how they mirror increasing social media use statistics. Along with your background information, you will want to tell the reader why you chose to do the case study. For example, what is the problem you hope to solve or the information you hope to glean from your work?
A significant part of the body of your case study is the analysis of your research and the survey or other experimentation you did. Some things to include in this section may be:
- Selection criteria for survey or group of people who serve as participants
- Research criteria if you are researching a historical event
- Structure of any interviews or tests performed
- Outcomes or results
- Your analysis of those outcomes and results
In this section, carefully describe your research process. The reader needs to know how you found the data you are presenting. If there are real-world implications to the problem you are researching, then you need to discuss this.
Now you are ready to present your argument based on the background information and the data you have given. You need three strong arguments. These must be backed by statistical proof or proof from your survey and research.
In the example of the social media and teens question, you would look at your survey results. Your key points and arguments may be:
- Teens that spent three hours or more a day on social media were 3x as likely to report depression symptoms.
- Teens that had limited social media had minimal incidents of anxiety.
- Teens with a balanced approach to social media or no social media access only reported depression and anxiety symptoms 20% of the time.
These points must b backed by data. If you do not use data, they will be weak. For example:
- Teens that spent three hours or more a day on social media were 3x as likely to report depression symptoms (with data)
- Teens that spend a lot of time on social media daily suffer from depression. (without data)
The more sources, either from research or your work, to back up your points, the stronger your overall case study paper will be. If there is a similar case study already out there, weave it into your body paragraphs. Show similar research findings that help support your conclusion.
The conclusion is an essential part of the case study as well. You will need to make a concluding statement that wraps up the study. It might read like this:
- I have researched social media use in young teenagers and found that too much social media, especially three or more hours a day, increases the risk of depression and anxiety.
Then you will need to list some recommendations people can take with this information. For example:
- Parents and teachers must encourage teenagers to find other ways to spend their time. Open discussions about social media and its effect on mental health are also important. Parents can help their teens by modeling balanced social media use for themselves.
Make the conclusion practical, and show why your case study helps land on possible solutions to the problem. For example, if your research and work came up with one best-case scenario, present it as the best solution.
A case study often includes headings to break up the data and help the reader find the necessary information. In the social media and teens case study, you may have headings that read:
- Benefits of Social Media
- Drawbacks of Social Media
- Survey and Research Methods
- Survey Analysis
If you feel there is future research that your case study would warrant, then include a section on Directions for Future Research. If you felt there were any specific limitations on your research and a section on Limitations.
References are essential in any case study template. Here, you will need to cite them according to the style guide assigned to the paper. Whether you use MLA, Chicago style, or APA format, structure your references accordingly. Reference any research that you did not perform yourself. Use in-text citations and a references page at the end to give proper credit to past researchers and avoid any risk of plagiarism.
Most of the time, a case study paper will have a title page. It may also have an abstract. The title page will share the title of the case study and list the names of all researchers involved. The title should have the words “case study” and be five to nine words long. Include your contact information on this page. You may also include submission or publication dates. Follow the style guide for your writing assignment. The abstract will identify the purpose of the case study, summarize the research methods, and provide a summary of the results and the conclusions drawn. Think of it as a preview of the paper.
There are specific problems that can come up in a case study. If you are going to publish your case study, make sure you did not fall victim to any of these:
- Overgeneralization: Do not make generalized assumptions about the problem that do not tie directly to your research. Stick to the facts and the problem defined in your thesis statement.
- Ignoring limitations: All research has limitations. In case study writing, you must include these.
- Not looking at all implications: While you don’t want to overgeneralize, you also don’t want to ignore important case study findings to your audience. Carefully analyze your case study research and pull out all possible implications.
- Writing the wrong length: Most case studies will be between 500 and 1,500 words long.
The best way to ensure you are writing a good case study is to look at some examples. Here are some published case studies you can compare yours to:
- Business case study: AdEspresso GlobeIn Case Study
- Business case study: CoSchedule UofSC Alumni Highlight
- Historical Case Study: Methods of Analysis from University of British Columbia
Study these examples and learn how the researchers present information in the case study format.
Finally, consider if your case study needs any additional information. For example, would a graph or infographic of your data help the reader? Would an appendix that outlines your research in more detail add value? You can add these features to your case study to help make your main points stick with the reader. Then, weave them in where appropriate to the writing.
Before publishing your case study, take some time to edit it. But, first, go through this checklist for a thorough edit:
- Check the format: Make sure you follow the format for a case study with the four main parts.
- Check for consistency: Is your work consistent in wording, referencing, and citation? Does it follow the assigned style guide?
- Grammar and spelling: Check the grammar and spelling for your case study. You want it to be free from these errors.
- Editing the big picture: When you finish reading the case study, does your intended message ring true? Does the reader understand the research and your analysis of it? Is anything left as a question you do not cover in the conclusion or limitations sections?
Consider asking someone else to review and proofread your case study on your behalf. Ask them if the report was clear and if you need to re-address any areas. This will give you confidence that you are ready for publication.
What is a case study paper?
A case study paper involves a detailed study of one specific subject. This subject might be an event, group, place, organization, company, phenomenon, or person. Typically, case studies investigate a problem involving that subject and find solutions.
What is the difference between a case study and a research paper?
