Organizing Academic Research Papers: Purpose of Guide
Purpose of guide.
- Design Flaws to Avoid
- Glossary of Research Terms
- Narrowing a Topic Idea
- Broadening a Topic Idea
- Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
- Academic Writing Style
- Choosing a Title
- Making an Outline
- Paragraph Development
- Executive Summary
- Background Information
- The Research Problem/Question
- Theoretical Framework
- Citation Tracking
- Content Alert Services
- Evaluating Sources
- Primary Sources
- Secondary Sources
- Tertiary Sources
- What Is Scholarly vs. Popular?
- Qualitative Methods
- Quantitative Methods
- Using Non-Textual Elements
- Limitations of the Study
- Common Grammar Mistakes
- Avoiding Plagiarism
- Footnotes or Endnotes?
- Further Readings
- Annotated Bibliography
- Dealing with Nervousness
- Using Visual Aids
- Grading Someone Else's Paper
- How to Manage Group Projects
- Multiple Book Review Essay
- Reviewing Collected Essays
- About Informed Consent
- Writing Field Notes
- Writing a Policy Memo
- Writing a Research Proposal
This guide is intended to help you organize and write a quality academic research paper. Also included are recommendations regarding how to manage specific course assignments. Note that, if you have specific questions about how to write a research paper, you should always seek advice from your professor before you begin. Specific requirements stated by your professor will always supersede instructions provided in these general guidelines.
Thanks to Dr. Robert V. Labaree of the Von KleinSmid Center Library for International and Public Affairs, University of Southern California Libraries , for sharing the content of this guide.
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- J Postgrad Med
- v.61(1); Jan-Mar 2015
Use of visual aids in presenting study results
Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, Himachal Pradesh, India
Read with interest, the article entitled “Pre-injury neuro-psychiatric medication use, alone or in combination with cardiac medications, may affect outcomes in trauma patients” published in J Postgrad Med (2014;60:366-71).[ 1 ] The authors deserve credit for their effort. However, I would like the authors to have a relook at the results presented in this study, particularly Table 1 of the study (as reproduced below).[ 1 ] The above-mentioned table provides us with overall patient demographics. According to the Table, 712 total patients were included in the study: 245 patients (34.4%) were using NPMs at the time of trauma; 357 patients (50.1%) were taking cardiac medications and 154 patients (21.6%) were taking both cardiac and NPMs. If you add up the numbers or percentages you will realize the difficulty in interpreting the results. Total number of patients adds up to 756 (245 + 357 + 154) and the total percentages add up to 106.1% (34% + 50.1 + 21.6%). A better presentation of this table would have made it easier to understand and interpret. The groups could have been divided into (a) patients taking only NPMs, (b) patients taking only CM and (c) patients taking both. In this way the numbers and percentages would have stayed at 712 and 100%, respectively. A further look at the table increases the confusion further. The total of No NPM+ NPM group is 712 (467 + 245) and the total of No CM + CM group is again 712 (357 + 355).
Further the column heads in the table ( Table 1 as given below) presented by the authors mentions percentages (%) within brackets. However no numbers are entered against percentages (%) in the columns. This increases the difficulty in interpreting the table.
Presenting research findings is an essential component of the research process. Aids such as tables, illustrations, and graphs enhance the process of presenting research results because of their visual appeal. Use of visual aids allows the presenter to be more effective and to capture the audience's full attention. It becomes all the more important in catching the attention of a naïve reader. So tables that are easier on the eyes, are always helpful and it is in this context that I request the authors to take another look at the table.
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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences
A study to analyze the effectiveness of audio visual aids in teaching learning process at uvniversity level.
Audio visual aids are important in education system. Audio visual aids are those devices which are used in classrooms to encourage teaching learning process and make it easier and interesting. Audio -visual aids are the best tool for making teaching effective and the best dissemination of knowledge .So there is no doubt that technical devices have greater impact and dynamic informative system. This study designed to analyze the effectiveness of audio visual aids in teaching learning process at university level. To achieve the purpose of study two questionnaires was design as research tool separately for teachers and students. The questionnaire was administered to 150 students and 50 teachers of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur,(faculty of arts and faculty of science) Mean score was calculated to determine the empirical reaction of students and teachers on each item. The data was analyzed by using standard deviation and Z test. The findings for each statement were made. On the basis of findings, the conclusion was drawn. It was found that (i) the respondents viewed that A.V aids play important role in teaching learning process (ii) A.V aids make teaching learning process effective (iii) The respondents viewed that A.V aids provide knowledge in depth and detail (iv)It brings change in class room environment.(v)It motivates to teachers and students. On the basis of findings of study, following recommendation were made (1) Teachers may be trained for using A.V aids (2) Teachers may planning before using A.V aids (3) University may provided proper facilities of A.V aids (4) A.V aids may be according to level and interest of students.(5) Training may be provided to student for proper use of A.V aids.
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ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) ... This research explore the teachers opinions on the use of visual aids (e.g., pictures, animation videos
Using Visual Aids · Use the same colors and fonts throughout; select graphic images in the same style · Keep the background consistent and subtle
The findings showed that teachers had the tendency to ignore the use of visual aids in the teaching and learning process. This study concluded
Read with interest, the article entitled “Pre-injury neuro-psychiatric medication use, alone or in combination with cardiac medications, may affect outcomes in
PAPER • OPEN ACCESS. Visual aid presentation as a learning method: a case study in learning English of management students in Binus University.
This Student Paper is brought to you for free and open access by the TRIO/Institute of College ... The present study examined the effect of visual aids in.
This wil l be e xpanded in connection with specific aids later in this paper . I f proper ly used, ma y aids c an save t ime in teaching . For examp le ,.
49: Iss. 3, Article 6. ... Consequently, research on teacher education has ... in a chart, and then create their own visual aids will al-.
Audio visual aids are important in education system. Audio visual aids are those devices which are used in classrooms to encourage teaching learning process
Thus, the data gathered from the research shows that the teachers and the students are positively motivated to use visual aids for teaching and