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Chapter Two: Review of the Literature
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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Two: Review of the Literature"— Presentation transcript:
How to Read a Scientific Research Paper : an overview Asst.Prof.K.Chinnasarn, Ph.D.
PPA 501 – Analytical Methods in Administration Lecture 2c – The Research Proposal.
Library Research. Learning Objectives Summarize the fundamentals of conducting library research in psychology, including the use of PsycINFO Summarize.
Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.1 Chapter 2 The Research Process: Getting Started Researcher as a detective Seeking answers to questions.
Chapter One of Your Thesis
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AAA 3102 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Lecture 2 The Research Process & Literature Review.
Reviewing the Literature
Dr. Alireza Isfandyari-Moghaddam Department of Library and Information Studies, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch
Literature Review Getting started. “ a researcher cannot perform significant research without first understanding the literature in the field ” (Boote.
WHERE TO START © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Review of The Literature
How to Write a Critical Review of Research Articles
Literature review Osama A Samarkandi, PhD, RN BSc, GMD, BSN, MSN, NIAC EMS 423; EMS Research and Evidence Based Practice.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Locating and Reviewing Related Literature Chapter 3 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright.
HOW TO REVIEW THE LITERATURE BUSN 364 – Week 8 Özge Can.
CHAPTER 15, READING AND WRITING SOCIAL RESEARCH. Chapter Outline Reading Social Research Using the Internet Wisely Writing Social Research The.
Chapter 3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Locating and Reviewing Related Literature This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright.
Chapter Three: The Use of Theory
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- 1. Document Camera and Technology Implementation at the Elementary School Level Megan Gerdts July 13, 2010 Touro University California 1
- 2. Overview of Today’s Presentation 2 Importance Purpose of Study Literature Review • Key Themes • Implications • Gaps • Importance and justification for your study
- 3. Importance 3
- 4. Purpose of Study 4
- 5. Technology Integration Factors 5
- 6. Literature Review 6
- 7. Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) 7
- 8. Literature Review Harris’ Activity Types - suggests specific technologies that are most compatible with an activity - works closely with Mishra and Koehler 8
- 10. Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning 10 People Learn Best Using Words and Pictures
- 11. Implications for the Study 11
- 12. Gaps in the Literature LOTS of research • Technology • Visual Learning • Implementation needs LITTLE to NO research • Specific to document cameras 12
- 13. Importance and Justification • Successful technology integration a must! • Extension to document cameras Better integration training = more effective teaching with technology 13
- Prep programs offer training in how to use tech, not how to integrate it
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Chapter 2 Literature Review
Chapter 2 Literature Review. WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW?. It is an account of what has been published on a research area It summarizes , synthesizes and evaluates (critiques) the studies reviewed It outlines a framework and a theoretical base of a research
- Kaylee Jimenez
- easily recognizable
- global design networks
- conclusion section
- violent video games
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Chapter 2Literature Review
WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW? • It is an account of what has been published on a research area • It summarizes, synthesizes and evaluates (critiques) the studies reviewed • It outlines a framework and a theoretical base of a research • It is defined by research objectives, issue/problem you are exploring • It is NOT just a description or summary of your readings.
PrimarySources Own experience/ opinion Others’experience/ opinion Interview Questionnaire Observation Experiment
referenceworks books journals Secondary Sources magazines newspapers newsletter brochures electronicresources
Taken from: info.library.unsw.edu.au
WARNING: In academic culture, plagiarism is a serious offense. Committing plagiarism can result in being expelled from a university. Therefore, it is in your best interest to learn CITING skills.
summarising quoting copying paraphrasing PLAGIARISM PLAGIARISM Without adequate documentation
WaystoUseSecondaryData Paraphrase Summarise Quote
Paraphrase/Summarise Table of main idea
QUOTING …iscopyingauthor’soriginalwordsand puttingtheminquotationmarks
QuotingGuide Lessthan40words incorporate intothetext Morethan40words useaseparate “block quotation”
Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Direct Quotation - • According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). • She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199) Jones's (1998) study found the following:
UsefulExpressionswhen Quoting/Paraphrasing/Summarising state find discover conclude review discover suggest list reveal illustrate claim analyse report show recommend maintain assume indicate
What is in-text citation? • According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. • APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998).