A case study works to provide an in-depth analysis of a particular situation or event, usually over a long period of time. It could also analyze a person, company, or product. However, the focus remains on the company or person, not other companies or people in similar situations.
Case studies use a lot of stories and real-world data to come to conclusions. A research paper involves research on a subject but allows the writer to develop their ideas and opinions. It delves into research already done rather than analyzing the subject or case. In this type of paper, the focus can be more general and delve into other companies, industries, or people.
What are the different types of case studies?
Case studies can be a few different types. These include:
1. Problem-oriented case studies: These focus on solving a particular problem. The problems may be theoretical, but they require you to examine them and find a solution. 2. Cumulative case studies: These case studies gather information and comparisons. Businesses use these to tell people how a product or service may benefit them. 3. Historical case studies: These look at historical events from different perspectives, applying modern ideas to something that happened in the past. 4. Critical case studies: These look at the cause and effect of a particular case. 5. Illustrative case studies: These describe events and investigate the event’s outcome and any particular lessons learned from it.
When editing for grammar, we also recommend taking the time to improve the readability score of a piece of writing before publishing or submitting
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How to Write a Case Study for a Research Paper
Tips on writing a case study for a research paper:.
When a case study is an integral part of a research paper, the student is supposed to take many efforts to succeed. It is not so easy to prepare a good case study possessing poor writing experience, so the case study writing guidelines below will play the important role in the quality writing of the assignment.
The reader should recognize what the problem will be just looking at the title of the case study. The topic should be closely connected with the general topic of the research paper, because a case study is one of the major parts of the whole assignment making it informative and valid.
- Collect Information about the Problem : In order to research the problem in detail, the student should devote much time to find the reliable facts about the issue under investigation. One should be ready to spend a few hours at the library and use several reliable books and journals in order to improve the knowledge about the case and its aspects. The more facts the student knows about the definite case, the more chance he has to prepare a worthy case study paper.
- Dwell on the Cause and Effect : Every case is a certain problem and the student is obliged to research this problem well and find out about its reason and its consequences. It is quite difficult to define the cause of the problem, because one should spend long hours studying the case site and the issue which has occurred there. The most effective way to prepare an objective case study for a research paper is to evaluate the effect of the problem well relying on the evidence collected in the books and through the interviews and other methods of gathering information.
- Solve the Case : A case study is a puzzle and the student has to solve it in the right way demonstrating his professional skills and knowledge. It is a plus if the case study which is integrated into the research paper had several solutions in order to show that the student thinks logically and differently.
- Conclude the Case : In the end it is important to conclude the case study in the appropriate way and write how it influences the quality of the research paper and what positive experience the student has achieved.
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What is a case study?
A case study is a type of research method. In case studies, the unit of analysis is a case . The case typically provides a detailed account of a situation that usually focuses on a conflict or complexity that one might encounter in the workplace.
- Case studies help explain the process by which a unit (a person, department, business, organization, industry, country, etc.) deals with the issue or problem confronting it, and offers possible solutions that can be applied to other units facing similar situations.
- The information presented in case studies is usually qualitative in nature - gathered through methods such as interview, observation, and document collection.
- There are different types of case study, including intrinsic, instrumental, naturalistic, and pragmatic.
This research guide will assist you in finding individual case studies, as well as providing information on designing case studies. If you need assistance locating information, please Ask a Librarian .
- Next: Case Study Research >>
- Last Updated: Feb 27, 2023 1:00 PM
- URL: https://guides.erau.edu/case-studies
Writing A Case Study
Case Study Examples
20+ Unique Case Study Examples in 2023
16 min read
Published on: Jun 26, 2019
Last updated on: Feb 28, 2023
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Many students face challenges when writing a case study.
Most people don't realize that there are specific guidelines to follow when writing a case study. If you don't know where to start, it's easy to get overwhelmed and give up before you even begin.
Don't worry! Let us help you out!
We've collected over 20+ free case study examples with solutions from top industry experts. These samples with solutions will help you win over your panel and score high marks on your case studies.
So, what are you waiting for? Let's dive in and learn the secrets to writing a successful case study.
What is a Case Study?
A case study is a research method used to study a particular individual, group, or situation in depth. It involves analyzing and interpreting data from a variety of sources to gain insight into the subject being studied.
Case studies are commonly used in fields such as psychology, business, and education to understand complex issues and develop solutions. They typically include detailed descriptions of the subject, background information, and an analysis of the key issues involved.
The goal of a case study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the subject, as well as to identify potential solutions or recommendations.
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How Long Should a Case Study Be?
What you need to include in your story will depend on the type of discipline. For example, a kitchen remodeling company could tell its entire story with pictures. Whereas this approach may not be suitable for a software invoicing solution.
Consider this pro advice while crafting your case study:
- Most sources indicate that it should consist of 500-1500 words.
- To ensure that your message is concise and crystal clear, add a brief snapshot section of 100 words or less.
Want to understand the basics of the case study? Click right here to learn: Case study
What Is a Marketing Case Study?
This type of case study focuses on a particular marketing challenge or problem. It analyzes the strategies used to overcome the challenge and achieve a successful outcome.
Marketing case studies can be used to showcase effective marketing tactics, as well as to learn from failures and avoid common pitfalls. They often include details about the target audience, marketing channels used, and metrics to measure success.