Reference List? • Strahan, D. (2009, September). A real waste of waste. Ecologist, (3), 2-4. • Kazmin, A. (2009, September 9). 'Politics of water' leaves Punjab in deep trouble. Financial Times. Retrieved from http://www.ft.com • Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R.(1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Paraphrase/Summary - • A Work with One Author – use surname but do not include suffix (such as Jr.) or professional titles (such as Dr.) • As Resnick (1997) described in her adventure, the people of South Africa are committed to the future. • The people of South Africa are committed to the future (Resnick, 1997). • A Work with Two Authors - use both names each time the reference is cited; use & instead of “and” in the parenthetical citation, but do not substitute in the sentence. • Smith and Jones (2005) found … • As the research shows (Smith & Jones, 2005) …
Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Paraphrase/Summary - • A Work with 3, 4, or 5 Authors – use all authors for the first mention and the first author and et al. for subsequent referrals • Carey, Elfstrand, and Hijleh (2005) found … [first citation to this work] • As this study shows (Carey et al., 2005) … [all subsequent references to above work] • A Work with More than 6 Authors – use the first author and et al. and the year. • Gordon et al. (2009) showed … • As shown previously (Gordon et al., 2009) …
Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Paraphrase/Summary - • A Work with a Group as Author – corporations, associations, government agencies – use the full name in each citation unless the abbreviation is well known and is easily recognizable for locating the entry in the Reference list. • Rose Society (1999) or (Rose Society, 1999) [all citations to this work –no common abbreviation or acronym] • United Nations Children‟s Fund (2007) or (United Nations Children‟s Fund, 2007) [first citation] • UNICEF (2007) or (UNICEF, 2007) [subsequent referrals to this work –common acronym – reader would know to look for entry under United Nations Children‟s Fund in the Reference list]
Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Paraphrase/Summary - • A Work with No Author – instead of the author use the title or the first few words of the title (if the title is long). If the title is to a chapter, an article or a web page, put the words in quotes; if the title is to a book, a periodical, a brochure or report, use italics. • A study on internet use (“Survey Shows”, 2008)… [This is a web page from a web site; use quotation marks since work is a part of a whole] • The brochure Facts about HIV/AIDS (2009)… [Use italics since this is a whole work] • Secondary Sources – use only when unable to review the original work • Freeman’s work (as cited in Franklin, 2001) purports… [Franklin is listed in the Reference list]
Some Rules to Reference List • Publication date appears in parentheses, followed by a period. Use (n.d.) when no publication date is available • Italicize titles of whole entities - books, periodicals, brochures, films, reports, etc. - not chapters or article titles • Italicize volume numbers of magazines and journals, but not the issue number. • Electronic Sources not based on a Print Version • Use this statement – Retrieved MONTH DATE, YEAR, from URL
Some Rules to Reference List - Examples - • Magazine, newsletter, or journal article in print • Nayak, N. V. & Taylor, J. E. (2009, October). Offshore outsourcing in global design networks. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25, 177-184. • Strahan, D. (2009, September). A real waste of waste. Ecologist, (3), 2-4. • Twitter: a vampire that can legally suck the life out of you. (2009, September 21). Advertising Age, 80(31), 42.
Some Rules to Reference List - Examples - • Journal article retrieved online (web or database) – provide homepage URL of the journal, newsletter or magazine rather than electronic database information. • Clemmitt, M. (2009, October 9). Medication abuse. CQ Researcher, 19, 837-860. Retrieved July 6, 2009, from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/
Some Rules to Reference List - Examples - • Newspaper article in print and retrieved online– use p. or pp. for page numbers in a newspaper • Kazmin, A. (2009, September 9). 'Politics of water' leaves Punjab in deep trouble. Financial Times, p. 6. • Kazmin, A. (2009, September 9). 'Politics of water' leaves Punjab in deep trouble. Financial Times. Retrieved July 6, 2009, from http://www.ft.com
Some Rules to Reference List - Examples - • Entire book, print version • Belasco, W. J. (2007). Appetite for change: How the counterculture took on the food industry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. • Entire book, electronic version of a print book – electronic retrieval information replaces publication information. If DOI available, that is all that is needed. • Bohman, J. (2007). Democracy across borders: From Dêmos to Dêmoi. Retrieved July, 6 2009, from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/rit/docDetail.action? docID=10190463
Book chapter, article in edited book • Carll, E. K. (2008). Violent video games and aggressive behavior in children are linked. In Gerdes, L. (Ed.). Opposing Viewpoints: Violence. (pp. 6-21). Chicago, IL: American Library Association. • Unpublished Work • Lipkens, R. (1992). A behaviour analysis of complex human functioning: Analogical reasoning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nevada-Reno, Nevada, USA.
Query • Conference/Proceedings? • Evers, G. & Isernberg, M. (2009, January). Reliability and validity of self-care agency scale. Paper presented at the International Nursing Research Conference, Washington, DC. • Evers, G. & Isernberg, M. (2009, January). Reliability and validity of self-care agency scale. In Bauer, B. (Ed.), Conceptual issues in family caregiving research: Proceedings of the International Nursing Research Conference (pp. 20-30). Washington, DC: University of Washington.
Online article with no page number: • Use abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number you are citing. When possible, specify a section of the article. • (Myers, 2000, para. 5) • (Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1) • Presentation • Worral, P. S. & Levin, R. (2004, June). Developing a statewide research agenda. Presentation given at the biannual meeting of the American Nurses Association, Minneapolis, MN.
How Do You Cite a Google Book? • Students are starting to turn to the resource for their research. • The answer wasn’t immediately clear! • Ballard, J. N. (1998). The History of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Washington: DIANE Publishing. p. 143. ISBN 0-7881-7666-8. Google Book Search. Retrieved on December 23, 2007
1. PARAPHRASING • Involve restating the ideas from a passage in your own words • Paraphrased text is usually the same length as the original
Example • Source It has long been known that Cairo is the most populous city on earth, butno-one knew exactly how populous it was until last month. – (Chan Kian Hwa, 2010) • Paraphrase Although Cairo according to Chan Kian Hwa (2010) has been the world's most heavily populated city for many years, the precise population was not known until four weeks ago.