Marketing case studies are commonly used in business courses to help students understand marketing challenges and develop strategies.
Marketing Case Study Examples
Marketing case studies are real-life stories that showcase how a business solved a problem. They often discuss how a business achieved a goal using a specific marketing strategy or tactic.
They typically describe a challenge faced by a business, the solution implemented, and the results achieved.
The purpose of a marketing case study is to demonstrate a business's expertise and ability to solve problems. This is done to show their potential to customers.
Here are some examples that show how companies use case studies as a means of marketing and promotion:
1- "Chevrolet Discover the Unexpected" by Carol H. Williams
This case study explores Chevrolet's DTU Journalism Fellows program. The case study uses the initials "DTU" to generate interest and encourage readers to learn more. There are multiple types of media such as images and videos used to explain the challenges faced. The case study concludes with an overview of the achievements that were met:
Key points from the case study include:
- Using a well-known brand name in the title can create interest.
- Combining different media types, such as headings, images, and videos, can help engage readers and make the content more memorable.
- Providing a summary of the key achievements at the end of the case study can help readers better understand the project's impact.
2- “The Met” by Fantasy
Fantasy's case study for the Metropolitan Museum of Art, titled "The Met," provides a clear and simple showcase of the museum's website redesign. The case study emphasizes the features and interface of the website by showcasing each section of the interface individually, allowing the readers to concentrate on the significant elements.
For those who prefer text, each feature includes an objective description. The case study also includes a "Contact Us" call-to-action at the bottom of the page, inviting visitors to get in touch with the company.
Key points from this case study include:
- Keeping the case study simple and clean can help readers focus on the most important aspects.
- Presenting the features and solutions with a visual showcase can be more effective than writing a lot of text.
- Including a clear call-to-action at the end of the case study can encourage visitors to contact the company for more information.
3- "In-Depth Performance Marketing Case Study," by Switch
This impressive case study presented by an international marketing agency, Switch, effectively communicates its client's success without revealing their name. To keep non-marketers in the loop, Switch includes a glossary of terms. The case study is presented in a fourteen-page PDF that's easy to skim, featuring big fonts and white space. Each page covers a different strategy, making it easy to navigate.
To provide readers with an overview of the client's requirements and reasons for approaching Switch, the Switch case study employs titles such as "Scenario," "Approach," and "In-Depth Performance Marketing Case Study" at a higher level. The PDF also features a CTA page and contact information for prospective clients.
Key points from the Switch case study:
- Include a glossary of terms to make specialized information accessible to non-specialists.
- Make your case study easy to navigate by using titles and separating sections.
- Close with a CTA page and include contact information for prospective clients.
4- “Better Experiences for All” by Herman Miller
Herman Miller's minimalist approach to furniture design translates to their case study page for a Dubai hospital. The page features a captivating video with closed-captioning and expandable text for accessibility.
The case study presents a wealth of information in a concise format, enabling users to comprehend the intricacies of the strategy with ease. It concludes with a client testimonial and a list of furniture items purchased from the brand.
Key points from the case study:
- Make sure your case study is user-friendly by including accessibility features like closed captioning and expandable text.
- Include a list of products that were used in the project to guide potential customers.
5- “NetApp” by Evisort
The NetApp case study by Evisort is an excellent example of an informative, thorough, and compelling case study. Evisort starts off the case study with an at-a-glance overview of the client, NetApp. This approach helps to focus the attention on the client rather than the company or team.
The case study features client quotes and delves into the obstacles that NetApp encountered during the COVID pandemic. By highlighting how its services helped NetApp during tough times, Evisort demonstrates its value as a partner to their clients.
To make the case study accessible in a wider variety of formats, Evisort provides access to download their study in PDF format. This is an important consideration for making the case study easy to share and reference.
Key points from the Evisort example:
- Provide an overview of the company in the client’s words and put focus on the customer.
- Highlight how your services can help clients during challenging times.
- Make your case study accessible by providing it in various formats.
6- "Red Sox Season Campaign," by CTP Boston
The case study for the Red Sox Season Campaign by CTP Boston showcases a perfect blend of different media, such as video, text, and images. Upon visiting the page, the video plays automatically, and as you scroll, you'll find more videos featuring Red Sox players, social media images, and print ads that can be enlarged with a click.
The page features a clean and cohesive design that is visually appealing and invites viewers to appreciate CTP's well-rounded campaign for Boston's beloved baseball team. At the bottom, the page includes a call-to-action that encourages viewers to learn how CTP can create a similar campaign for their own brand.
Key points to take away:
- Including a variety of media such as video, images, and text can make your case study more engaging and compelling.
- Include a call-to-action at the end of your study that encourages viewers to take the next step towards becoming a customer or prospect.
7- “Zapier Case Study” by Ryan Berg
Ryan Berg's SEO case study on Zapier is an excellent example of an explanatory case study that can be used for marketing purposes. The study provides a comprehensive breakdown of Zapier's SEO strategy and how they created over 25,000 unique landing pages to improve their search rankings for different search terms.
One of Zapier's key strategies involved targeting relevant long-tail keywords such as "app A + app B integration," which helped them generate significant organic traffic over the long term. By analyzing the success of industry leaders and breaking down their strategies, businesses can borrow their brand power and credibility.
Explanatory case studies like this one are particularly useful when clients are not comfortable with sharing detailed information about their growth tactics. Such case studies can demonstrate a company's expertise and credibility to potential clients, proving their ability to help them succeed in their industry.
- Targeting relevant long-tail keywords is an effective strategy for generating organic traffic.
- Analyzing the success of industry leaders can provide valuable insights for developing a successful strategy.
- Explanatory case studies can demonstrate a company's expertise and credibility to potential clients.
8- “Video Marketing Case Study” by L’Oréal and YouTube
The case study on L’Oréal and YouTube showcases the success of their video marketing campaign to launch a new product. The global marketing team members explain how they strategically used YouTube ads to achieve impressive results, including establishing the new product as the second-best in its category and generating 34% of all mass sales among online retailers.
The case study provides a detailed breakdown of the various stages of the campaign, from awareness to loyalty, highlighting the effective use of YouTube at each step. It serves as a great example of a third-person implementation case study that demonstrates the power of video marketing.
Key points for learning:
- Use YouTube ads strategically for different stages of a campaign, from awareness to loyalty.
- Effective use of video marketing can lead to impressive results, such as establishing a new product as a leading player in its category and generating significant sales.
- Third-person implementation case studies can showcase your expertise and the success of your marketing strategies to potential clients.
9- “Airbnd + Zendesk” by Zendesk
The case study by Zendesk, titled "Airbnb + Zendesk: building a powerful solution together" showcases a true partnership between Airbnb and Zendesk. The article begins with an intriguing opening statement, "Halfway around the globe is a place to stay with your name on it. At least for a weekend," and uses stunning photographs of beautiful Airbnb locations to captivate readers.
Instead of solely highlighting Zendesk's product, the case study is crafted to tell a good story and highlight Airbnb's service in detail. This strategy makes the case study more authentic and relatable.
Key points to take away from this case study:
- Use client's offerings' images rather than just screenshots of your own product or service.
- To begin the case study, it is recommended to include a distinct call to action. For instance, Zendesk presents two alternatives, namely to initiate a trial or seek a solution.
10- “Influencer Marketing” by Trend and WarbyParker
The case study from Trend and Warby Parker highlights the potential of influencer marketing, even when working with a limited budget. The "Wearing Warby" campaign involved influencers wearing Warby Parker glasses during their daily activities, providing a glimpse of the brand's products in use.
This strategy helped to make the brand more relatable to the influencers' followers. Although the case study does not delve deeply into the tactics used, it demonstrates the effectiveness of third-person case studies in showcasing the results of a campaign.
- Influencer marketing can be effective even with a limited budget.
- Showcasing products being used in everyday life can make a brand more approachable and relatable.
- Third-person case studies can be useful in highlighting the success of a campaign.
Marketing Case Study
Marketing Case Study Templates
Struggling to understand the correct case study format ? Check this case study format guide and perfect structure your case study today.
Business Case Study Examples
A business case study examines a business’s specific challenge or goal and how it should be solved. Business case studies usually focus on a number of details related to the initial challenge and proposed solution.
To help you out, here are some samples of business case studies.
Here are some more business case study examples:
Business Case Study on How Social Media led to Potential Customer Loss
Business Case Study Template on the Two Sides of Blog Posts In 2023
Typically, a business case study discovers one of your customer's stories and how you solved a problem for them. It will allow your prospects to see how your solutions address their needs.
Sales Case Study Examples
Case studies are important tools for sales teams to learn from in order to improve their own performance. By examining sales successes, teams can gain insights into effective strategies and create action plans to employ similar tactics.
By researching case studies of successful sales campaigns, sales teams can more accurately identify challenges and develop solutions.
Interview Case Study Examples
When seeking to answer complex questions, case studies are an invaluable tool. This type of analysis dives deeply into a specific subject, taking a close look at factors like demographics .
So, interview case studies provide businesses with invaluable information. This data allows them to make informed decisions related to certain markets or subjects.
Interview case study PDF
Successful interviews provide a snapshot of individuals' perspectives. This helps inform businesses seeking to expand their services or create better products for their target audience.
Watch this video to learn the correct analysis of a business case study.
Case Study Examples Medical
Medical case studies are an essential part of medical education. They help students to understand how to diagnose and treat patients.
Here are some medical case study examples pdf to help you.
Medical Case Study Example
Nursing Case Study Examples
Want to understand the various types of case studies? Check out our types of case study blog to select the perfect type.
Case Study Examples Psychology
Case studies are a great way of investigating individuals with psychological abnormalities. This is why a case study is a very common assignment in psychology courses. By examining all the aspects of your subject’s life, you discover the possible causes of exhibiting such behavior.
For your help, here are some interesting psychology case study examples:
Psychology Case Study Examples PDF
Mental Health Patient Case Study Examples
Case Study Examples for Students In Daily Life
Case studies are a common requirement for students in various courses. But writing them can be tough, especially if you’re new to them. That's why we've gathered some examples from different fields that you may use as a guide.
Here are some of the examples that can help you write yours:
Software Engineering Case Study Sample
Qualitative Research Case Study Sample
Software Quality Assurance Case Study
Social Work Case Study Sample
Ethical Case Study PDF
Case Study Examples PDF
These examples can guide you on how to structure and format your own case studies.