The following stages may be useful: • Read and understand the text. • Make a list of the main ideas. • Find the important ideas - the important words/phrases. In some way mark them - write them down, underline or highlight them. • Find alternative words/synonyms for these words/phrases - do not change specialised vocabulary and common words.
Change the structure of the text. • Identify the meaning relationships between the words/ideas - e.g. cause/effect, generalisation, contrast. • Express these relationships in a different way. • Change the grammar of the text: change nouns to verbs, adjectives to adverbs, etc., break up long sentences, combine short sentences. • Rewrite the main ideas in complete sentences. Combine your notes into a piece of continuous writing.
Check your work. • Make sure the meaning is the same. • Make sure the length is the same. • Make sure the style is your own. • Remember to acknowledge other people's work.
METHODS OF PARAPHRASING • Look away from the source; then write. • Read the text you want to paraphrase several times—until you feel that you understand it and can use your own words to restate it. Then, look away from the original and rewrite the text in your own words. OR • Take notes. • Take notes; set the notes aside; then paraphrase from the notes.
If it still doesn’t work? This may mean that you don’t understand the passage completely. Then, you have to move to the next strategy: While looking at the source, first change (a) the structure, then (b) the words.
(a) Change the structure • Begin by starting at a different place in the passage, basing your choice on the focus of your paper. This will lead naturally to some changes in wording. • Focusing on specific people rather than abstractions will make your paraphrase more readable. • You might also break up long sentences, combine short ones, expand phrases for clarity, or shorten them for conciseness.
(b) Change the words • Use synonyms or a phrase that expresses the same meaning. • Leave shared language unchanged. • Some Examples of Shared Language You Don’t Need to Change: • Conventional designations: e.g., physician’s assistant, chronic low-back pain • Preferred bias-free language: e.g., persons with disabilities • Technical terms and phrases of a discipline or genre: e.g., reduplication, cognitive domain, material culture, sexual harassment
Exercise • There are reckoned to be over 4,000 plant species used by forest dwellers as food and medicine alone. There are calculated to be more than 4,000 plant species utilised by forest inhabitants just as foodstuffs and drugs. • Memory is the capacity for storing and retrieving information. Memory is the facility for keeping and recovering data. • Research and publications are accumulating in each of the four fields of anthropology at an exponential rate. Studies and books are gathering in all of the four areas of anthropology at a very fast speed. • It is worth looking at one or two aspects of the way a mother behaves towards her baby. It is useful to observe several features of how a mother acts when she is with her small child.
The Japanese government offered new homes to homeless people in Tokyo. • Homeless people in Tokyo were offered new homes by the Japanese government. • Unfortunate people without housing in Tokyo were given roofs to live under by the Japanese government.
Many parents in the program failed to recognise their children’s achievements. • Their children’s achievements failed to be recognised by parents in the program • Their children’s accomplishments failed to be acknowledged by parents in the course.
In American society, Introverts are outnumbered about three to one. As a result, they must develop extra coping skills early in life because there will be an inordinate amount of pressure on them to “shape up,” to act like the rest of the world. The Introvert is pressured daily, almost from the moment of awakening, to respond and conform to the outer world. Classroom teachers unwittingly pressure Introverted students by announcing that “One-third of your grade will be based on classroom participation.” From Otto Kroeger and Janet M. Thuesen, Type Talk: The 16 Personality Types that Determine How We Live, Love and Work. New York: Dell Publishing, 1989.
Possible Paraphrase • There are many more extroverts than introverts in America. This puts a lot of pressure on introverts to fit in and be like everybody else. Even in school, teachers add to this pressure by making class participation part of the student's grade. Consequently, introverts have to acquire additional skills to deal with these pressures.
Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10 percent of the final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, students should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. • In research papers students often quote excessively, failling to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note-taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim in order to adhere to maximum of ten percent of directly quoted materials.
Literature Review Abstract in a Quantitative Study Example 2.2. Literature Review Abstract ... 2 Chapter Outline Review of the Literature The Research Topic
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Document Camera and Technology Implementation at the Elementary School Level Megan Gerdts July 13, 2010 Touro University California 1.
Use PowerPoint to keep track of these action items during your presentation ... Summarize key components of Chapter 2; Re-articulates research question
Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. • In research papers students often quote excessively, failling to keep quoted material down to
For a review paper. 2. For the introduction (and discussion) of a research paper, masters thesis or dissertation. 3. To embark on a new area of research.
Writing Process. Student Learning Center. 2. Research Paper Writing Process. Assignment Clarification; Time Management; Topic Selection; Topic Brainstorm
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The pleasures of nurturing (2nd ed). London: McMunster Publishing. 29. Format for Citing References. Journal Article. Author, A., & Author, B.
You must read and cite the entire article. Cast your net wide. Remember to use your database's thesaurus to explore more options for research. Use every search