Now that you have read multiple case study examples, hop on to our tips.
Tips to Write a Good Case Study
Here are some note-worthy tips to craft a winning case study
- Define the purpose of the case study This will help you to focus on the most important aspects of the case. The case study objective helps to ensure that your finished product is concise and to the point.
- Choose a real-life example. One of the best ways to write a successful case study is to choose a real-life example. This will give your readers a chance to see how the concepts apply in a real-world setting.
- Keep it brief. This means that you should only include information that is directly relevant to your topic and avoid adding unnecessary details.
- Use strong evidence. To make your case study convincing, you will need to use strong evidence. This can include statistics, data from research studies, or quotes from experts in the field.
- Edit and proofread your work. Before you submit your case study, be sure to edit and proofread your work carefully. This will help to ensure that there are no errors and that your paper is clear and concise.
There you go!
All about case study examples at your fingertips! We are sure that by now you have all the key essential guidelines of various case studies with samples. So grab your pen and start crafting a winning case study right away!
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Barbara P (Literature, Marketing)
Dr. Barbara is a highly experienced writer and author who holds a Ph.D. degree in public health from an Ivy League school. She has worked in the medical field for many years, conducting extensive research on various health topics. Her writing has been featured in several top-tier publications.
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Critic-topsis-based evaluation of smart community safety: a case study of shenzhen, china.
2. literature review, 2.1. the implementation of smart community safety, 2.2. the evaluation of community safety, 2.3. research gap, 3.1. selecting indicators of safety evaluation for smart sommunities, 3.2. determining the weight of each evaluation indicator through the critic method, 3.3. evaluating safety level of smart communities through the topsis method, 4. case study, 4.1. study area, 4.2. data collection, 5.1. the result of each safety evaluation indicator weight through the critic method, 5.2. result of safety evaluation for smart communities through the topsis method, 6. discussion, 6.1. differences in weights of safety evaluation indicators for smart communities, 6.2. differences in overall safety level of smart communities, 6.3. priority for renewal strategy of the smart community, 6.4. suggestions for promoting the safety level of the smart community, 7. conclusions, supplementary materials, author contributions, institutional review board statement, informed consent statement, data availability statement, acknowledgments, conflicts of interest, abbreviations.
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Wang, C.; Wang, L.; Gu, T.; Yin, J.; Hao, E. CRITIC-TOPSIS-Based Evaluation of Smart Community Safety: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China. Buildings 2023 , 13 , 476. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13020476
Wang C, Wang L, Gu T, Yin J, Hao E. CRITIC-TOPSIS-Based Evaluation of Smart Community Safety: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China. Buildings . 2023; 13(2):476. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13020476
Wang, Chenyang, Linxiu Wang, Tiantian Gu, Jiyao Yin, and Enyang Hao. 2023. "CRITIC-TOPSIS-Based Evaluation of Smart Community Safety: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China" Buildings 13, no. 2: 476. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13020476
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Writing A Research Paper: A Case Study
Are you looking for guidance on how to write a research paper? If so, then you’ve come to the right place. In this blog post, we’ll be exploring how to write a research paper through a case study.
We’ll discuss the various components of a research paper, from the topic selection process to outlining and editing. Through this case study, you’ll gain valuable insight into the process of writing a research paper and be able to apply the knowledge you gain to your own writing. So, let’s get started!
When it comes to writing a research paper, there are many considerations to take into account. First, you must decide on the topic, and then you must determine how you will conduct your research. The results of your research will be used to develop a thesis statement and to form the basis of your paper.
The challenge with research papers is finding the right information to support your claims and arguments. You need to collect data, analyze it, and draw valid conclusions. This is often a daunting task, especially for those who are new to the world of academic writing.
When you’re conducting research for your paper, you’ll need to think critically about the sources you use. You’ll want to ensure that they are reliable and that they provide accurate information.
It’s also important to make sure that your research is relevant to the topic of your paper. If you fail to do this, your paper could be considered invalid.
Finally, you’ll need to make sure that you can present your results in an organized and logical way. Without this, your paper may be difficult for readers to understand.
This is why it can be helpful to look at a case study when writing a research paper. Case studies can provide you with valuable insight into how to conduct research, organize data, and write your paper effectively.
When it comes to writing a research paper, the most important step is gathering the relevant data and conducting research. Depending on the subject of your paper, this may involve consulting various sources such as books, journals, websites, and other materials.
It’s important to take the time to read through all of your sources carefully and make sure that you understand their content. Additionally, it’s also important to be critical and ask yourself questions about what you’re reading to ensure that the information you’re getting is valid and reliable.
Once you have compiled a list of resources to use for your research, it’s time to start putting together the data into an organized format. Start by creating an outline that will guide the structure of your paper and help you identify the main points.
From here, you can begin researching each topic and writing up notes. Make sure to cite all of your sources properly in order to avoid plagiarism.
Finally, it’s time to create your thesis statement. This should be a concise summary of what your paper will be about and will help to guide your research as you write. Once you have crafted a clear thesis statement, you can start writing your paper.
Remember to stay focused on the main points of your research while still providing enough evidence to support them. Be sure to include a conclusion at the end of your paper that summarizes the overall findings of your research.
Once the research paper is complete, the next step is to determine a solution for the case study. Depending on the type of case study and the results from the research, the solution will vary.
For instance, if the case study is focused on the impacts of climate change, then the solution may include creating policies to reduce emissions, investing in renewable energy sources, or providing educational opportunities for the public.
If the research paper is focused on a particular issue in a company or organization, then the solution may involve changing processes, implementing new technologies, or providing training for employees. Regardless of the specific solution, it should be tailored to address the issue at hand and offer tangible steps that can be taken to improve the situation.
Once a solution has been identified, it is important to communicate it to all relevant stakeholders, as well as to document it in the research paper. This ensures that everyone involved in the case study is aware of the proposed solution and that future generations have access to this information.
Additionally, by documenting the solution in the research paper, it allows others to learn from and build upon this knowledge.
Once your research paper is complete, you will be able to present the results and conclusions to your peers. The conclusion should summarize the main points of your paper, discuss the implications of your findings, and offer recommendations for further research.
To make sure that your paper is well-rounded, make sure that you have addressed the following questions:
- What did you learn about the subject?
- What was your hypothesis and how did it compare to the results?
- How does the subject of your study relate to other areas of research?
- What recommendations can you make based on your findings?
By addressing these questions, you can ensure that you have presented a thorough overview of your research and its implications. Furthermore, your conclusion should provide readers with a sense of closure, leaving them with an understanding of what has been achieved through your research.
Also Read: Writing A Research Paper _ A Case Study
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- Case Study in Research
A case study in Research
A case study in research is a strategy and empirical investigation which includes an analysis of the real phenomenon. Many students pursuing master’s or PhD have certain questions such as how and when to do a case study.
In this article, our professional by providing the guideline about a case study is resolving the queries of students.
Before gaining knowledge about How to do case studies, you should first develop an understanding of what is a case study?
A Research case study is a detailed survey on a specific topic or subject. It can also refer to as an in-depth investigation perform for analyzing a particular situation. The researcher mainly uses case study design for conducting research in the field of education, science clinical field, etc.
It mainly includes the Qualitative method , but sometimes also includes quantitative methods . You can utilize case study design in such a situation where you intend to describe and compare different aspects of the research problem.
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How to do case studies in Research?
The 4 steps of doing a case study in research are:
Step 1: Need to choose a specific case
After writing a problem statement and designing research questions , you need to select a particular case. A characteristic of a good case study is that
- It provides new insight into the subject
- A good case study challenges assumptions and existing theories.
- An effective case provides practical courses of action for resolving issues.
- It provides a new direction for future research.
One important characteristic of the case study design is that it does not need any representative sample. In the context of the case study research design , the researcher mainly emphasizes unusual and neglected research problems.
Step 2:Putting Together a Theoretical Framework
Research Case studies mainly emphasize providing great detail. While making a selection of cases you should ensure that it has some link with existing theory related to the field. The case study research design will help you in increasing your knowledge about a specific topic.
The main aim of the case study design is to:
- Represent a theory by demonstrating the way it provides an explanation of the case under investigation.
- Expansion of a theory by introducing new theories and implementation of ideas.
- Challenging a theory by exploring an outlier case that does not fit with established beliefs.
Tip: You should conduct a literature review of sources relevant to topics and create a theoretical framework. It is a tactic that will help you in making sure that the case which you have selected has strong academic relevancy. You should address key concepts and hypotheses for guiding analysis and interpretation.
Step 3: Information-gathering strategies
You can use several techniques for the collection of information about the topic. The different techniques which you can utilize for gathering information about the specific case are survey, interview, observation, etc.
These are a technique that you can utilize for accumulating primary information about the case. You can gather secondary data about the case by reading books, newspapers, articles, etc.
Mixed method case study example In the context of the case study on the establishment of wind farms in rural areas, the researcher needs to collect qualitative data about employment rates and revenue earned by companies. An investigator by conducting a survey could accumulate information about local people’s views about the establishment of farms in their region. After that you can analyze the facts. The main objective of the case study to analyze the different aspects of case.
Step 3: Several methods for assessing the case that you can use
At the time of writing a case, you need to integrate different aspects which are essential to complete a picture. After that based on the type of research performed you need to report your finding.
In the case study, you need to write a separate section for methodology, discussion, and results.
You should write a case study in a narrative style. While writing a case study your aim should be to analyze the case from different aspects. Before start writing a case study, you should understand its meaning and importance.
The different techniques which you can utilize for analyzing the case include textual analysis, discourse analysis, etc.
While writing all types of cases you need to provide background detail of the case. After that, you need to link the same with existing literature and theory.
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When to do a case study?
A case study research design can be more suitable for gaining a deep understanding of something. It is by analyzing the different cases that researchers can identify important characteristics, implications, and meaning about whatever it may be they’re studying.
Making a selection of case studies for writing a thesis or dissertation is considering the best decision.
By utilizing the case study design you will be able to maintain the relevance of the research project. It will also help you in managing the research project, especially at that time when you have insufficient time and resources for performing study on a large scale.
The researcher can use a complex case study design for an in-depth analysis of one subject. You can utilize multiple cases for making comparisons and providing illustrations of the specific research problems.
Example of case study
Why do we do research using case studies?
In exploratory research, case studies are frequently used. They may be able to assist us in generating fresh ideas (that might be tested by other methods). They are a useful tool for presenting theories and for demonstrating how different parts of a person’s life are connected.
Gaining an in-depth understanding of a subject can be difficult, especially when the problem is complex. A good way to get around this difficulty may be through utilizing case studies as they can examine individual cases and go into detail about them.
One technique that has been found useful for gathering information on these subjects is called content analysis; it involves developing a system by which one could measure how often certain words or phrases occur within different documents related to the study’s topic area.
It has been summarized above that while gaining in-depth knowledge about something might seem daunting at first glance, there are ways of overcoming this obstacle such as by using case studies and other techniques like content analyses where more detailed examinations can take place based on specific topics being
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The Case Study as a Research Method
This eBook explores lessons for community-university research partnerships by reflecting on the experiences, achievements and challenges of the Canadian Social Economy Research Partnerships (CSERP). Between 2006 and 2012, the six regional nodes and the national hub of CSERP were funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) to conduct research on the social economy in Canada. This provided an unprecedented level of resources and pan-Canadian experimentation within a collaborative model of engagement, knowledge creation, sectoral (self) definition and policy development through research.
This research demonstrates that this change, which seems at first glance to be a simple matter of swapping one three-pound piece of equipment loaded with film for another similar looking three-pound piece of equipment equipped with a digital sensor and computer memory cards, has had important consequences throughout this scientific domain. Some of these consequences were intended, others were unintended.
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Book Chapter- CHAPTER VI Pre-Service, Certification, And Induction Component: Enhancement And Support Of Future And New Math And Science Teachers
To achieve the central goal of promoting learning of math and science for all students, AlACiMa included interventions to strengthen the preparation of future K-12 math and science teachers, increase the number of certified math and science teachers, and support the induction of novice math and science teachers. While the main thrust of AlACiMa was the professional development of in-service mathematics and science (M&S) teachers, addressing the professional development of future and new generations of teachers was also an important element of the initiative. For this purpose, a component was established based on the collaboration of teams of faculty from the teacher preparation programs of the four University of Puerto Rico IHE partners and the Puerto Rico Department of Education (PRDE). The lead AlACiMa institution, the Rio Piedras Campus, is a Research Intensive University whose teacher preparation programs (TPP) have been accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education since 1953. It prepares teachers from preschool to secondary levels in all curricular areas, including science and mathematics. The Mayagüez campus also prepares teachers in all levels by providing undergraduate majors in disciplinary fields with teacher certification course requirements towards a certification in secondary education through the Division of Continued Education and Professional Studies. The Cayey campus prepares teachers in elementary and intermediate levels, and the Humacao campus prepares K-3 teachers. Personnel participating from the PRDE’s Institute for Professional Development were in charge of promoting teacher certification to meet Federal requirements and the development and implementation of the induction program for new teachers through funding of several state grants under the No Child Left Behind Act, such as the Teacher Quality Enhancement Partnership Grant:Supporting Teacher Excellence and Professionalism (STEP) of the U.S. Department of Education.
The ability to effectively and efficiently raise money within higher education is the traditional measure of effectiveness. The most common metrics are how much money it takes to raise a dollar, total amount raised, total number of donors who support an organization, and the average gift size. These measurements of effectiveness are most often used because of the relevance to development officers and the organization’s leadership, are easily quantifiable, and are standard across the nonprofit world. What is left out of measuring effectiveness from a purely cost-related basis is any sense of whether the donated funds accomplished the purpose with which the money was given. The focus of this study is to gain a better understanding of how the research participants ascribe meaning to the charitable gifts and the outcomes from those charitable acts. Qualitative methodology and a constructivist lens are employed to better understand how research participants define effectiveness. Applying Lewin’s (1951) force field analysis, the study identified factors that influence the current status quo of effectiveness defined primarily from a cost-benefit perspective. Data from a select purposeful sampling of 11 donors, who have each given in excess of $100,000 to the institution, is gathered along with site documents, observations and memos. Analysis of the research data included open and axial coding. The findings concluded that effectiveness is a multifaceted construct centered on feelings of being valued by the institution. Research participants discussed access, recognition, trust, outcomes, and shared values as integral components that define how the research participants construct the meaning of feeling valued. Tangible results, the notion of “seeing” outcomes, intangible benefits, and the idea of “doing good,” are vital to the understanding of how donors define outcomes as being successful. Surprisingly, only a few of the research participants used cost-benefit language in defining effectiveness. The use of Lewin’s (1951) force field analysis provided a model to apply the findings to the question of how donors define effectiveness. The model illustrated that the study’s findings have the capacity to undermine the restraining forces. Enhanced communication strategies, asking for donor’s opinions, identifying non-financial performance metrics for development staff and establishing a donor ombudsperson are offered as specific calls to action to enhance the donor’s feeling valued by the organization.
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Writing a Case Study Research Paper
Case studies are reports of research conducted with individuals, groups, communities or institutions or issues or events. It focuses on a single case or a small number of cases: a case may be an individual, a small group (although it is consisting of many individuals, it can be considered as one culture-sharing group or a group of people working in one particular organization meaning considering one concrete entity). This type of article illustrates a problem, suggests means for solving the problem, and sheds light on needed research.
The case study approach is used in research when there is a need to obtain an in-depth investigation of an issue, event or phenomenon of interest, in its natural real-life context. A case study develops an in-depth understanding of a single case or explores an issue or problem using the case as a specific illustration. Documentation, interviews, observation, visuals can be used to explore a case.
A case study research paper may be broadly framed as below:
Introduction: Describe the context of the case. It may consist of social, economic, cultural or political context or any other relevant context. The intent of the paper should be clarified in the first few paragraphs of the introduction. A brief literature review should be written to locate your study. You may cite other similar cases in this section and point out challenging situations or issues. State why studying the case is important and how it will contribute to expanding the existing knowledge. Methods of data collection may be included in this section or may be written as a separate section.
Body/ Case Presentation: Present the case by using raw data and any information of the case that is related to the research question. Describe the research problem of the case through the participants’ words. Write in a narrative style. The focus of the section should be towards answering ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions of the research problem.
Discussion: Interpret the findings of the study in relation to the research question. Discuss the findings by linking and comparing them to the existing literature. Compare the explanations of the findings of your case with those of the literature. This section will strengthen the study by linking it to the wider context and evidence.
Conclusion: This section should provide an overview of the key findings that converge to address the research question framed at the beginning of the paper. This section provides your overall reflection or observation of the findings. You may also state how the case contributes to knowledge development.
Examples: Marup promoting social and economic development: Implications for feminist social work with groups.
Case Study Research Paper: A Step-By-Step Guide Case study research is a useful tool for investing specific situations and trends in different disciplines. Many researchers consider this study method useful when testing theoretical models and applying them in real-world settings.
In this study, case study method will be used wherein the researchers are focused to a full-time GrabCar driver in Taguig City and will conduct an in-depth interview and observation to the respondent. Research Locale In this study, to further the results, the researchers decided to have a criteria for the respondent.
Your case study research paper shall guide your writing and make sure you satisfy the various sections of a case study research paper. Before you start writing, conduct proper research using reliable sources of information such as databases, Google scholar, and research papers.
Case study research, most often associated with qualitative inquiry has gained significance as an effective approach to investigate complex issues in real-world settings. Conducting case...
A case study research paper usually examines a single subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a comparative investigation that shows relationships between two or more subjects. The methods used to study a case can rest within a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method investigative paradigm. Case Studies. [email protected]
Case studies involve the documented history and comprehensive analysis of a situation concerning subjects such as industries, organizations, and markets. The distinguishing factor of the...
What Is the Difference Between a Research Paper and a Case Study? While research papers turn the reader's attention to a certain problem, case studies go even further. Case study guidelines require students to pay attention to details, examining issues closely and in-depth using different research methods.
Step 1: Select a case Step 2: Build a theoretical framework Step 3: Collect your data Step 4: Describe and analyze the case When to do a case study A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject.
A case study occurs when a researcher investigates an entity or phenomenon (case) using various data collection techniques and collects detailed information during the period (Starman, 2013;...
Furthermore, the case study is a research approach to generate an in-depth understanding of a complex issue in its real-life context . By utilizing the case study of Warner Bros., this paper ...
Case study is a research method that involves an in-depth, detailed examination of a single unit, such as an individual, family, group, organization, community, or event. Case studies are usually conducted by sociologists, psychologists, historians, anthropologists, or researchers from other social science disciplines.
A case study is a particular type of paper that involves researching a problem, often using an experiment or survey, and providing potential solutions from that research. It is an in-depth look at one particular research problem, looking at it from different angles and aspects. Case studies are appropriate in several settings. These include:
The most effective way to prepare an objective case study for a research paper is to evaluate the effect of the problem well relying on the evidence collected in the books and through the interviews and other methods of gathering information.
There are different types of case study, including intrinsic, instrumental, naturalistic, and pragmatic. This research guide will assist you in finding individual case studies, as well as providing information on designing case studies. If you need assistance locating information, please Ask a Librarian. Next: Case Study Research >>
A case study is a research method used to study a particular individual, group, or situation in depth. It involves analyzing and interpreting data from a variety of sources to gain insight into the subject being studied.
As a micro-unit of the smart city, smart communities have transformed residents' lives into a world that connects physical objects. Simultaneously, though, they have brought community safety problems. Most studies of the smart community have only focused on technical aspects, and little attention has been paid to community safety. Thus, this paper aims to develop an evaluation system for ...
In this blog post, we'll be exploring how to write a research paper through a case study. We'll discuss the various components of a research paper, from the topic selection process to outlining and editing. Through this case study, you'll gain valuable insight into the process of writing a research paper and be able to apply the knowledge ...
A Research case study is a detailed survey on a specific topic or subject. It can also refer to as an in-depth investigation perform for analyzing a particular situation. The researcher mainly uses case study design for conducting research in the field of education, science clinical field, etc.
This introduction to case study research draws upon their work and proposes six steps that should be used: Determine and define the research questions Select the cases and determine data gathering and analysis techniques Prepare to collect the data Collect data in the field Evaluate and analyze the data Prepare the report Step 1.
A case study research paper may be broadly framed as below: Introduction: Describe the context of the case. It may consist of social, economic, cultural or political context or any other relevant context. The intent of the paper should be clarified in the first few paragraphs of the introduction. A brief literature review should be written to ...
how to write a case study in research paper | step by step guide | meaning | types,A case study involves an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a...